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FroQtitplece, Vol. I. 







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Works by the same Authoi'. 


IMatcs in 'I'inird Lilliograpliy, fulio; with an Svo. Volume of Text, Plans, &c. 
2Z. 7*. 6d, Ixmdon, AVeult-, 1845. 


IN IIINIiUSI'AN. 24 Mutes in coluurod Litbograpb3-, with Plans, WixKlcuts, and 
explanatorj- Text, &c il. 4s. London, Hogarth, 1847. 


witli restored I'laiis of the lemplt', and with Plans, Sections, and lietails of the 
Church built by Constantine the Great over the Holy S>pulclire, now knowTi as the 
Mos(|ue ol Omar. 16.<., or 21s. half Kussia. London, Weale, 1847. 


TiO.\, with Hints for its Application to our National Defences, lis. 6d. Ixindon, 
■NVeulc, 1849. 

THE PERIL OF PORTSMOUTH. French Flkets and English 

Kkkts. With a I'lan. Third EditUm. 3s. London, Murray, 1853. 


IlKAUTY IN AKT, more especially with reference to Architecture. Royal 8vo. 
31s. 6<<. London, Ixingnians, 1849. 


LKUY, and NATIONAL KKCOUU OFFICE; with Suggestions for their Improve- 
ment. 8vo. London, Weale, 1849. 


,\n l-Xsiiy on Ancii'iit Assyrian and Persian Architecture. 8vo. 16s. London, 
Murray, 1851. 



There are few branches of artistic or scientific research Avhich have 
made such rapid and satisfactory progress duiing the last fifty years as 
those which serve to illustrate and elucidate the arts and architecture 
of bygone ages. Not only has an immense mass of new materials 
been collected, but new principles of criticism have been evolved, and 
studies which in the last century" were the mere amusement of the 
amateur, and cultivated only as matters of taste, are now becoming 
objects of philosophical inquiry, and assuming a rank among the most 
important elements of historical research. Beyond this, which is 
perhaps the most generally attractive view of the matter, there is 
every reason to hope that the discovery now being made of the pi'in- 
ciples that guided architects in the production of their splendid works 
in former days, may ultimately enable us to equal, if not to sui'pass, all 
that has been hitherto done in architectural design. 

AVith these inducements, added to the inherent beauty and interest 
which always attach themselves more or less to the objects of architec- 
tural art, the study of it ought to be one of the most iTseful as well 
as one of the most attractive which can occupy the attention of the 
public, and no doubt would be much more extensively cultivated were 
it not for the difficulties attending its pursTiit. 

Owing to the very nature of the subject, books that treat of archi- 
tecture are generally large, and from the number and size of the 
illustrations required are also very costly, so that an architectural 
/ library is one of the most cumbersome as well as one of the most 
expensive that can be got together. But even among those who can 
collect it, few have the patience to study the plans, sections, and details 
which are indispensable for a scientific exposition of the various parts 
of a building; and after all, without some practical knowledge of 
the art of architecture, or some experience at least in plan drawing, it 
is almost impossible to restore a building so completely to the mind's 
eye, from a technical description, as to enable one who has not seen 
it to judge correctly of its form, and still less of its merits or its foults 
as a work of art. Even when the difficulties of understanding and 
realizing architectural language have been completely comj^uered, it 


vi rilEFACE. 

still requires years and years of study before the historical information 
scattered through hundreds of vcdumcs on the principles of design can 
be mastered so as to enable the student to grasp the whole subject, or 
understand all its bearings. 

Tlie object of the present work is to remedy to some extent these 
inconveniences, and, by supplying a succinct but popular account of 
all the principal buildings of the world, to condense within the com- 
pass of two small volumes the essence of the infonnation contained 
in the ponderous tomes composing an architectural library ; and by 
generalizing all the styles known, and assigning to each its relative 
value, to enable the reader to acquire a more complete knowledge of 
the subject than has hitherto been attainable without deep study. 

Up to the present time it has been hardly possible to accomplish 
this, and even now very much more information is required before it 
can be done satisfactorily for all styles ; but on comparing this work 
with any of the older productions of its class, it is easy to see hoAv much 
progi-ess has been made, and how much nearer we are to completeness 
than we ever were before. At the time when Piranesi finished his 
splendid ' Illustrations of Architecture ' (about the year 1783), the only 
styles known or thought worthy of attention were the Koman and the 
styles derived from it, with a daAvning suspicion of the value of Greek 
art. Somewhat later (in 1800), when Durand publii^hed his famous 
' Parallcle,' he devoted one plate out of sixty-three to Golhic art, and 
half a plate sufficed for all that was then kn(nvn of Egyptian, while the 
Indian and many of the outlying styles were almost wholly miknown. 
Considerable progress had been made in 1811 when Agincourt pub- 
lished his celebrated work ; but even then Gothic art was looked upon 
as a mere barbarous decadence from purer styles, and the revival of classic 
art was hailed as a real renaissance of true art to which the human 
intellect had awakened after the long night of the dark ages. By far 
the most comprehensive attempt made to supply the deficiency is that 
of Wiebeking, in a work completed in 1831. With truly German 
industry, he re-engraved ever}"- drawing he could collect of architec- 
tural objects, and described them all with most laudable patience ; but 
from want of arrangement or of criticism, his work has little value 
beyond being a storehouse for future reference, and a landmark to show 
how much has been done even since it was completed. 

Several other attempts have been made to supply the deficiency 
complained of by such works as those of Iianiee and Batissier in France, 
and G wilt's ' Encyclopaedia of Architecture ' in our own country, 
besides articles in all our principal encyclopaedias ; but none of these 
have quite mot the difficulty, either from being too short or too exclu- 
sively pojiular, or honi being mixed up with other matter to which 
illustration of the fine art architecture is made subordinate. 

As these works have failed in utilising the immense mass of 


information now availal)lo, cither from being published too early or 
fi-om other causes, it is believed that there is still room for another 
attempt, which, without being too popular, should yet be intelligible 
in every part to the general reader, and without attempting to be scien- 
tific, should from its comprehensiveness convey even to the profes- 
sional artist a certain amount of knowledge not easily accessible to all. 
It can of course make no pretensions to compete with the splendid 
monographies of individual buildings which crowd the shelves of an 
architcctui-al library, nor even with the separate and detailed histories 
of local styles. The study of these is indispensable to a perfect ac- 
quaintance with the subject, but even this may be facilitated by a 
general resume of the whole. 

One of the first difficulties of so extensive a subject is to make 
such an arrangement of the different styles as shall prevent any one 
being described before those which preceded it in time when there 
was any connexion between the two, and consequently before the 
preliminary steps by which it attained its form have been explained 
and elucidated. A strictly chronological arrangement will not meet 
this difficulty without frequent and abrupt interruptions of the con- 
tinuity of the narrative, nor will one which is purely topographical. 
In the following pages a combination of the two methods has been 
attempted ; and though it is only one of many that might be proposed, 
each of which would have some special merit of its own, still it seems 
to be the arrangement which meets to the greatest extent the real 
difficulties of the case. Except in one or two instances, there are no 
chronological inversions of any importance, nor any very marked in- 
terruption to the continuity of the narrative. 

The first and most important division seems both obvious and con- 
venient. By separating all architectural objects into Christian and 
non-Christian (the latter might be called heathen, or pagan, if these 
were not generally used as terms of rc^iroach), we obtain two gTcat 
divisions, very nearly equal in the importance of the objects described, 
and very easily distinguished from one another. 

As the Christian styles in every instance arose out of the Pagan, 
which in almost all instances are the older, the Pagan of course take 
precedence ; and if antiquity alone were considered, the Egy]itian 
ought to be the first described : but in that case, after going through 
that style, and the Assyrian, which comes next, we naturally pass to 
the Greek and Eoman, and the narrative must then be interrupted to 
make way for the Indian, the Mexican, and other styles, which have 
no connexion either with those which preceded, or which folloAved 
in other parts of the world. To avoid this a classification of a more 
topographical nature has been adopted ; and commencing from tlie 


viii PREFACE. 

East, all those styles which have no internal relation with those of the 
West are first described, snch as the Indian, Chinese, Mexican, and 
other similar styles. Passing from these, another group presents itself 
in Western Asia, almost equally independent. This style arose on the 
banks of the Euphrates, and spread eastward to the Indus and west- 
ward to the shores of the Mediterranean, uninfluenced, so far as we 
can now see, by the styles on either hand. 

Having in this manner got rid of thesis two great groups, the 
reader is at liberty to pursue without interruption the history of that 
great style which arose in Egypt, and which, when trans|danted into 
(Ireece, and mellowed bv the influence of Assvria, bloomed there into 
greater beauty than ever was known before, but only to perish with 
the civilization it represented in Imperial liome. 

Two great styles, the Christian and the Saracenic, spi-ungfrom the 
Roman, which was the gi'cat transitional style between the ancient 
find modern world. As the Christian was the earliest bom, and the 
first to die, it might seem to claim precedence ; but the Saracenic 
attained matunty as eaily as the age of Charlemagne, while the 
Gothic styles were still in their infancy. There is therefore no incon- 
gruity in treating it first and among the Pagan styles, nor any incon- 
venience felt from this course, as the influence of the Christian on the 
Saracenic style was never sufficiently important to render a previous 
knowledge of the former indisiK-nsable, except in the one instance of 
the Turkish style of Constantinople. P>ut tliis style, at present at 
least, is too insignificant and too little known to requir-e a change in 
classification to make room for it. 

The Christian styles are easily divided into two great groups by a 
line drawn from the head of the Adriatic to near the entrance of the 
Gulf of Finland, All to the eastward of this line belongs to the 
Sclavonic races and the Byzantine school of art ; all to the westward 
to the Teutonic and Celtic races and Gothic school. 'Iliese aie so 
distinct from one another, and so easily defined, that either might be 
taken up first, and treated independently of the other; but as the 
Gothic is certainly derived most directly from Kome, and is by far the 
most impoi-tant style of the two, it seems natural to give it the 
precedence, and the Byzantine, which is half a European, half an 
Asiatic style of art, thus assumes its proper place as a supplement to 
the groat Christian style of Western Europe. This is at least its true 
position in our present state of knowledge: further researches may 
entitle it to assume a higher ground. 

The minor divisions of these styles are so fully explained in the 
text, that it is needless repeating here what is much more easily under- 
stood and appreciated in its proper place in the body of the work. 

One great division of art still remains to be described before 
the subject is complete. It is that style which arose in the middle 

rilEi'"x\.CE. ix 

of the fifteenth ccntiiiy, cxihiiinatcd Avith the rebuikling of St. Peter's 
;it l\t»me, and has prevailed all over Europe during the last three 
centuries and a half. It is infinitely inferior to the Gothic, which 
preceded it, as an artistic form of art, but nearly as important from 
the size and splendour of the buildings in which it is employed, 
and fully as interesting to the philosophical student of the subject, 
not only for what it teaches, but because it is an index to the mind of 
Europe during the period in which it prevailed, and is the lesson all 
must study who would attempt to understand the future of the noble 
art of architcctuie. 

Although every possible care has been taken in selecting the best 
■ authorities for the statements in the text of the work, as well as the 
subjects for illustration, still no one acquainted with the state of the 
literature of architecture will need to be told that in many branches 
the materials do not exist for a correct description of the style, and 
that the drawings which are available are frequently so inexact, and 
with scales so carelessly applied, that it is impossible at times to avoid 
error. The plans thi'oughout the book are on too small a scale to 
render any minute errors apparent, but being drawn to one scale 
(100 feet to 1 inch), they are quite sufficient as a means of com- 
parison, even when not mathematically correct. They thus enable the 
reader to judge of the relative size of two buildings by a mere inspec- 
tion of the plans, as correctly as he could by seeing the two buildings 
themselves, without actually measuring them in all their details. 

As a general rule, the sections or elevations of buildings, throughout 
the book, are drawn to a scale double that of the plans, or 50 feet to 
1 inch ; but, owing to the great size of many of them, it has been found 
impossible to carry out this in all instances : where it has not been 
effected, the departure from the rule is always noted, either beloAv the 
woodcut or in the text. 

No lineal dimensions are quoted in the text except such as it is 
believed can be positively relied upon, and in all instances these are 
reduced to English feet. The supei-ficial measures, like the plans, are 
quite sufficient for comparison, though not to be relied upon as abso- 
lutely correct. One great source of uncertainty as regards them is the 
difficulty of knowing at times what should be included in the building 
referred to. Should, for instance, the Lady Chapel at Ely be considered 
an integral part of the Cathedral, or the Chapter-house at AN'ells ? Should 
the sacristies attached to Continental cathedrals be considered as part 
of the church ? or such semi-detached towers as the south-western one 
at Bourges ? What constitutes the temple at Karnac, and how much 
of this belongs to the Ilypostyle Hall ? These and fifty other questions 
occur in almost every instance, which may lead two persons to very 


different conclusions regarding the .superficial dimensions of a build- 
ing, even witliout the cnors inherent in imperfect materials. 

When cither the drawing from which the woodcut is taken was 
without a scale, or tlie scale given could not be depended upon, " No 
scale" has been put under the cut to warn the reader of the fact. 
When the woodcut was either too large for the page, or too small to be 
distmct if reduced to the usual scale, a scale of feet has been added 
under it, to show that it is an exception to the mle. 

Capitals, windows, and details which are meant to illustrate forms 
or construction, and not particular buildings, are drawn to any scale 
that seemed best to express the purpose for which they are inserted ; 
when they are remarkable for size, or as individual examples, a scale 
has been added ; but this is the exception, not the rule. 

One object that has been steadily kept in view in this work has been 
to show that architecture may be efficiently illustrated by plates on a 
small scale, yet stifficiently clear to convey instruction to professional 
architects. Every pains has been taken to secure the gTcatest possible 
amount of accuracy, and in all instances the sources from which the 
woodcuts have been taken are indicated. jNIany of the illustrations are 
froria original drawings, and of buildings never before published. 

Tlie above remarks with regard to the want of information or the 
incompleteness of illustration hardly apply to the Pagan styles. There 
are very few of those which might bo classed under the head of " Non- 
(Jhristian styles " which have not been as fully and as correctly illus- 
trated as their importance desei-ves, though more information regarding 
some points would be both desirable and convenient. But very few of 
the Christian styles were illustrated at all at the beginning of this 
century, and even at this time such a country as Spain is almost a 
terra incognita to architects. Now, however, that people arc getting 
satiated with the plaster prettincsses of the Alhambra, we may hope 
that attention will be turned to the grander and simpler works of the 
Christians in that country, and that this chapter will not remain the 
blank it has hitherto been. 

The English Gothic is, ot all the Christian styles, the one which has 
been most fully examined and illustrated ; numberless books have been 
pul)lished on the subject in this country ; and, as information is obtain- 
able in almost any form regarding it, all that is attempted here is to 
compare it with other similar styles, an<l to place its merits in their 
time light relatively to the other forms of art brought \mder view in 
the various chaptera of this work. 

A most lamentable deficiency of infcmuation exists regarding the 
styles prevailing in all the countries occupied by the Turks, both in 
Europe and in Asia. Neither the Government nor the people of those 
countries will of course do anything to elucidate this subject, and 
hitlierto religious jealousy has prevented access to mosques or churches 


consecrated to Mahometan purposes ; but these difticnlties are fast 
disappearing, and as the subject is so interesting, and the materials 
so abundant, it is hoped that before long the Byzantine may be as 
perfectly maderstood as the Gothic styles of architecture. Even at 
present I know of the existence of unpublished drawings almost 
sufficient for this purjjose. Those made by M. Charles Texier would 
in themselves almost suffice, and many others exist in the portfolios 
of those who have visited the countiy. Many of these are kept back 
from the idea that their authors may find an opportunity of publishing 
them themselves, a few from an unwillingness that others should 
profit by the labours of those who made them, but far more from their 
authors not knowing how or when to render them available to the 
public. I am not without hopes that if this work attain a certain 
amount of circulation, those who possess drawings or information to 
which I have not access may be induced to lend them to me for the 
purpose of correcting errors or of supplying deficiencies. If this is 
done, there will be no difficulty in rendering a second edition of this 
work far more complete and more worthy of the noble subject it is 
intended to illustrate than it can pretend to be at present. 

In the mean time I have to thank my friends Messrs. Pentland, 
F. Penrose, Edward Falkener, and Gawen, as well as Messrs. Billings, 
Wilkinson, and others who have lent me either woodcuts or the ma- 
terials for them, and so assisted materially in enriching the illustration 
of the work ; and above all I have to thank the Eev. Charles Penrose 
for the invaluable assistance he has afforded me in passing the work 
through the press. 

All the woodcuts executed expressly for the work were engraved 
by Mr, Eobert Branston, and it need hardly be remarked that they are 
done with his accustomed clearness and accuracy. 

In conclusion, it is earnestly requested that those whose superior 
knowledge enables them to detect errors or to supply deficiencies will 
kindly communicate their observations to the author, whose most 
earnest desire in publishing tliis work is to place in the hands of the 
public a book which shall be deemed worthy of that noble art to the 
study of whose principles he has devoted the best years of his life and 
the best energies of his mind. 






I. Introductory 

II. Blddhist Architecture — Di- 
vision of subject — Topes, Sauchi 
— Temples, Karli — Monasteries, 
Ajnnta — Ornamentation of caves 6 

III. Ckvlox — Description of ruins 
at Anuradhapoora — Iluius at Me- 
hentele — Great moiia-stery and 
sacred tree at Anm-adhapoora — 
Ruins of Pollonai-ua 40 

IV. BruMAH — Forms of Burmese 
biiildings — Dagobas at Klioma- 
doo — Pegue — llangoon, &c. — 
Monastei-ies 48 

Chap. Pagb 

V. Java — Buildings at Boro Bud- 
dor — Temples at Brambanam .. 55 

VI. Thiukt and Nkpal — Moua.stery 

of Bouddha La— Temples in Nepal 61 

VII. Transitional Styles and 
Concluding Remarks — Raths of 
Mahavellipoi-e — General Remarks 

on Buddbist Architecture . . . . 64 

VIII. Jaina — Definition of Jainism 

— Temples on Mount Abu — Origin 
of Domes — Domes of Jains and 
Buddhists — Temples of Somnath 

— Chandravati and Sadree — 
Towers at Chittore 68 


I. Southern Hindu — Historical no- 
tices — Form of Temples — Porches 
of Temples — Gateways — Pillared 
Halls — Temples at Seriugham, 
Trivalur, Tinuevelly, &c. — Kyhis 
at Ellora — Construction of Rock- 
cut Temples — Modern Hindu 
style in the South 84- 

II. Northern Hindu Styles — Cut- 

tack Temples — Temples in Upper 
India — ilodern Temples at Biu- 
drabun and Benares— Mixed Hindu 
style — Tombs — Palaces — Ghats 
— Bunds — Wells, &c 


III. Casmmeer — Style of Archi- 
tecture — Temples at Martund 
— Pandrethan — Payech, &c. .. 124 


Palaces — Palenque 

I. China — General Remarks — Pa- 
godas — Pailoos — Tombs — Do- 
mestic Architecture — Temples .. 133 

II. Central America — Historical 
notice — Central American style 

— Temples 

— Uxmal 


III. Peru — Historiail notice — 
Titicaca— Tombs— Walls of Cuzco 154 


I. Assyria — Historical Periods — 
Palaces at Nimroud — Khorsabad 

— Koyunjik — B;ibylonia .. .. 161 

II. Persia — Biuldings at Passar- 
gadae — General appearance of 
Ruins at Persepolis — I'ropylaja — 
Palace and Tomb of Darius — 
Halls of Xerxes — Susa — Fu'e 
Temples — Tomb of Cyrus . . . . 1»7 

III. Syria— Buildings of Solomon 

— Second Temple at Jerusalem — 
Palmyra 201 

IV. Asia Minor — Historical notice 

— Tombs at Smyrna — Doganlu 

— Lycian Tombs 206 




Chap. Page 

I. E(JYPT — Introductory remarks — 
Dimeusions of the l'yr;unids — Py- 
ramids of (iizeh — Saccfira — Archi- 
tecture of the Pyi'amids . . . . 214 

II. TiiEUAN Monarchy — Historical 
notice — Pillars — Temple-Palaces 

— Rhamession — Karnac . . . . 224 

III. M0DER!T Styles — Decline of 

Chap. 1'agk 

art — Temples at Dendera — Ka- 
labsche — Philaj — Marnmeisi — 
Rock-cut examples — Iixsamboul 

— Tombs — Labyrinths— Obelisks 

— Domestic architecture . . . . 236 

IV. Ethiopia — Kingdom of Meroe 

— Pyramids — Invention of the 
Arch 249 


Greece — Historical notice — Pe- 
liisgic art — Tomb of Atreus — 
Other remains — Hellenic Greece 
— History of the orders — Doric 
order — The Parthenon — Ionic 
order — Corinthian order — Cary- 

atides—Forms of temples — Mode 
of lighting — Municipal archi- 
tecture — Theatres 255 

II. Hellenic Greece - 
the orders 

-History of 



I. Etruria — Historical notice — 
Temples — Rock-cut Tombs — 
Tombs at Castel d'Asso — Tumuli 285 

II. Rome — Introduction . . , . 296 

III. Roman Architecture — Origin 
of style — The arch — Orders : 
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, Compo- 
site — Temples — The Pantheon " 

— Roman temples at Athens — at 
Baalbec 299 

IV. Basilicas, Theatres, and Baths 

— Basilicas of Trajan and Maxen- 

tius — Provincial basilicas — 
Theatre at Orange — Colosseum 
— Provincial amj^hitheatres — 
Baths of Diocletian 317 

V. Tkiomphal Arches, Tombs, and 
other Buildings — Arches at 
Rome ; in France — Ai'ch at Treves 
— Pillars of Victory — Tombs — 
Minerva Medica — Provincial 
tombs — Eastern tombs — Do- 
mestic architecture — Spalatro — 
Pompeii — Bridges — Aqueducts 



I. Sassanian Art — Historical notice 
— Palaces of Diai'bekr and Al 

Hadhr — Domes — Serbistan — 
Firouzabad — Tak Kesra 

Ob / 


I. Introduction 376 

II. Syria and Egypt — Mosques at 
Jerusalem — El Aksah — Mosque 
at Damascus — Egypt — Mosques 
at Cairo — Other African buildings 

— Mecca 383 

HI. Persia — Historical notice — 
Imaret at Erzeroum — Mosque at 
Tabreez — Tomb at Sultanieh — 
Bazaar at Ispahan — College of 
Husein Shah — Palaces and other 
buildings 400 

IV. India — Local character of style 

— Ghazni — Remains at Delhi — 
Jaunpore — Mosques at Gour — 
Mandoo — Mosque at Futtehpore 

Sicri — Mosque of Shah Jehan at 
Delhi — Tombs — Tombs at Agra 
and Old Delhi — The Taje Mehal 

— Great Dome at Beejapore — 
Palaces: of Akbar ; of Shah Jehan 412 

V. Spain — Introductory I'emai-ks 

— Mosque at Cordoba — Palace at 
Zahra — Churches of Sta. Maria 
and Christo de la Luz at Toledo 

— Gu-alda at Seville — Palace of 
the Alcazar — The Alhiunbra — 
Sicily 451 

VI. Turkey — Peculiarities of style 
— Mosque of Soliman — Mosque of 
Achmet — Other mosques . . . . 464 





Chap. Page 

I. iNTnoPiCTORY 473 

II. Romanesque Style — Bi\silica.s 
at Ilome — Basilica of St. Peter — 
St. Paul's — Ba.silicas at Kavenna 
— Piaconza — Florence — Cathe- 
dral of Pisa — Torcello . . . . 481 

III. Latek Romanesque . . . . 500 

Chap. Pace 

IV. CinccLAR CuDRCiiK.s — Tomb of 
Sta. Costauza — Ch\irches at Pe- 
rugia, Nocera, Raveuua, Milau . . 508 

V. Romanesque Auciutecture — 
Tombs — Towers — Secular build- 
ings — Romanesque Architecture 

in the East 517 


I. LoMitARn Architecture — Lom- 
bardy — Historical notice — Church 
of San Antonio, Piacenza — 
Churches at Novara, Pavia, Milan, 
Verona — Campaniles 530 

II. Switzerland — Church at Ro- 
maiu-Motier — Cathedral of Zurich 

— Ancient plan at St. Gall . . . . 550 

III. Germany — Historical notice 

churches — Aix-la- 

■ Nimegueu — Bonn 


— Circular 

IV.— Basilicas ~ Church at Gern- 
rode — Treves — Hildesheim — 
Cathedrals of Worms antl Sjjires 

— Churches at Cologne — Other 
churches and chapels 508 

V. Domestic Architecture — Pa- 
laces of Wartburg — Gelnhausen 

— Houses — Windows 587 


I. Division of Sulijeet — Provence — 
Churches at Avignon, Aries. Alet, 
Foutifroide, Maguelone, Vienne 

— Round churches — Towers — 
Cloistei-s 593 

II. .Vquitania — Churches at Peri- 
geux, ."^ouillac, Angouleme, Alby, 
Toulouse, Conques, Toura — Tombs 612 

III. Anjou — Cathedral at Angera 

— Church at Foutevrault — 
Poitiera — Spires 026 

IV. AuvERGNE — Church at Is-soire 

— Puy — Fortified church at 
Royat 634 

V. Prankish Style — Exceptional 
buildings— Basse CEuvre, Beauvais 

— Decoration 639 

VI. Normandy— Churches at Caen 

— Gothic vaulting — Bayeux , . 643 

VII. Burgundy — Abbeys of Tour- 
nus and Cluny — Cathedral of 
Autun — Church of St. Menoux . . 051 

VIII. Prankish Architecture — 
Historical notice — The pointed 
arch — Freemasonry — Mediaeval 
ai-chitects 659 

IX. French Gothic Cathedrals — 
Paris — Chai-tres — llheims — 
Amiens — Other cathedi-als— Later 
style — St. Ouen's, Rouen . . . . 0G7 

X. Gothic details — Pillars — Win- 
dows — Circular windows — liays 
—Vaults — Buttresses— Pinnacles 
—Spii-es— Decoration — Construc- 
tion — Furniture of churches — 
Domestic architecture 095 


I. Historical notice-Old churches — 
Cathcdi-al of Touruay — Antwerp 
— St. Jacques at Liige 


II. Civil Architecture — Belfries — 
Hall at Ypi'oM — Louvaiu — Brus- 
sels — Domestic .Architecture — 
Holland 72s 




Chap. Tage 

I. History of style — St. Gereon, 
Cologne - 

■ Churclicsat Geluhauseu 

Cologne Cathedral 

— Fribursr — Strasburpj — St. Ste- 



pheii's, Vienna 


Nuremberg — 
Miihlhauseu — Erfurth . . . . 735 

II. Circular Churches — Church 
Furniture — Civil Architecture . . 758 


I. Amalgamation of styles — Geo- 
graphical limits — Church at 
Vercelli — Asti — Padua — Cathe- 
dral of Sieuna — Floi-ence — 
Domes — St. Petronio, Bologna 

— Milan Cathedral — Duomo at 
Ferrai-a 764 

II. Circular churches — Towers at 
Prato and Florence — Porches — 
Civil buildings — ■ Town-halls — 
Venice — Doge's palace — Ca d'Oro 

— Conclusion 784 

III. Naples and Apulia — Build- 
ings in Naples, Amalfi, &c. — 
San Nicola, Bari — Cathedrals of 
Bittonto, Matera, and Trani — 
Churches at Brindisi — General 
remarks 801 

IV. Sicily — Population of Sicily — 
The Saracens — Buildings at Pa- 
lermo — Cathedral of Monreale — 
Cefalu — The Pointed Arch . . 808 


I. Spain — Subject imperfectly 
known — Peculiar arrangements 
— Churches at Zamora — Toro — 
Segovia — Pointed style — Cathe- 

drals of Leon — Burgos — Toledo 

— Seville 817 

II. Spain and Portugal — Church of 
Batalha — Cloisters — Castles — 
Moresco style — Towers . . . . 834 


I. Saxon buildings : Norman — Can- 
terbm-y — Other Norman Cathe- 
drals : Early English — Salisbury 

— Westminster Abbey — Windows 

— Styles of Tracery : Edwardian 
Style — Wells — York — Ely — 
St. Stephen's Chapel — ■ Wooden 
roofs : Tudor style — Royal 
Chapels 843 

II. Peculiarities of English 

Gothic — Vaults — Square East- 
ern Ends — Proportions — Sites . . 879 

III. Architecture op Scotland — 
Affinities of Style — Early Speci- 
mens — Cathedral of Glasgow — 
Elgin — Melrose — Other Churches 

— Monasteries 892 

IV. Ireland — Oratories — Round 
Towers — Domical Dwellings — 
Domestic Architecture — Decora- 
tions 915 


I. Scandinavia — Churches at Wisby 
— Bornholm — ■ Denmark — Nor- 
way — Cathedral at Trondhjem — 
Wooden Churches 92f 

II. PoMERANiA — ^Brick Architecture 

— Churches at Lubeck . . . . 93G 

III. Holland — Churches — Civil 
and Domestic Buildings . . . . 941 


I. Origin of Style — St. Sophia's — 
Other Churches at Constantinople 
— Churches in Greece — Byzantine 
Orders — St. Mark's, Venice 

II. BvzANTiNE Architecture in 
Asia — Chm-ches at Ancyra — 


Hierapolis — Other churches — 

— Armenia — Cave Churches — 
Inkermann — Cathedral at Ani — 
Decoration — Tombs 9G5 

III. Architecture of Russia — 
Churches at Kieff — Novogoi'od 

— Moscow — Towers 978 



( -^vi ) 


■• ^*>^ i'S.^.^V *■ 



i . 











L&t at Allahabad 

Honeysuckle ornament 

Cajiitjil of Lilt on the Gunduck . . 

Siirkh Minar, Cahiil 

View ol'Sanchi Tope 

Plan of Tope at Sanchi 

Section of 'i"oj)e at .Sanchi . . 

Stone balustrade forming the en- 
closure at Sanchi 

Tope of Amravati 

Tower on Giriyek Hill 

Tope at Bimeran 

Tope, .*^nlt.anpore 

B.^se of a Tee cut in the rock at 

Rock-cut Tope at Ajunta . . 

Small model found iu the Tope at 

Section of Cave at Karli 

Plan of Cave at Karli, double the 
usual size 

View of Cave at Karli 

Section of Cave Xo. 10, Ajunta. . 

Lomas Kishi Cave 

!^at Gurbha Cave 

Tiger Cave, Cutt^ick 

Ganesa Cave 

Cave No. 11, at Ajunta 

Cave No. 2, at Ajunta 

Cave at Baugh 

Durbar Cave, Salsette 

Pillar in G.inesa Cave, Cuttack . . 

Pillar in \'ihara No. 17, at Ajunta 

Pillar at Ajunta 

Tliujiaramya Tojh' 

The .layat.awauarama — Ruins of 

Shocmadoo Pagoda, Peguc . . 

Half-jilan of Shocmadoo Pagoda. . 

Burmese Kioum 

Half plan of Temjile of Boro Bud- 

I'.levation and Section of Temple 
of Boro Buddor 

Section of one of the smaller domes 
at Boro Buddor 

Elevation of principal dome at 
Boro Buddor 

Small tem|)lc at Brambanam 

Nepalese Kosthakar 

Kaths, Mahavcllij«)re 

Temple of V'imala ."^idi, Mount Abu 































































































Porch of Vimala Sah's Temple . . 71 

Radiating Arch 73 

Horizontiil Arch 73 

50. Diagrams of Roofing . . , . 74 
Diagram of Indian construction. , 75 
Diagram Plan of Jaina Temph; . . 77 
Diagram of Jaina Temple . . . . 77 
Plan of Temple at .Sadree . . , . 79 
External View of the Temple at 

Sadree 80 

Tower at Chittore 82 

Peruuial Pasioda, Madura . , . . 89 

Temple at Tanjore 90 

Entrance to a Hindu Temi)le, 

Colombo 93 

Gopura, Combaconum . . . . 93 
Section of Porch of Temple at 

Chillumbrum 95 

View of Porch at Chillumbrum, , 96 
Plan of Trimul Naik's Choultry 97 
Pillar in Trimul Naik's Choultry 97 

Temple at Tiruvalur 99 

Hall-plan of Temple at Tinnevelly 100 

Kylas at Ellora 102 

Kvlas, EUora 103 

Hall in Palace, Madura , . . . 105 
Restored elevation of the Black 

Pagoda at Kanaruc lU9 

Temj)le at BarroUi Ill 

Plan of Temple at Barrolli . . . . 112 
Temple at Cliandravati .. ..113 
Dhumnar Lena Cave at Elloia . . 113 
Temple of Vislivesher, Benares . . 1 14 
Pillar in Kvlas, Ellora . . . . 115 

Pillar in Barrolli 115 

Plan of Temple at Bindrabun .. 116 

Chuttrie at Alwar 118 

Hall at Deeg 119 

Balcony at the Observatory, Be- 
nares 1 20 

Ghoosla Ghat, Benares .. ..121 
Model of Tem]ple in C.Tshmcer . . 125 

Temple of Martund 126 

Central Cell of Court at Martund 127 
Temple at Pandrethan .. .. l'-i8 
Poicelain Tower, Nankin . . . . 136 

Pailoo near Canton 137 

(^lateway at Amoy 138 

Chinese Grave 139 

Chinese Tomb 139 

Diagram of Chinese construction 140 
Temj)le at Macao 142 


XVI 1 


94. Elevixtion of Teocalli at Palenque U8 

95. Plan of Tcnii>le .. ., 148 

96. Elevation of Building at Chunjuju 149 

97. Elevation of part of Palace at 

Zavi 150 

98. Plan (if Palace at Zayi . . . . 150 

99. Casa lie las Jlonjas, Uxmal . . .. 151 

100. Interior of a Chamber, Uxmal .. 152 

101. Apartment at Chichcn .. . . 15'2 

102. Diagram of Mexican construction 153 

103. Ruins of House of SJanco Capac, 

in Cuzco 15G 

104. House of the Virgins of the Sun 156 

105. Peruvian Tombs 157 

106. Elevation of Wall of Tambos .. 158 

107. Sketch Plan of Walls of Cuzco . . 158 

108. View of Walls of Cuzco .. ..159 

109. North-West Palace at Nimroud. . 166 

110. Plan of Palace at Khorsabad .. 167 

111. Restoration of Northern Angle of 

Palace Court, Khorsabad. . .. 169 

112. Section of principal Rooms at 

Khorsabad 170 

113. Three principal Rooms at Khor- 

sabad 171 

114. Elevation of Stylobate of Temple 172 

115. Section of Stylobate of Temple .. 172 

116. Terrace Wall at Khorsabad .. 173 

117. Interior of a Yezidi House at Bukra, 

in the Sinjar 174 

118. Existing Remains of Propylaa at 

Khorsabad 175 

119. Hall of South-West Palace.. .. 176 

120. Pavement Slab from the Central 

Palace, Koyunjik 177 

121. Pavilion from the sculptures at 

Khorsabad 179 

122. Exterior of a Palace, from a Bas- 

relief at Koyunjik 180 

123. Obelisk of Divanubara . . . . 181 

124. Plan of Babylon 182 

125. Restored Elevation of the Birs 

Nimroud 183 

126. Restored Plan of the Birs Nimroud 183 

127. Representation of a Temple .. 184 

128. Elevation of Wall at Wurka .. 185 

129. Platform at Passargadre . . . . 187 

130. Elevation of ^Masonry at Passar- 

gada> 187 

131. View from Top of Great Stairs at 

Persepolis 189 

132. Stairs to Palace of Xerxes .. ..191 

133. Propvla?a 192 

134. Palace of Darius 192 

135. Facade of Palace of Darius at Per- 

sepolis 193 

136. Tombof Dariusat Naksh-i-Rustam, 

representing the faraile of his 
palace surmounted by a Talar. . 194 

137. P.ilace of Xerxes 195 

138. Restored plan of Great Hall of 

Xerxes at Persepolis 195 

139. Pillar of Western Portico .. ..196 

140. Pillar of Northern Portico.. .. 196 

141. Restored Section of Hall of Xerxes 197 

142. Kaabah at Istakr 198 


143. Tomb of Cyrus 199 

144. Plan of Solomon's Temple . . . . 202 

145. DiagramSection ofSolomon'sHouse 202 

146. Plan of Temple at Jerusalem as 

rebuilt by Herod 204 

147. Capital of Pillar in subterranean 

entrance to Temple at Jerusalem 205 

148. Elevation of Tumulus at Tantalais 207 

149. Plan and Section of Chamber in 

Tumulus at Tantalais , . . . 207 

150. Rock-cut Frontispiece at Doganlu 208 

151. Lycian Tomb 209 

152. Rock-cut Lycian Tomb . . . . 210 

153. Rock-cut Lycian Tomb .. ..211 

154. Rock-cut Lycian Tomb .. ..211 

155. Ionic Lycian Tomb 212 

156. Diagram of Pyramids . . . . 218 

157. Section of King's Chamber and of 

Passage in Great Pyi-amid . . 219 

158. Pyramid of Saccara 221 

159. Sarcophagus of Mycerinus, found 

in Third Pyramid 222 

160. Pillar at Beni Hassan 226 

161. Tomb at Beni Hassan 226 

162. Pillar from Beni Hassan . . , . 227 

163. Pillar from Rhamession, Thebes.. 228 

164. Pilliu- from Sedinga 228 

165. Pillar from the Portico at Dendera 229 
1G6. Caryatide Pillar from the Great 

Court at Wedinet-Habou . . . . 229 

167. Rhamession at Thebes 230 

168. Section of Palace of Thothmes III., 

Thebes 232 

169. Plan of Hypostyle Hall at Karnac 233 

170. Section of central portion of Hy- 

postyle Hall at Karnac . . . . 233 

171. South Temple of Karnac .. .. 234 

172. Section on A B of above . . . . 235 

173. Plan of Temple at Edfou, Apollo- 

nopolis JIagna 236 

174. View of Temple at Edfou . . ..237 

175. Bas-relief at Tell el Amarna .. 238 

176. Facade of Temple at Dendera .. 238 

177. Plan of Temple at Kalabsehe .. 239 

178. Section of Temple at Kalabsche.. 239 

179. Viewof Temideat Philaj .. ,, 239 

180. Plan of Temple at Phihc .. ,.240 

181. JIammeisi at Elephantine . . . . 240 

182. Plan and Section of Rock-cut 

'femjile at Ipsamboul . . . . 241 

183. Plan and Section of Tomb of Jla- 

ncpthah at Thebes 243 

184. 185. Great Labyrinth . . . . 245 

186. Pavilion at Modinct-Habou. . .. 247 

187. View of Pavilion at Jledinet- 

Habou 247 

188. Elevation of a House 248 

189. Pyramids at Meroo 250 

190. Section of Tomb near the Pyra- 

mids of Gizeh 252 

191. Vaulted Drain beneath the South- 

East Palace at Nimroud . . . . 253 

192. Arch of the Cloaca .Maxima, Rome 253 

193. Arches in the Pyramids at ]\Ieroc 254 

194. West View of the Acropolis re- 

stored 255 




195. Section and Plan of Tomb of Atre- 

iis at Myceiia; 257 

I'JG. Base of Pillar in front of Tomb of 

Atreus at Mycenae 258 

197. Gateway at Thoricus 259 

198. Gateway at Assos 2fi0 

199. Arch at Delos 2G0 

200. Wall in Peloponnesus 261 

201. Doorway at Missolongbi .. .. 261 

202. fiatc of Lions, .Alvcena} . . . . 261 

203. Plan of the Acropolis at Athens.. 262 

204. Temple at -Egina restored . . , . 263 

205. Ancient t'orinthian Capital . . 267 

206. Pillars of Tenii)los at Delos and 

Corinth, and Parthenon, Athens 268 

207. The Parthenon 269 

208. Ionic order of Erechtheium at 

Athens 271 

209. Order of the Choragic Monument 

of Lysicrates '-'72 

2 1 0. Order of the Tower of the Winds, 

Athens 273 

211. Carvatide Figure from the Erech- 

theium 274 

212. Caryatide Figure in the British 

iMuseum 274 

213. Tclamones at Agrigentum . . . . 275 

214. t^mall Temple at Khamnus . . . 276 

215. Plan ofTemjile of Apollo at B;issai 276 

216. Plan of Parthenon at Athens . . 276 

217. Plan of Great Tcmide at Agri- 

gentum 276 

218. .'Section of the Parthenon ,. ..278 

219. Part Section, part Elevation, of 

Great Temple at Agrigentum . . 278 

220. Plan of Temple of Ceres at Eleusis 279 

221. Section of Temple of Ceres at 

Eleusis 279 

222. Plan of Temple of Jupiter Olym- 

pius at Athens 280 

223. Plan of Erechtheinm 280 

224. Section of En'chtlioium . . . . 280 

225. View of Erechtheium .. .. 281 

226. Choragic Monument of Lysicrates 282 

227. Plan of Theatre at Di-amyssus . . 283 

228. Plan and Section of an Etruscan 

Temple 287 

229. Tombs at Ca.stel d'Asso . . . . 289 
2.30. Mouldings from Tombs at Castel 

d'Asso 290 

231. Plan of HeguliiiiGaleassi Tomb . . 291 

232. Sections of IJegulini (ialeaiisi Tomb 291 

233. Section of a Tomb at C-cre . . 292 

234. View of principal Chamber in 

Kegulini Galea.<si Tomb . . . . 292 
2.35. Plan of Cocumella, Vulci .. ..293 

236. View of Cocumella, Vulci .. .. 293 

237. Tomb of A runs, A lUuio .. ..294 

238. Gateway at Arpino 294 

239. Aqueduct .it Tusculum . . . . 295 

240. Doric Order 302 

241. Ionic Order 302 

242. Corinthian Order 303 

243. Composite Order 305 

244. Corinthian Base, now found in 

Church of St. Praxede in Kome 305 























Doric Arcade 306 

View of Court-vard at Spalatro 308 
Temple of Mars Ultor .. ,.310 
Plan of Pantheon at Kome . . ..311 
Half Elevation, half Section, of 

the Pantheon at Kome . . , . 312 
Plan of Temple at Tivoli . . . . 313 
Restored Elevation of Temple at 

Tivoli 313 

Plan and Elevation of Temple in 

Diocletian's Palace at Sjialatro 313 
Plan of Small Temple at Baalbec 315 
Elevation of Small Temple at 

Baalbec 315 

Plan of Trajan's Basilica at Kome 318 
Section of Trajan's Basilica .. 318 
Plan of Biusilica of :^Iaxentius . , 320 
Longituilinal Section of Basilica of 

Ma.\entius 320 

Transverse Section of Basilica of 

Ma.wntius 320 

Plan of the Basilica at Treves . , 321 
External View of the Basilica at 

Treves 322 

Internal View of the Basilica at 

Treves 322 

Plan of Basilica at Pompeii . . 323 
Plan of the Theatre at Orange . . 324 
View of the Theatre at Orange . . 324 
Elevation and Section of part of 

the Flavian Amphitheatre at 

Kome 327 

Quarter-plan of the Seats and 

quarter-plan of the Basement of 

the Flavian Am])hitheatre . . 327 
Elevation of Amiiliitheatre at Ve- 
rona 329 

Baths of Caracalla, as restored by 

A. Blouet 332 

Arch of Trajan at Beneventum . . 334 
Arch of Titus at Kome . . . . 335 
Arch of Septimius Severus , , 335 

Porte St. Andre at Autuu . . . , 336 
Plan of Porfci Nigra at Treves . . 337 
View of the Porta Kigni at 

Treves 337 

Bridge at Chamas 338 

Column at Cussi 340 

Supposed Capital of Column at 

Cussi 340 

Tomb of Cacilia Metella .. ..341 
Columbarium near the Gate of S. 

Sebastian, Kome 342 

Section of Sepulchre at San Vito 343 
Section and Elevation of Tomb of 

Sta. Helena, Kome 344 of Minerva Medica at Kome 345 
Section of Minerva Medica . . 346 
Kib of the Koof of the Minerva 

Medica at Kome 346 

Tomb at St. Remi 347 

Jlonument at Igel, near Treves . . 348 

Khasn6 at Petra 349 

Section of Tomb at Khasne . . 350 
Corinthian Tomb, Petra . . . . 351 
Rock-cut interior at Petra . . 352 




292. Toinl) at. ]\Iylnss;i 353 

293. Tomb at Du.iiga 354 

294-. Palace of Diocletian at Sjialati-o 356 

295. Golden Gateway at Spalatro . . 357 
29r>. Part of Central Arcade, and upper 

part of Temple, Spalatro . . 359 

297. Hou.s(! of I'ansa at i'ompeii .. 361 

298. Aqueduct of Segovia 364- 

299. Aqueduct of Tarragona . . . . 364: 

300. Bridge of Trajan at Alcantara, in 

Spain 365 

301. Plan of Palace at Al Hadhr . . 369 

302. Klevation of part of the Palace at 

Al Iladlir 370 

303. Plan of Palace at Serbistan . . 372 

304. Section on line A B of Palace at 

Serbistan 372 

305. Plan of Palace at Firouzabad . . 373 

306. Doorway at Firouzabad . . . . 373 

307. Partof External Wall, Firouzabad 374 

308. Plan of Tak Kesra at Otesiphon . . 374 

309. Elevation of Great Arch of Tak 

Kesra at Ctesiphon 375 

310. Diagrams of Arches 381 

311. Plan of the Mosque el Aksah at 

Jcrnsalera 384 

312. View in the Mosque el Aksah at 

Jerusalem 385 

313. Mosque of Amrou, Old Cairo .. 388 

314. Arches in the Mosque of Amrou 388 

315. Mosque of Ebn Touloun at Cairo 390 

316. Window in Mosque of Ebn Touloun 391 

317. Plan of Mosque and Tombs of 

Sultan Barkook 392 

318. Section of Mosque of Barkook .. 392 

319. Mosque of Sultan Hassan .. .. 393 

320. Sectionof Mosque of Hassan, Cairo 394 

321. Mosque of Kaitbey 396 

322. Minaret at Tunis 397 

323. Great Jlosque at Mecca . . . . 398 

324. Imaret of Oulou Jamiat Erzeroum 402 

325. Mosque at Tabrecz 403 

326. View of ruined Mosque at Tabreez 403 

327. Tomb at Sultanieh 404 

328. Section of the Tomb of Sultan 

Khodabendah at Sultanieh . . 405 

329. View of the Tomb at Sultanieh . . 405 

330. Great Mosque at Ispahan . . . . 407 
















Madrissa of Sultan Huscin at Is- 
pahan 408 

Throne-room at Teheran . . . . 410 

Palace at Ispahan 410 

Minar at Ghazni 415 

Plan of Ruins in Old Delhi . . 417 
Section of part of East Colonnade 

at the Kootub, Old Delhi . . 418 

Central Range of Arches at the 

Kootub 419 

Minar of Kootub 420 

View of Lateral Gateway of ,Ium- 

ma Mesjid, Jaunpore . . . . 422 
Lall Durwaza Mosque, Jaunpore 423 
Plan of Mosque at Mandoo . . . . 425 
Courtyard of Gi-eat Mosque at 

Mandoo 426 

Section of Mosque at Ahmedabad 427 
Pendentive from Mosque at Old 

Delhi 428 

Great Mosque at Delhi from the 

N.E 430 

Pendentive in Tomb at Old Delhi 433 

Tomb at Old Delhi 434 

Pathan Tomb at Shepree near 

Gualior 435 

Plan of Taje Mehal, Agra . . . . 437 
Section of Taje Mehal, Agra . . 437 
Plan of Tomb of Jlahomet at Bee- 

japore 440 

Section of Tomb of JIahomct at 

Beejapore . . . . .^ 441 

Diagram illustrative of Domical 

Construction 442 

Hall in Palace at Allahabad . . 446 
Plan of Imambara at Lucknow . , 449 

Mosque at Cordoba 453 

Interior of Sanctuary at Coi'doba 454 
Screen of the Chapel of Villa Vi- 

ciosa. Mosque of Cordoba . . 455 

Sta. Maria la Blanca 457 

Church of St. Christo de la Luz, 

Toledo 458 

Giralda, .Seville 459 

Plan of the Alhambra, (iianada 4(il 

Mosque of Soliman 466 

Mosque of Achmet 467 






Plan of the Church of San Cle- 

mente at Rome 484 

Plan of the original Basilica of St. 

Peter at Rome 487 

Basilica of St. Peter 489 

Plan of Sta. !Maria ]\Iaggiore . . 490 
View of Sta. ilaria Maggiorc . . 491 
Section of Sta. Agnese . . . . 492 

Plan of Sta. Agnese 492 

Half Section, half Elevation, of 
the Church of San Vincenzo alle 

Tre Fontane 493 

Church of S. ApoUinare in Classe, 
Ravenna 495 






Arches in Church of San ApoUi- 
nare Nuovo 495 

Part of Apse in S. ApoUinare in 

Chisse, Ravenna 496 

S. ApoUinare ad Classeni, Ra- 
venna 496 

Church at Parenzo in Istria . . 497 
Plan of Church at Torcello . . 498 
Apse of Basilica at Torcello .. 498 
Plan of San Miniato, Florence . . 500 
Section of San Miniato, near Flo- 
rence 501 

View of the Cathedral at Pisa . . 502 

Plan of Sta. Maria, Toscanella . . 504 




384. View of the Interior of Sta. Maria, 

Toscaiiclla 505 

385. Klevation of the Exterior of Sta. 

Maria, Toscanella 505 

386. riaii of the Tomb of Sta. Costanza, 

Home 509 

387. Plan of San Stojihano Rotondo . . 510 

388. Sti. Anjreli, reriigia 510 

389. .^ti. Angcli, Perugia 510 

390. Baptistery at Nocera dei Pagani 511 

391. Baptistery at Nocera dei Pagani 511 

392. Plan of St. Vitale, Ilavenna . . 512 

393. Section of St. Vitale, Ravenna . . 513 

394. Plan of S. Lorenzo at Milan . . 514 
39."). Plan of Sta. Fosca, Torcello .. 516 

396. Tomb of Galla Placidia, Ravenna 517 

397. Plan of Tomb of Theodoric ., 518 

398. Elevation of Tomb of Theodoric, 

Ravenna 518 

399. Tower of Sta. Maria in Cosmedin 520 

400. Porta Palatina, Turin . . . , 520 

401. Gateway, Palazzo della Ragione, 

Mantua 521 

402. Church at Pergamus 523 

403. Church of the Nativity at Bethle- 

hem 525 

404. Interior of the Golden Gateway . . 526 

405. Order of the Golden Gateway .. 527 

406. Order of the Dome of the Rock . . 528 

407. Plan of the Dome of the Hock at 

Jerusalem 528 

408. Chapel at Friuli 531 

409. Plan of San Antonio, Piaceiiza . . 532 

410. Section of ("hurch of San Antonio 

at Piacenza 533 

411. ."Section and Plan of Baptistery at 

Asti 534 

412. Plan of the Cathedral at Novara 534 

413. Elevation and Section of the Fa- 

(^ade of the Cathedral at Novara 535 

414. Half Section, half Elevation, of 

the Baptistery at Novara . . 536 

415. Section of San Michele, Pavia . . 537 

416. View of the Apse of San Michele, 

Pavia 537 

417. Plan of ."^an Ambrogio, Milan . . 539 

418. Atrium of San Ambrogio, Milan 540 

419. Facade of the Cathedral at Pia- 

cenza 541 

420. Apse of the Cathedral, Verona .. 542 

421. Fa<^ade of San Zenone, Verona .. 543 

422. View of Zara Cathedial . . . . 544 

423. San Tomaso in Limine . . . . 546 

424. San Tomaso 546 

425. Plan of the Church of Romain- 

Motier 550 

426. View of the Church of Romnin- 

Motier 551 

427. Section of Church at Granson ., 551 

428. View and Plan of the Cathedral at 

Zurich 552 

429. Cloister at Zurich 553 

430. Doorway at Basle 554 

431. Reduction of an original plan of a 

Monastery found .at St. Gall . . 556 

432. Porch of Convent at Lorsch . . 560 


433. Plan of the Church at Aix-la- 

Chapelle 563 

434. Church at Nimeguen 564 

435. Church at Petersherg 565 

436. Baptistery at Bonn 566 

437. Chapel at Cobern on the Jloselle 567 

438. Plan of the Church at Gernrode 568 

439. \'u'\v of West-end of Church at 

Gernrode 569 

440. View of West-end of Abbey of 

Corvey 569 

441. Plan of original Church at Treves 570 

442. Plan ofMediteval Church at Trfeves 571 

443. Western Apse of Church at Treves 571 

444. Eastern Apse of Church at Treves 572 

445. Plan of Church at Hilde.sheim . . 572 

446. Internal View of the Church at 

Hildesheini 573 

447. Plan of Cathedral of Wonns . . 574 

448. One Bay of Cathedral at Worms 574 

449. Plan of the Cathedral at Sj.ires . . 575 

450. Western Apse of Cathedral at 

JIayence 576 

451. Church at Minden ; Cathedral at 

Paderborn ; Church at Soest . . 577 

452. Sta, Maria in Capitulo, Cologne 577 

453. Apse of the Apostles' Church at 

Cologne 578 

454. Apse of St. ilartin's Church at 

Cologne 579 

455. Plan of Church at Laach , . , . 580 

456. View of Church at Laach , . . . 581 

457. Church at Zinsig 582 

458. Rood Screen at Wechelburg , , 583 

459. Crypt at Gollingen 583 

460. Farade of the Church at Rosheim 584 
401. Church at JIamioutier , . , , 585 

462. Plan of Chapel at Landsberg . , 586 

463. Section of Chapel at Landsberg . . 586 

464. Arcade of the Palace at Gelnhausen 587 

465. Cajiital, Gelnhausen 588 

466. View of the Wartburg .. ., .589 

467. Dwelling-house, Cologne . . , . 590 

468. Back Windows in Dwelling-house, 

Cologne 591 

469. Windows from Sion Church, Co- 

logne 592 

470. Windows from St. Guerin at Neuss 592 

471. Map of the Architectural Division 

of France 594 

472. Diagram of Vaulting. South of 

France 598 

473. Porch of Notre Dame de Doms, 

Avignon 601 

474. Porch of .St. Trophime, Aries . . 602 

475. A].se of Church at Alet ,. ..603 

476. Internal Angle of Apse at Alet , . 604 

477. Longitudinal and Cross Section of 

Fontifroide Church 605 

478. Doorway in Church at Maguelone 606 

479. Cathedral, Vienne 607 

480. Plan of Church at Planes . . . . 608 

481. Tower at Puissalicon 608 

482. Church at Cruas 609 

483. Cloister at Fontifroide .. .. 610 

484. 485. Capitals at Cloister, EJne . . 611 




00 1. 
















Plan of St. Front, Porigoux ,. 1)12 
Part of St. Front, Perigeux .. 613 
Interior of Church at Souillac . 614 
Plan of Cathedral at Angouleme . 615 
One B.-\y of Nave, Angouleme . . 616 
Plan of Cliurch at Moisj-ac .. 616 

I'lan of Cathedral at Alby . . . . 617 
Plan of Church at Conques . . 618 
Plan of St. Benigne, Dijon . . . . 619 

Church of Charroux 620 

Plan of St. Martin at Tours . . 620 

St. Sernin, Toulouse 622 

Church at Loui>iac 623 

St. Eloi, Espalioii 623 

Church at Aillas <)24 

Tomb at St. Pierre, Toulouse . . 624 

Cathedral at Angers 627 

St. Trinite', AngM's 627 

View of the Interior of Leches . . 628 
Plan of Church at Fontevrault . . 628 
View of Chevet at Fontevrault . . 629 
Elevation of one of the Bays of the 

Nave at Fontevrault . . . . 629 
Fa5ade of Church of Notre Dame 

at Poitiers 630 

Plan of Cathedral at Poitiers . . 631 

Spire at Cunault 632 

Church at Issoire 634 

Elevation of Church at Issoire . . 635 
Section of Church at Issoire, look- 
ing East 635 

Elevation of Chevet, Notre Dame 

de Puy 636 

Plan of Chevet, Notre Dame de 

Puv 637 

Fortiticd Church at Koyat . . . . 638 
Plan and Section of Basse CJMivre, 

Beauvais 640 

External and Internal \'iew of 

Basse (Euvre 641 

Decoration of St. ncncri'ux .. 642 

Triapsal Church at (.^uerquuville 643 
Plan of the Church of St. Stephen, 

Caen 644 

Western Fagade of St. Stephen, 

Caen 645 

Elevation of Compartment of Nave 

of St. Stephen, Caen . , . . 646 

Diagram of Vaulting 647 

Compai'tment, Abbaye des Dames, 

Caen 048 

East End of St. Nicolas, Caen .. 649 
Lower Compartment, Nave, 

Bayeux 650 

View of Interior of Abbey at 

Tournus 652 

I'lan of Abbey Church at Cluny 653 
View in Aisle at Autun . . . . 654 
View in Nave at Autun . . . . 655 
Section of Narthex at Vezelay . . 655 
East End, St. Menoux . . . . 656 

, Chevet, St. Menoux 657 

, Plan of Cathedral of Notre Dame, 

Paris 669 

, Section of Side Aisles, Cathedral of 

Paris 670 

KG. I'AOli 

537. External Elevation, Cathedral of 

Paris 670 

538. Plan of Chartres Catlu'dral .. 671 

539. Plan of Uheims Cathedial . . . . 672 

540. Plan of Amiens Cathedral .. .. 672 

541. View of the Facade of the Catlie- 

dral at Paris 673 

542. North-West View of the Cathedral 

at Chartres 674 

543. Buttress at Chartres 675 

544. Buttresses at Rheims 675 

545. Bay of Nave of Beauvais Cathe- 

dra] 678 

546. Doorway, South Tiansept, Beau- 

vais 679 

547. Plan of Cathedral at Noyon . . 680 

548. Spires of Laon Cathedral .. ..681 

549. View of Cathedral at Coutances . . 682 

550. Ladv Cliapel, Anxerre . . . . 682 

551. Plan of Cathedral at Troyes . . 683 

552. Fa(,'ade of Cathedral at Troyes . . 684 

553. Window of Cathedral at Lyons . . 685 

554. Plan of Cathedral at Bazas . . 685 

555. Plan of Cathedral at Bourges .. 686 

556. Section of Cathedral at Bourges 687 

557. View in the Choir of CharitB sur 

Loire 688 

558. Chevet, Pontigny 689 

559. West Front of St. Jlarie del' Epiue 690 
5G0. Plan of Church of St. Oucn at 

Pouen 69 1 

561. Cl)urch of St. Ouen at L'ouen, 

from the S.E 692 

562. Southern Porch of St. Ouen's at 

Pouen 693 

563. Diagram of Plans of Pillais . . 696 

564. Window, St. Martin, Paiis . . 697 

565. Window in Nave of Cathedral at 

Ch:irtres 697 

566. Window in Choir of Cathedral at 

Chartres 698 

567. Window at Pheims 698 

568. Window at St. Cueu 699 

569. Window at Cliartros 699 

570. West Window, Chartres . . . . 609 

571. Transept Window, Chartres .. 699 

572. West Window, Pheims . . . . 700 

573. West Window, Evreux . . . . 700 

574. West Window, St. Ouen . . . . 701 

575. Diagram of Vaulting 703 

576. Abbey Church, Souvigny . . . . 704 

577. Diai;ram of Buttresses .. .. 705 

578. Flying Buttress of ^t. Ouen .. 70G 

579. Flying Buttress at Amiens . . .. 707 

580. St. Pferre, Caen 709 

581. Lantern, St. Ouen, Rouen . . . . 710 

582. Corbel 711 

583. Capitals from Rheims 711 

584. Rood Screen from the Sladelaine 

at Troyes 713 

585. House at Cluny 714 

586. Hou.-c at Yrieix 715 

587. Portal of the Ducal Palace at 

Nancy 716 

588. View of West-end of Church at 

Nivelles 719 





589. man of Cathedral at Touniay .. 720 G40. 

590. ."Section of Central Portion of 641, 

Church at Tourn.-iy, looking South 721 

591. West Front of Notre Dame de 642. 

Maestricht 722 

592. Spires of the Chapel of St. Sang, 643. 

Bruges 722 644. 

593. Window in Church at Viilers, near 

Genappe 723 645. 

594. Plan of the Cathedral at Antwerp 724 

595. rian of .^t. Jacques, Lidge . . . . 726 646. 

596. IJelfry at Client 729 647. 

597. Cloth-hall at Ypres 730 648. 

598. View of Town-hall, Brussels . . 732 

599. Part of the Bishop's Palace, Li^ge 733 649. 

600. Section of St. Gereon, Cologne . . 736 650. 

601. Plan of St. Gereon, Cologne .. 736 651. 

602. East-end of Church at (ielnhausen 737 652. 

603. Plan of the Church at Jlarburg. . 738 

604. Section of Church at Marburg . . 738 653. 

605. Plan of Church at Altenburg . . 739 

606. Plan of Cathedral at Cologne . . 740 654. 

607. Intended Western Ka9ade of Ca- 

thedral of Cologne 742 655. 

608. View of the Church at Friburg . . 744 

609. Plan of Strasburg Cathedral . . 746 656. 

610. West Front of Cathedral at Stras- 657. 

burg 747 658. 

611. Plan of Hatiibon Cathedral .. 749 

612. View of the Spire of St. Stephen's, 659. 

Vienna 751 660. 

613. Plan of Church at Xanten . . .. 753 661. 

614. Maria Kiiche at Miihlhausen . . 755 662. 

615. View of -Maria Kirche at Aliihl- 

hausen 755 663. 

616. St. Severus Church at Krfurth . . 756 664. 

617. Anna Chapel at Heiligenstadt . . 758 665. 

618. Sacraments Hausleiu at Nurem- 666. 

berg 759 

619. Doorway of Church at Chemnitz 760 667. 

620. S<'hone Brunnen at Nuremberg . . 762 

621. Bay Window from St. Sebald, Nu- 668. 

remberg 763 669. 

622. Plan of the Church at Vercelli . . 767 670. 

623. Church at Asti 768 671. 

624. Plan of Cathedral at Sienna ..770 672. 
62.'). Fa<;.xde of the Cathedral at Sienna 771 673. 

626. Plan of Cathedriil at Florence ..772 674. 

627. Section of Dome and part of Nave 675. 

of the Cathedral at Florence .. 773 676. 

628. Part of the Flank of Cathedral at 677. 

Florence 774 

629. Dome at Chiaravalle, near Milan 775 678. 

630. Plan of the part executed of St. 

Petronio, Bologna 776 679. 

631. Section of St. Petronio, Bologna 777 

632. Pl.-ui of the Cathedral of Milan ., 778 680. 

633. Section of Cathedral of Milan ..779 681. 

634. Design for Fa9ade of Milan Ca- 

thedral 781 682. 

635. Duomo at Ferrara 782 

636. View of St. Franc-esco, Brescia .. 783 683. 

637. View of the Duomo at Prato . . 785 684. 

638. CampaiiUe, Palazzo Scaligeri, Ve- 685. 

rona 786 686. 

639. Canipiinile, S. Andrea, Mantua . . 787 687. 


Campanile at Florence . . . . 788 
North Porch, Sta. Maria Mag- 

giore, Bergamo 790 

Palace of the Jurisconsults at Cre- 
mona 792 

Broletto at Como 793 

Ornamental Brickwork from the 

Broletto at Brescia 794 

\Vindow from the Cathedral of 

Monza , , 795 

Window from Verona 795 

Window from Verona 795 

Central Part of the Facade of the 

Doge's Palace, Venice , . . . 797 

CJi d' Oro, Venice 798 

Angle Window at Venice . . . . 799 

Ponte del Paradiso, Venice . . 800 
West front of the Church of San 

Nicola, in Bari 803 

West front of Cathedral Church 

ofBittonto 804 

Window in the south side of the 

Cathedral Church in Matera . . 805 
San Giovanni degli Eremiti, Pa- 
lermo 810 

Plan of Church at ]Monreale ..811 

Portion of the Nave, Monrcale .. 812 
Lateral Entrance to Cathedral at 

Palermo 814 

Cathedral at Zamora 821 

Collegiate Cliurch at Toro . . , . 822 

St. Millan, Segovia 823 

Church of the Templars at Se- 
govia 823 

Cathedral of Leon 824 

Cathedral at Burgos 825 

West Front of Burgos Cathedral 826 
Cimborio of Cathedral at Va- 
lencia 827 

\io\v in the Choir of the Cathe- 
dral at Toledo 829 

Plan of Cathedral at Seville . . 831 

Plan of the Church at Batalha . . 835 
Cloister of the Iluelgas .. ..837 

Castle of Cocos, Cas'tille . . . . 838 

Chapel at Humanejos . . . . 839 

Tower at Ilescas 840 

St. Paul, Saragoza 841 

Doorway from Valencia . . . . 842 
Tower of Karl's Barton Church . . 845 
South-Fastern Transept, Canter- 
bury Cathedral 847 

Prior de ICsti-ia's Screen, Canter- 
bury Cathedral 848 

View of the Chapter House and 

.\ngel Tower, Canterbury . . 849 

Plan of Canterbury Cathedral . . 850 
Arch over the Black Prince's 

Tomb, Canterbury Cathedral . , 851 
Kot^hester Cathedral, West Door- 
way 852 

Crypt, Rochester 853 

Presbytery of Chichester Cathedral 854 

Chichester Cathedral 8.^5 

Spire of Chichester Cathedral . . 856 

Plan ol' Norwich Cathedral . . 857 




(388, Plan of Winelioster Cathedral . . 858 

689. Five Sisters, York 859 

600. Plan ol' Salisbury Cathedral . . 8(j0 

t)91. Plan of the Abbey at Westminster 801 

692. East End of Lincoln Cathedral , . 8(;;) 

695. Windows, Chapter-house, York 8(i4 

694. East Window, Carlisle Cathedral 864 

695. South Window, Lincoln . , . . 865 

696. Wolsey's Chajjel, Windsor . . . . 865 

697. Plan of Wells Cathedral . . . . 866 

698. Plan of York Cathedral . . . . 867 

699. West Front of Peterborough Ca- 

thedral 868 

700. Ground Plan, Ely Cathedral .. 869 

701. Plan of Ste. Chapel le, Paris .. 870 

702. Plan of St. Stephen's, Westminster 870 

703. Internal Elevation of St. Stephen's 

Chapel, Westminster ,. ..871 

704. Waltham Cross 872 

705. Doorway in Rochester Cathedral 873 

706. Tomb of Edward III. in West- 

minster Abbey 874 

707. Hall of Palace at Eltham . . . . 875 

708. Doorway, King's College Chapel 876 

709. Doorway to Cloisters, Windsor . . 877 

710. Roof of Choir, Oxford .. ..880 

711. Diagrams of Vaulting 882 

712. Roof of Cloister, Gloucester .. 882 

713. Vault of St. George's Chapel, 

Windsor 883 

714. Aisle in Henry VIl.'s Chapel, • 

Westminster 883 

715. View of Lichfield Cathedral ,, 888 

716. Window, Leuchars 893 

717. Pier Arch, Jedburgh 894 

718. Arches in Kelso Abbey ,, ,, 895 

719. Three Bays of Cathedral at Kirk- 

wall 896 

720. North Side of the Cathedral at 

Kirkwall 897 

721. Plan of Glasgow Cathedral, and 

Plan of the Crypt 898 

722. View in Cryj.t of Glasgow Ca- 

thedral .' 899 

723. Crypt of Cathedral at Glasgow , . 900 

724. Clerestory Window, Glasgow Ca- 

thedi-al' 900 

725. East End of Glasgow Cathedral 901 

726. East End, Elgin Cathedral . . 902 

727. South Transept, Elgin Cathedral 903 

728. Ornament of Doorway, Elgin ,. 903 

729. Aisle in Melrose Abbey . . , . 9i)4 

730. East Window, Melrose . . . . 905 

731. Chapel at Koslvn 906 

732. Under Chapel, P.oslyn .. ..907 

733. Ornament from Holyi-ood . . . . 908 

734. Ornament from Holyrood , . . . 908 

735. Interior of Porch, Dunfermline . . 909 

736. Window at Dunkehl restored . . 910 

737. Doorway, Linlithgow 910 

738. Doorway, St. Giles's, Edinburgh 911 

739. Doorway, Pluseardine Abbey , . 912 

740. Window in Tower, lona , , . . 912 

741. Aisle in Trinitv Church, Edin- 

burgh .. " 913 

742. Cloister, Kilconnel Abbey . . . . 916 
















Oratory, Innlsfallen, Killarney . . 917 
Cormac's Chapel, Cashel .. ,.918 
Section of Chapel, Killaioe. . . . 918 
St. Kevin's Kitchen, (ilendalough 919 
Round Tower and Chapel, Koscrea 920 
Doorway in Tower, Kildare . . 921 
Doorway iu Tower, Donoughmore, 

Meath 922 

Doorway in Tower, Antrim . . 922 

Tower, Devenish 922 

Tower, Kilree, Kilkenny . , , . 922 
Tower, Keneith, Cork . . , , 923 

Tower, Ardmore 923 

Floor in Tower, Keneith , , , , 923 
Doorway, Monasterboice , , . , 924 
Doorway, Kilcullen, Kildare , , 924 
Windows in Kovuid Towers . , 924 
Window, Glendalough , , , . 924 

Oratory of Gallerus 925 

Tower, Jerpoint Abbey , . , , 926 

House, Galway 92(5 

Ballyromney Court, Cork , , , . 927 

Cross at Kells 927 

Plan of Church at lioeskilde , . 93U 

Roeskilde Domkirche 930 

Plan of Cathedral of Trondhjem 932 
View of Cathedral of Trondhjem 932 
Plan of Church at Hitterdal . , 933 
View of the Church at Hitterdal 934 
Church of Urnes, Norway , , 935 

Cathedral, Lubeck 937 

Plan of Church of St, Mary, Lu- 
beck 938 

View of Church of St. Mary, Lu- 
beck ', , , 939 

Tower in the Koeblinger Strasse, 

Hanover 940 

Church of Sergius and Bacchus . , 946 
Section of Church of Sergius and 

Bacchus 946 

Diagram of Byzantine arrangement 946 
Diagram of Byzantine Pendentives 947 
U))i)er Story and (Jround Floor 

Plan of Sta, Sophia , , . . 948 
Section of Sta. Sophia at Constan- 

tinojile 949 

Pillar in Church of St. John, Con- 
stantinople 952 

Capital from Sergius and Bacchus 952 
Entablature from Sergius and 

Bacchus 952 

Lower Order of the Church of 

Sta. Sophia 953 

Upper Order of Sta. Sophia . . 954 
Church of Mone tes Koras . , , . 955 
Plan of the Theotocos . . . , 956 
Elevation of Church of Theotocos 956 

Cathedral at Athens 959 

Plan of Panagia Lycodemo . . 959 

Church of I'anagia Lycodemo , . 960 
Plan of Church at Misitra . , , , 900 

Church at Misitra 901 

Apse from Misitra 902 

Plan of St, Mark's, Venice . . 903 
Section of St, Mark's, Venice . . 904 
St, Clement, Ancyra 966 





799. Church of St. Clement, Ancyra 9G6 

800. Church at Trabala 967 

8nl. (iroat Cliuich at Hiorapolis . . 967 

802. Church at Hierapolis 9tJ7 

803. Section of Great Church at Hicra- 

polis 968 

804. Rock-cut Cluiroh at liikeiinann . . 969 

805. View in Church Cave at Inkerinann 969 
80G. Cave at Inkonnann 970 

807. Section of Church at Pitzounda 970 

808. View of Chunh at Pitzoumla .. 971 
8U9. Plan of Church at Pitzounda .. 971 

810. Plan of Church at Etchmiasdin . . 972 

811. Plan of Church at Mokwi . . . . 972 

812. Plan of Cathedral at Ani .. ..973 

813. Section of Cathedral at Ani . . 973 

814. Side Elevation of Cathedral at 

Ani 974 

815. Section of Dome at Dighour .. 974 

816. Church at Kouthais ." 975 

817. Church at Bedochwinta . . . . 975 

818. Window at Kouthais 975 

819. I'lan of Tomb at Ani 976 


820. Tomb at Ani 97ti 

821. Tomb at Varzahan 977 

822. Church of St. Basil, Kioff . . . . 979 

823. St. Irene, Kieff 979 

824. Plan of Cathedral at Kieff . . . . 980 

825. East End of the Church at No- 

vogorod 981 

826. Cathedral at Tchemigow . . . . 982 

827. Village Church near Novogorod . 982 

828. Village Church near Tzarkoe Selo 983 

829. Interior of ('hurch at Kostroma . 984 

830. Interior of Church near Kostroma 985 

831. Doorway of the Troitza Monas- 

tery, near Moscow 986 

832. Plan of the Church of the As- 

sumption, Moscow 986 

833. Plan of the Church of Blanskenoy, 

JIoscow 986 

834. View of the Church of Vassili 

Blanskenoy, Moscow . . . . 987 

835. Tower of Ivan Veliki, ^^loscow . . 988 

836. Tower of Boris, Kremlin, Moscow 989 

837. Holy Gate, Kremlin, Moscow . . 990 


Page 332, /<jr " Baths of Diocletian," read " Baths of Car:ic;illa." 
Page 584, /or " Swartz Ivheindorf," rtW Schwartz Hheindorf." 


Few questions aro more frequently asked, and few have Intlierto been 
more difficult to answer satisfactorily, than the inquiry, " What is 
architecture ? " " What are tJie true principles which ought to guide us in 
designing or criticising architectural objects ? " 

Fifty years ago the answers to these questions generally were, that 
architecture consisted in the closest possible imitation of the foims and 
orders employed by the Romans ; that a church was well designed 
exactly in the proportion in which it resembled a heathen temple ; and 
a civic building was to be measured by its imitation, more or less per- 
fect, of some palace or amphitheatre of classic times. 

In the beginning of this century these answers were somewhat 
modified by the publication of Stuart's works on Athens ; the word 
Grecian was substituted for Eoman in all criticisms, and the few forms 
that remained to us of Grecian art were repeated ad nauseam in build- 
ings of the most heterogeneous class and character. 

At the present day churches have been entirely removed from the 
domain of classic art, and their merit is made to depend on their being 
correct reproductions of mediaeval designs. Museums and town-halls 
still adhere to classic forms, alternating between Greek and Roman : 
while some of our public buildings attemjit to reproduce the middle 
ages, and palaces and clubhoiiscs adhere to that compromise iK-tween 
classicality and common sense which is generally called Italian. These, 
it is evident, are the mere changing fashions of art. There is nothing- 
real or essential in this Babel of styles, and wo must go deeper below 
the surface to enable us to obtain a true definition of the arf or of its 
puiqioses. Before attempting this, it is essential to bear in mind that 
two wholly different systems of architecture have prevailed at different 
periods in the Avorld's history. 

The first is. that which prevailed in Eg^qit, in Greece, and in all 
Europe, during the middle ages, ami generally in all countries of the 
world down to the time of the Reformation in the 16th century, and 
still prevails in remote comers of the globe wherever European civi- 
lization or its influences have not yet penetrated. The oth(n- was that 
which was introduced with the revival of classic literature contem- 
poraneously with the reformation of religion, and still pervades all 
Europe, and wherever European influence has established itself. 

In the first period the art of arcliitecture consisted in dcsigTiing a 
building so as to be most suitable and convenient for the piirposes it 
was wanted for, in arranging the parts so as to produce the most 


stately ami ornamental effect consistent with its uses, and ai)]ilying to 
it such <iniain(!iit as sliouhl express and harmonise with tlic c( instruc- 
tion, and be appropriate to the pur])Oses of the building; wliih' at the 
same time the architects took care that the ornament shoukl be the most 
elegant in itself Avhich it was in their power to design. 

Following this system, not only the Egyptian, the Greek, and the 
Gothic architects, but even the indolent and half-civilised inhabitants 
of India, the stolid Tartars of Thibet and China, and the savage Mexi- 
cans, succeeded in producing great and beautiful buildings. No race, 
however rude or remote, has failed, when working on this system, to 
produce buildings which are admired by all who behold them, and arc 
well worthy of the most attentive consideration. Indeed it is almost 
impossible to quote one single building in any part of the world, erected 
during the prevalence of true art, which was not thought beautiful, not 
only by those who erected it, but Avhich remains a permanent object of 
atlmiration and of fitudy for all future ages. 

The result of the other system is widely different from this. It has 
now been practised in Europe for more than three centuries, and by people 
who have more knowledge of architectural fonns, more constructive 
skill, and more }»ower of combining science and art to effect a great 
object, than any people who ever existed before. Notwithstanding this, 
from the Imilding of St. Peter's at Komc to that of our ovni Parliament 
Houses, not one building has been produced that is admitted to bo 
entirely satisfactory, or which permanently retains a hold on general 
admiration. Many are large and stately to an extent almost imknowni 
before, and many are ornamented with a profuseness of which no pre- 
vious examples exist ; but with all this, though they conform with the 
passing fashion of the day, they soon become antiquated and out of 
date, and men wonder how such a style could ever have been thought 
beautiful, just as we wonder how any one could have admired the 
female a)stumes of the last century which captivated the hearts of our 

It does not require us to go very deep into the philosophy of the 
subject to find oiit why this should be the case ; the fact simjdy l>eing 
tliat no sham was ever permanently successful, either in morals or in 
art, and no falsehood ever remained long without being found o\it, and 
when detected it inevitably ceases to please. It is literally impossible 
that we should reproduce either the circumstances or the feelings which 
gave rise to classical art, and made it a real thing ; and though Gothic 
art was a thing of our country and of our o^ti race, it belongs to a state 
of society so totally different from anything that now exists, that any 
attempt to reproduce it now must at best be a masquerade, and never 
can be a real or an earnest form of art. The designers of the Eglinton 
tournament carried the system to a pcrfectlj^ legitimate conclusion 
when they attempted to reproduce the costumes and warlike exercises 
of our ancestors ; and the pre-liaphaelite painters were as fully justified 
in attempting to do in jiainting what was done every day in archi- 
tecture. Both attempts failed signally, because we had progressed in 
the arts of war and painting, and could easily detect the absurdity of 



the practices. It is in architecture alone that the false system remains, 
and wo do not yet perceive the impossibility of its leading to any satis- 
factory result. 

Bearing this distinction in mind, let ns try if we can come to a 
clearer definition of what this art really is, and in what its merits con- 
sist. Let ns suppose Diagram No. I. to represent a cotton-factor}'. 

A X B X C X I' ..X E 

Diagram No. I. 

a warehouse, or any very common-place utilitarian building. The 
division, a, is not only the most prosaic form of building, but is bad 
building, as no attempt is made to strengthen the parts requiring it, 
and no more thought is bestowed upon it than if it were a garden wall 
or a street pavement. The second division, b, is better: the arching of 
the up]')er windows binds together the weakest parts, and gives mass 
where it is most needed t<:) resist the pressiire or thrust of the rui>l' ; 
and the carrying down the piers between the windows gives strength 
where wanted. In this stage the building belongs to civil engineer- 
ing, which may be defined as the art of disposing the most suitable 
materials in the most economical but scientific manner to attain a 
given utilitarian end. In the third division, c, this is carried still 
farther ; the materials are better disposed than in the last example, 
and even without the slight amoinit of ornament applied, it is a better 
example of engineering. The ornament is not more than would be 
considered in some states of society iudispensalde for even the most 
utilitarian buildings. The cornice may bo said to be required to 
protect the wall from wet ; the consoles to support it ; and the mould- 
ings at the springing of the arch moy be insertions required for sta- 
bility. In the present day, however, even this slight amount of orna- 
ment is almost sufficient to take it out of the domain of useful art into 
that of architecture. The fourth division, D, is certainly within the 


limits <if tlic jivoviiifc (if aicliitectnrc' ; and tlioii<z;]i it may Ik- bad ait. 
still the amount of ornament ajiplied, all otln'V things remaining the 
sanio, entitles thi.s divi.sion to rank as a work of the fine art, archi- 
tecture. The fifth division, e, carries the advance still fi\rther. In 
this instaiu'C not only is a greater amonnt of oniamont applied, hut 
the partes are so dispi>sed as in themselves to produce a more agreeable 
effect; and although the height of the floors remains the same, and the 
amount of light introduced very nearly so, still the slight grouping of 
the parts is such as to produce a better class of architecture than could 
be done by the mere application of any amount of ornament. 

If it is admitted that the last division in the diagi'am is an object of 
architecture, which the first is not, it follows from this analysis that 
architecture is nothing more or less than the art of ornamental and onta- 
meitti'd construction. 

Taking, for instance, the Parthenon, to illustrate this principle far- 
ther. The proportions of length to breadth, and of height to both 
those, are instances of carefidly-studicd ornamental constiniction ; and 
still more so is the arrangement of the porticos and the disposition of 
the peiistyle. If all the pillars were plain ^(piare piers, and all the 
mouldings square and flat, still the Parthenon coidd not fail, from the 
mere disposition of its paints, to be a pleasing and imposing building. 
So it is with a Gothic cathedral. The proportion of length to breadth, 
the prf)jection of the transepts, the difterent height of the central and 
side aisles, the disposition and j)roportion of the towers, are all instances 
of oniamental construction, and beautiful even if without ornament. 
Many of the older abbeys, especially those of the Cistercians, are as 
devoid of ornament as a modem barn ; but from the mere disposition 
of their ]iarts they are always pleasing, and if large, aio imposing 
objects of architecture. Stonehenge is an instance of onaamental con- 
struction wholly without ornament, yet it is almost as imposing an 
architectural object as any of the same dimensions in any part of the 
world. It is, however, when ornament is added to this, and that orna- 
ment is elegant in itself, and appro})riatc to the construction and to the 
pui-poses of the building, that the temple or the cathedral ranks among 
the highest objects of the art, and becomes one of the noblest works 
of man. 

Even without ornamental constiiiction. a building may, by mei'e 
dint of ornament, become an architectural object, though it is far more 
difficult to attain good architecture by this means, and in true styles it 
was seldom attempted. Still such a building as the to^vn-hall at Louvain, 
which if stripped of its ornaments woulil be little better than a factory, 
by richness and ap}»ropriateness of (irnament alone has become a very 
pleasing specimen of the art. In modern times it is too much the 
fawhion to attempt to produce ari-hitectural effects not only without 
attentling to oniamental construction, but often in defiance of and con- 
cealing the construction that exists. When this is done, the result must 
be bad art, but nevertheless it is architectuio, however execrable it 
may be. 

If these premises are correct, the art of the builder consists in 


merely hcapins;- materials together, so as to attiiiu the desircil end in 
the spceilicst and readiest fashion. The art of the civil or military 
eug-incer consists in selecting the best and most appropriate materials 
for the object he has in view, and using these in the most scientific 
manner, so as to ensure an economical but satisfactory result. Where 
the engineer leaves off, the art of the architect begins. His object is 
to arrange the materials of the engineer, not so much with regard tt) 
economical as to artistic effects, and by light and shade, and f)ut- 
line, to produce a form that in itself shall be permanently beautiful. 
He then adds ornament, which by its meaning dcnibles the effect of 
the disposition he has just made, and by its elegance throws a charnx 
over the whole composition. 

Viewed in this light, it is evident that there are none of the objects 
which are usually delegated to the civil engineer which may not be 
brought witliin the pi'ovince of the architect. A bridge, an aciueduct, 
the embankment of a lake, or the pier of a harbour, are all as legitimate 
subjects for architcctui-al ornament as a temple or a palace. The}^ were 
all so treated by the Eomans, and in the middle ages, and are so treated 
up to the present day in the remote parts of India, and wherever true 
art prevails. 

It is not necessary that the engineer should know anything of archi- 
tecture, though it certainly would be better in most instances if he did ; 
but, on the other hand, it is indispensably necessary that the architect 
should understand construction. Without that knowledge he cannot 
design ; but it would be well if, in most instances, he could delegate 
the mechanical part of his task to the engineer, and so restrict himself 
entirely to the artistic arrangement and the ornamentation of his design. 
This division of labour is essential to success, and was always practised 
where art was a reality ; and no great Avork should be undertaken 
without the union of the two. Perfect artistic and perfect mechanical 
skill can hardly be found combined in one person, but it is only by 
their joint assistance that a great work of architecture can be produced. 
A building may be said to be architectural in the proportion in which 
the artistic or ornamental purposes are allowed to prevail over the me- 
chanical ; and an object of engineering, where the utilitarian exigencies 
of the design are allowed to prevail over the aiiistic. But it is nowhere 
possible to draw the line sharply between the two, nor is it desirable 
to do so. Architecture can never descend too low, nor need it ever bo 
afraid of ornamenting too mean objects ; while, on the other hand, 
good engineering is absolutely indispensable to a satisfactory archi- 
tectural eft'ect of any class. The one is the prose, the other is the poetry 
of the art of building. 

One gi'eat cause of the confusion which has arisen in applying 
principles of criticism, or in defining architecture, is to be found in 
persons applying to the constructive art of architecture principles 
derived from the imitative arts of painting or sculpture, while in fact 
no two things could in reality be more essentially different. 

Neither painting nor sculpture were ever useful arts except in the 
most barbarous times, and by the most remote analogy. Their object 



is to h'll i\ Ktovy. to reproduce an emotion, or to portray a scene or 
ul.jcctof nature; imd they ettVct this l)y a direct imitation, more or 
less correct and literal, of what actually exists, either in nature or in 
art. Architecture, on the t)ther hand, was originally one of the useful 
arts, invented to pro\nde for one of the three great wants of man- 
food, clothing, and shelter. The wigwam grew into a hut, the hut 
into a house, the house into a palace, and the palace into a tcmitle, hy 
well-defined and easily-traced gradations ; but it never lost the original 
idea of a shelter, and in its most magnificent form it is a mere ampli- 
fication of the original hut, but grown so solid that it seems designed 
to hist for ever, and so well-proportioned and so exqnisitely onia- 
mentod that, instead of being one of the most commonplace, it ranks 
with the most beautifid productions of man's hands. In none of its 
stages is imitation an element of composition ; no true building ever 
w;i.s designed to look like anything in either the animal, vegetable, or 
mineral kingdoms. In all instances it is essentially a creation of man's 
mind, and designed to subserve some practical pui-pose which he has 
in view. A building can tell no story, and it is only by inference that 
it can be made to express an emotion. 

It is true that painting and sculittnre may bo added to a building 
to any extent, and a really perfect building is never without these 
adjiuicts ; but they are not, or at least never should be, essentials, and 
the building should be always complete without them. All our cathe- 
drals were so adorned in the middle ages, and in almost all instances 
this omament has been swept away. Still the buildings remain com- 
plete in themselves as works of architectm-e, though as grand artistic 
compositions their value was no doubt doubled by the association : but 
this does not justify us in judging of the canvas by the same niles that 
we would jutige of the picture that may be paint(!d upon it, or of the 
marble by the figure that may be cai-ved out of it. 

The fact is that architecture is in its origin as essentially a useful 
art as weaving or shipbuilding, but almost alone of all her sister-arts 
it is the one that has, from various concurrent circmnstances, been 
refin.-d into a fine art. When insj.ired with so lofty an aim as that 
of proviiling a house or temple wortliy of the Deity, it became one of 
the noblest and most beautiful of man's creations, but still essentially 
of human design in all its parts, and never striving to imitate nature, 
except in coi)yiiig, avS far as man's finite intelligence can do, those per- 
fect princi]tles uf design which pervade every natiiral production, to be 
f-mnd wherever man's knowledge extends throughout the whole uni- 
verse of God. 

The most convenient jdace for cxitlaining the principles of archi- 
tectin-e is when descriliing and criticising the various buildings which 
form the subject of the body of the work ; but it may materially assist 
the reader to judge of the various styles and specimens of architecture 
di-sf-ribi'd in tii(> following pages, if the leading principles and elements 
of th(! art are collected and i-iiunierat(Ml as brielly as can be done con- 
sistently with cleaniess. 


II.— Mass. 

1'he first and most obvious element of architectural grandeur is 
size -a lartz;o edifico being always more imposing than a small on^ ; 
and when tlie art displayed in two buiklings is equal, their ctt'eet is 
almost in the direct ratio of their dimensions. In other words, if one 
temple or church is twice or three times as large as anotlier, it is twice 
or three tunes as grand or as effective. The Temple of Theseus differs 
very little, except in dimensions, from the Parthenon, and, except in 
that respect, hardly dift'cred at all from the Temple of Jupiter at Elis, 
but because of its smaller size it must rank lower than the gi'eater 
examples. In our own country many of our smaller abbeys or parish 
churches display as great beauty of design or detail as oiir noblest 
cathedrals, but, from their dimensions alone, they are insignificant in 
comparison, and the traveller passes them b}', while he stands awe- 
struck before the portals or Tinder the vault of the larger edifices. 

The pyramids of Egypt, the topes of the Buddhists, the mounds 
of the Etruscans, depend almost wholly for their etiect on their dimen- 
sions. The Romans understood to perfection the value of this element, 
and used it in its most unsophisticated simplicity to obtain the effect 
they desired. In the middle ages the architects not only aspired to 
the erection of colossal edifices, but they learnt how they might gieatly 
increase the apparent dimensions of a building liy a scientific disposition 
of the parts and a skilful arrangement of ornament, making it look 
very much larger than it really was. It is in fact the most obvious, 
though it must be confessed perhaps the vidgarest, means of obtaining 
architectural grandeur, and it is also the most certain ; but a tnie and 
perfect example can never be produced by dependence on this alone, 
and it is only when combined with beauty of proportion and elegance 
of ornament that perfect architecture is produced. 

III. — Stability. 

Next to size the most important element is stability. By this is 
meant, not merely the strength requiied to support the roof or to resist 
the various tln^usts and pressures, but that excess of strength over 
mere mechanical lequirement which is necessary thoroughly to satisfy 
the mind, and to give to the building a moniunental character, and an 
appearance as if it could resist the sliocks of time or the violence of 
man for ages yet to come. 

No people understood the value of this so well as the Egyptians. 
The form of the PjTamids is designed wholly Avith reference to sta- 
bility, and even the Ilypostyle Hall at Karnac excites admiration far 
more by its eternity and strength than by any other element of design. 
All utilitarian exigencies and many other obvious means of effect are 
sacrificed to this, and with such success that after 8000 years still 
enough remains for the admiration which even the most unpoetical 
spectators cannot withhold from its beaiities. 


In a more refined tstylo much of the bc^auty of the Parthenon arises 
from tin's cause. The area of each of the jiiHars of the Pantheon at Kome 
is umU-r 20 ft., that of those of the Parthenon is over 33 ft., and, con- 
sidering how much ta,ller the former are than the latter, it may be said 
that the pillars at Athens are twice as massive as those of the Roman 
temple, yet the latter have sufficed not only for mechanical, but for 
many points of artistic stability; but the streii<;-th and solidity of the 
poitico of the Parthenon, without takinj; into consideration its other 
points of superiority, must always render it more beautiful than the 

The massiveness which the Normans and other early Gothic builders 
imparted to their edifices arose more from clumsiness and want of con- 
stinactive skill than from design ; but, though arising from so ignoble a 
motive, its effect is always grand, and the rude Norman nave often 
surpasses in grandetir the airy and elegant choir which was afterwards 
added to it. In our own country no building is more entirely satis- 
factory than the nave at AVinchester, where the width of the pillars 
exceeds that of the aisles, and the Avhole is Norman in outline, thoiigh 
Gothic in detail. On the other hand, no building of its dimensions 
and beauty of detail can well be so unsatisfactory as the choir at 
Bcauvais. Though it has stood the test of centuries, it looks so frail, 
recpiires so many props to keep it up, and is so evidently an over- 
strained exercise of mechanical cleverness, that though it may excite 
wonder as an ai'chitectural tour de force, it never can satisfy the mind 
of the true, or please to the same extent as less ambitious 

Even when we descend to the lowest walks of architecture we find 
this principle prevailing. It would require an immense amount of 
design and good taste to make the thin Avails and thinner roof of a 
biick and slated cottage look so picturestpie or so well as one built 
of i-ubble-stone, or even mud walls, and with a thatched roof: th© 
thickness and apparent solidity of the one will always be more satis- 
factory than the other. Here, as in most cases, necessity controls the 
architect; but when fettered b}- no xitilitaiian exigencies, there is no 
safer or readier means of obtaining an eft'ect than this, and when effect 
alone is sought it is almost impossible for an architect to err in giving 
too much solidity to his building. Size and stability are alone suffi- 
cient to produce grandeur iji architectural design, and, where sublimity 
is aimed at, they are the two elements most essential to its production, 
and are indeed the two without which it cannot possibly be attained. 

IV. — ^Matkrials. 

Another very obvious mode of obtaining architectural effect is by 
the largeness or expensivcness of the materials employed. A fen-ace, 
or even a wall, if composed of large stones, is in itself an object of 
considcralde grandeur, while one of the .same linerd dimensions and 
of the siim(^ design, if composed of brick or rubble, may appear u verj- 
contemj)tible object. 


Liko all the more obvious means of arcliitcctural effect, the Egyp- 
tiaii.s seized on this and carried it to its utmost legitimate extent. All 
their buildings, as well as their colossi and obelisks, owe much of 
their grandeur to the largeness of the materials emplo^'cd in their 
construction. The works called Cyclopean found in Italy and Greece 
have no other element of grandeur than the size of the stones or rather 
masses of rock which the builders of that age wei'e in the habit of 
using. In Jenisalem nothing was so much insisted upon by the old 
writers, or is so much admired noAv, as the largeness of the stones 
employed in the building of the Temple and its sTibsti-uctions. 

We can well believe how much value was attached to this when 
we find that in the neighbouring city of Baalbec stones were used of 
between GO and 70 ft. in length, weighing as much as the tubes of the 
Britannia Bridge, for the mere coping of a terrace wall. Even in a 
more refined style of architecture, a pillar, the shaft of which is of 
a single stone, or a lintel or architrave of one block, is always a 
grander and more beautiful object than if composed of a niimber of 
smaller parts. It is easy to see that this arises from the same feeling 
to which massiveness and stability address themselves. It is the 
expression of giant power and the apparent eternity of duration 
which they convej' ; and in whatever form that may be presented 
to the human mind, it always produces a sentiment tending towards 
sublimity, which is the highest efi"ect at which architecture or any 
other art can aim. 

The Gothic architects ignored this element of grandeur altogether, 
and sought to replace it by the display of constructive skill in the 
emplojnnent of the smaller materials they used, but it is extremely 
questionable whether in so doing they did not miss one of the most 
obvious and most important elements of architectural design. 

Besides this there is another element in the mere material which 
is a cause of architectural efiect ; it is that of value, though it is by 
no means so easy to point out why this should be the case. Still we 
all admire an ornament of pure gold more than one that is only silver 
gilt, though few can detect the difference. Persons -will travel hun- 
dreds of miles to see a great diamond or wonderful pearl, who would 
not go as many yards to see paste models of them, though if the two 
were laid together on the table very few indeed could distinguish 
which was the real, which the coimterfeit. 

From something of the same feeling we admire a marble building 
more than one of stone, though the colour of the latter may be really 
more beautiful and the mateiial at least as durable. In the same 
manner a stone edifice is preferred to one of brick, and brick to wood 
and plaster ; but even these conditions may be reversed by the mere 
question of value. If a brick and a stone edifice stand close together, 
the design of both being equally appropriate to the material cm- 
ployed, but if the bricks are so beautifully moulded, or made of such 
precious clay, or so carefully laid, that the brick edifice cost twice as 
much as the other, our judgment would be turned, and we slicmld 
look with more respect and admiration on the artificial tliau on the 

xxxiv LNTltUDUCTlON. 

natural inuteiial. From the same reason many elaborately carved 
wootleu builtlings, notwithstanding the smallness of their parts and 
their jierishable nature, are more to be admired than larger and 
more monumfutal buildings, and this merely in consequence of the 
evidence of labour and consequent cost that have been bestowed upon 

Irrespective of these considerations, many building materials are 
invaluable from their own intrinsic merits. Granite is one of the best 
known from its hardness and durability, marble from the exquisite 
polish it takes, and also for its colour, which for internal decoration is 
a property that can hardly be over-estimated. Stone is valuable on 
account of the largeness of the blocks that can be obtained, and because 
it easily receives a polish sufficient for external jnnjioses. Bricks are 
excellent for their cheapness and the facility with A\hich they can bo 
used, and they may also be moulded into forms of great elegance, but 
sublimity is nearly inqiossible in brickwork, mthout at least such 
dimensions as have rarely been attained by man ; the smallness of the 
material is such a manifest incongruity with the largeness of the parts, 
that even the Ivomans could not overcome the difficulty. 

Plaster is another artificial material. Except in monumental elec- 
tions it is superior to stone for internal purposes, and always better than 
brick from the uniformity and smoothness of its surface, the focility 
with wliich it is moulded, and its capability of receiving painted or 
other decorations to any extent. 

Wood should only be used externally on the smallest and least 
moinunental class of buiklings, and even internally is generally infe- 
rior to plaster. It is dark in colour, liable to warp and split, and com- 
bustible, which are all serious objections to its ixse, except for flooring, 
doors, and such puii^oses as it is now generally applied to. 

Cast iron is another material rarely brought into use, though more 
precious than any of those above enumerated, and possessing more 
strength, though probably less durability. Where lightness combined 
with strength is required, it is invaluable, and may be moulded into 
any form of beauty that may be designed, but it has hardly yet ever 
been us»'d so as to allow its architectinal qualities to be appreciated. 

All these materials are nearly etpially good when used honestly 
Oiic-h for the i)uipose for which it is best adapted ; they all become 
btul either when used for a pui-jiose for which they are not appropriate, 
or wlien one material is used either in the place of or to imitate 
another. Grandeur and sublimity can only be reached by the more 
durable and more massive class of matciials, but beauty and elegance 
are attainable in all, and the range of architectural design is so exten- 
sive that it is absurd to limit it to one class either of natural or of 
aitificial mateiials, or to attempt to proscril)e the use of some, and 
t<» insist on that of others, for purposes to which they are manifestly 


V. — Construction. 

( 'unstructiou lias been sbo^\^l to be tbo chief aim and object of the 
engineer; with him it is all in all, and to construct scientifically and 
at the same time economically is the beginning and end of his endea- 
vours. It is far otheiwiso with the architect. Construction ought to 
be bis handmaid, xiseful to assist him in carrying out his design, but 
never his mistress, controlling him as to the mode of executing what 
he would otherwise think expedient. An architect ought always to 
allow himself such a margin of strength that he may disregard or play 
with his construction, and in nine cases out of ten the money spent 
in obtaining this solidity Avill be more efiective architecturally than 
twice the amount expended on ornament, however elegant or appro- 
priate that may be. 

So convinced were the Egyptians and Greeks of this principle 
that they never used any other constnictive expedient than a perpen- 
dicular wall or prop, supporting a horizontal beam, and half the 
satisfactory effect of their buildings arises from their adhering to this 
simple though expensive mode of construction. They were perfectly 
ac([uaiuted with the use of the arch and its properties, but they knew 
that its employment would introduce complexity and confusion into 
their designs, and therefore they wisely rejNicted it. Even to the pre- 
sent day the Hindus refuse to use the arch, though it has long 
been employed in their country by the Mahometans. As they quaintly 
express it, " An arch never sleeps," and it is true that by its thrust 
and pressure it is always tending to tear a building to pieces ; in 
spite of all counterpoises, whenever the smallest damage is done, it 
hastens the ruin of a building, which, if more simply constructed, might 
last for ages. 

The Romans were the first who introduced a more complicated 
style. They wanted larger and more complex buildings than had 
been before required, and they also employed brick to a great extent 
even in their temples and most monumental buildings. They obtained 
both space and variety by these means, with comparatively little trou- 
ble or expense ; but we miss in all their works that repose and har- 
mony which is the great charm that pervades the buildings of their 

The Gothic architects went even beyond the Romans in this re- 
spect. They prided themselves on their constructive skill, and paraded 
it on all occasions, and often to an extent very destructive of true 
architectural design. The lower story of a French cathedral is gene- 
rally very satisfactory ; the walls are thick and solid, and the but- 
tresses, when not choked up with chapels, just sufficient for shadoAv 
and relief; but the architects of that country were seized with a mania 
for clerestories of gigantic height, and which should appear internally 
mere walls of painted glass divided by mullions. This could only be 
elfected either by encumbering the floor of the church with pieis of 
inconvenient thickness lU' by a system of buttressing outside. The 


latter Wiis the expedient adopted; but notwithstanding the ingenuity 
with wliieh it was caiTied out, and the elegance of many of the foinis 
and uvnanients used, it was singularly destructive of true architectural 
effect. It not only pioduces C(jnfusion of outline and a total want of 
rei), but it is eminently suggestive of weakness, and one cannot 
help feeling that if one of these props were removed, the whole would 
tumble down like a house of cards. 

This was hardly ever the case in England : tJie less ambitious 
dimensions employed in this coimtry enabled the architects to dis- 
]»(!nse in a great measure with these adjmicts, and when flying but- 
tresses are used, they look more as if employed to suggest the idea of 
perfect security than as necessary to stability. Owing to this cause the 
French never were able to construct a satisfactory A^ault in consequence 
of the weakness of their supports; they were forced to stilt, twist, 
and dome their vaults to a most unpleasing extent, and to attend to 
constinictive instead of artistic necessities, ^\'ith the English archi- 
tects this never was the case ; they always Avere able to design their 
vaults in such forms as they thought would be most beautiful artistic- 
ally, and, owing to the greater solidity of their supports, to carry them 
out as designed.' 

It was left for the Germans to cany this system to its acme of 
absurdity. Half the merit of the old Kound arched Gothic cathedrals 
on the lihine consists in their solidity and the repose they disjilay in 
every part. Their walls and other essential constructions are always in 
themselves sufficient to support the roofs and vaults, and no construc- 
tive contrivance is seen anywhere ; Imt when the Germans adojited the 
pointed style, their builders — they cannot be called architects — seemed 
to think that the Avhole art consisted in supporting the widest possible 
vaults on, the thinnest possible pillars, and in constructing the tallest 
windows with the most attenuated mullions. The consequence is, 
that though their constructive skill still excites the wonder of the 
mason or engineer, the artist or the architect turns from the cold 
vaults and lean piers of their later cathedrals with a painful feeling of 
unsatisfied expectation, and wonders how such dimensions and such 
details should produce so utterly unsatis{\ictoiy a result. 

So many circinnstanccs require to be taken into ccmsideration that 
it is impossible to prescribe any general rules in such a subject as 
this, but the following table will explain to a certain extent the 
ratio of the area to the points of support in sixteen of the principal 
buildings of the world.* As far as it goes, it tends to ])rove that the 
satisfactory architectural effect of a Iniilding is nearly in the inverse 
ratio to the mechanical cleverness displayed in its construction. 

' It may J)e suggested that the plory of a because it enabled that art to disphiy its 

French clerestory filled with stained glass charms with so much brilliancy, 

made up for all these defects, and it may be * The numbers in the (able must be taken 

true that it did so; but in that case the archi- only as apjiroximative, except the last four, 

tectiire w.u< sncririee<l to the sister art of which are borrowed from (Jwilt's ' I'liblic 

)>aiiiting, nu<l is nut tin* less bad in itself lUiilitings of London.' 





in Decimals. 

Vulgar Fractions. 

HypoGtylc Hall, Karnac . 





Spires Catliedral . 





Bourges Catliedral 





Parthenon, Athens 





Chartres Cathedral 





Salisbury Cathedral 



• 1 25 


Paris, Notre Dame 





Cologne Cathedral . 





Milan Cathedral 



• 107 


York Cathedral . . . 





St. Ouen, Kouen 





Temple of Peace 




One- tenth. 

St. Peter's, Rome . 





Sta. Maria, Florence . 





St. Paul's, London 





Ste. Genevieve, Paris . 





At the head of the list stands the Hypostyle Hall, and next to it 
practically is the I'arthenon, which being the only wooden-roofed 
building in the list, its ratio of support in proportion to the work re- 
quired is nearly as great as that of the temple at Karnac. Spires only 
wants better details to be one of the grandest edifices in Europe, and 
liourges, Paris, Chartres, and Salisbury are among the most t-atisfac- 
tory Gothic cathedrals we possess. St. Ouen, notwithstanding all its 
beauty of detail and design, fails in this one point, and is certainly 
deficient in solidity. Cologne and Milan would bt)th be very much 
improved by greater massiveness ; at York the lightness of the supports 
is carried so far that it never can be comi)leted with the vaidtcd roof 
originally designed for the nave at least ; and the Temple of Peace is 
so clever a piece of engineering, that it must always have been a failure 
as an architectural design. 

The last four buildings have quite sufficient strength fur architec- 
tural effect, but the value vi this is lost from concealed construction, 
and because the supports are generally grouped into a few great 
masses, the dimensions of which cannot be estimated by tlie eye. A 
Gothic architect would have divided these masses into twice or three 
times the number of the piers used in these chtirches, and b}" employing 
ornament designed to display and accentuate the construction, would 
have I'endered these buildings far more satisfactory than they are. 

In this respect the great art of the architect consists in obtaining 
the greatest possible amount of unencumbered space internally, con- 
sistent in the first place with the requisite amount of peiinanent me- 
chanical stability, and next with such an appearance of superfluity of 



strength as shall satisfy the; iiiiml that the Liiililing is calculated t«j 
last for ages. 


It is extremcl}' difficult to lay downi any general niles as to the 
fdi-nishost adapted to architectural purposes, as the value of a form 
in architecture depends wholly on the position in which it is placed, 
and the use to which it is applied ; and there is in consequence no 
prescribed form, however ugly it niay appear at present, that may not 
one day he found to be the very best for a given purpose, and in like 
manner none of those most admired which may not become absolutely 
oiVcnsive when used in a manner for which it is unsuited. In itself 
no simple fonn seems to have any inherent value of its own, and 
it is only by their combination one with another that they become 
effective. If, for instance, wo take a series of twenty or thirty figures, 
placing a cube at one end as the most solid of angular, and a sphere 
at the other as the most perfect of round shapes, it would be easy to 
cut off the angles of the cube in successive gradations till it became a 
polygon of so many sides as to be nearly curvilinear. On the other 
hand by modifying the sphere through all the gradations of conic 
sections, it might meet the other series in the centre without there 
being any abrupt distinction between them. Such a series might be 
compared to the notes of a piano. We cannot say that any of the base 
or treble notes is in itself more beautiful than the others. It is only 
by a combination of several notes that harmony is produced, and gentle 
or brilliant melodies by their fading into one another, or by strongly 
marked contrasts. So it is with forms : the square and angular are 
ex])ressive of strength and power; curves of softness and elegance; 
and beauty is produced by effective combination of the right-lined with 
the curvilinear.* It is always thus in nature. Iiocks and all the harder 
substances are rough and angular, and marked by strong contrasts and 
deep lines. Even among trees the oak is rugged, and its branches arc 
at right angles to its stem, or to one another. The lines of the willow 
are rounded, and flowing. The fonns of children and women are round 
and full, and free from violent contrasts ; those of men are abnipt, 
hard, and angular in proportion to the vigour and strength of their 

In consequence of these properties, as a general rule the square 
parts ought always to be placed below, where strength is wanted, 
" and the rounded above. If, for instance, a tower is to be built, the 
lower story should not only be square, but should be marked by 
buttresses or other strong lines, and the mascmry rusticated, so as to 
-convey even a greater appearance of strength. Al>ove this, if the 
square form is still retained, it may be with more elegance and less 

' There are some admirable remarks on information, and more common-sense criticism 

this siiVijoct ill Mr. K. L. Oarbett's ' Riuli- on the subject, than perhaps any other in our 

mentarj- Treatise on the Principles of Design language. 
ill Architecture ;' a work that contains more 


accentAiation. Tho form may then change to an octagon, that to a 
polygon of sixteen sides, and then be sunnounted by a circular form of ■ 
any sort. These conditions are not absolute, but the reverse arrange- 
ment would be manifestly absurd. A tower with a circular base and a 
square upper story is what almost no art could render tolerable, while 
the other pleases by its innate fitness without any extraordinary effort 
of design. 

On the other hand, round pillars are more pleasing as suppoi-ts 
for a square architrave, not so much from any inherent fitness for 
the purpose as from the eflfect of contrast, and flat friezes preferable 
to curved ones of the late Eoman styles from the same cause. The 
angular mouldings introduced among the circular shafts of a Gothic 
coupled pillar add immensely to the brilliancy of eifcct. Where 
everything is square and rugged, as in a Druidical trilithon, the effect 
may be sublime, but it cannot be elegant ; where everything is 
rounded, as in the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, the perfection of 
elegance may be attained, but never sublimity. Perfection, as usual, 
lies between these extremes. 

V3I. — Proportion. 

The properties above enumerated may be characterised as the 
mechanical principles of design. Size, stability, construction, material, 
and many such, are elements at the command of the engineer or mason 
as well as the architect, and a building remarkable for these propertitvs 
only cannot be said to rise above the lowest grade of architectuial 
excellence. They are invaluable adjinicts in the hands of the true 
artist, but ought never to be the principal elements of design. 

After these, the two most important resources at the command of 
the architect are proportion and ornament ; the former enabling him 
to construct ornamentally, the latter to ornament his construction ; 
both require knowledge and thought, and can only be properly applied 
by one thoroughly imbued with the true principles of architectural 

As proportion, to be good, must be modified by every varying 
exigence of a design, it is of course impossible to lay down aiij general 
rules which shall hold good in all cases ; but a few of its principles 
are obvious enough, and can be defined so as to enable us to judge 
how far they have been successfully carried out in the various build- 
ings enumei'ated in the following pages. 

To take first the simplest form of the proposition, let us suppose 
a room built, which shall be an exact cube — of say 20 feet each way — 
such a proportion must be bad and inartistic ; and besides, the height 
is too great for the other dimensions, apparently because it is impos- 
sible to get far enough away to embrace the whole wall at one view, 
or to see even the commencement of the roof without throwing the 
head back and looking upwards. If the height were exaggerated to 
.30 or 40 feet, the disproportion would be so striking, that no art 

(I 2 


could ix'iulcr it agreeable. As a general rule, a room square in plan 
is never pleasing. It is always better that one side should he longer 
than the other, so as to give a little variety to the design. Once and 
a half the width has often been recommended, and with every increase 
of length an increase of height is not oidy allowable, but indispensable. 
Some such rule as the following seems to meet most cases: — "The 
height of a room ought to be equal to half its width, plus the square 
root of its length." Tims a room 20 feet square ought to bo between 
14 and 15 feet high; if its length be increased to 40 feet, its height 
must be at least 1()|; if 100, certainly not less than 20. If we ju-o- 
cecd further, and make the height actually exceed the width, the effect 
is that of making it look narrow. As a general rale, and especially in 
all extreme cases, by adding to one dimension, we take away in 
appearance from the others. Thus, if we make a room 20 feet Avide, 
and 30 or 40 feet in height, we make it narrow; if 40 wide and 20 
high, we make a low room. By increasing the length, we diminish 
the other two dimensions. 

This, however, is merely speaking of plain rooms with plain Avails, 
and an architect may be forced to construct rooms of all sorts of 
tnipleasing dimensions, but it is here that his art comes to his aid, 
and he must be very little of an artist if he cannot conceal, even when 
unable entirely to counteract, the defects of his dimensions. A room, 
for instance, that is a perfect cube of 20 feet may bo made to loctk as 
low as one only 15 feet high, by using a strongly' marked horizontal 
decoration, by breaking the wall into different heights, by marking 
strongly the horizontal proportions, and obliterating as far as possible 
all vertical lines. The reverse process will make a room only 10 feet 
high look as lofty as one of 15. 

Even the same paper (if of strongly marked linos), if pasted on the 
walls of two rooms exactly similar in dimensions, but with the lines 
vertical in the one case, in the other horizontal, Avill alter the appa- 
rent dimensions of them by several feet. If a room is too high, 
it is easy to correct this by carrying a bold cornice to the height 
required, and stopping there the vertical lines of the Avail, and above 
this coA'ing the roof, or using some device Avhich shall mark a dis- 
tinction from the Avails, and the defect may become a beauty. In like 
manner, if a room is too long for its otlier dimensions, this is easily 
remedied either by breaks in the Avails Avhero these can be obtained, 
or by screens of cohnnns across its Avidth, or by only breaking the 
height of the roof. Anything which Avill divide the length into com- 
]iartmcnts Avill effect this. ThcAvidth, if in excess, is easily remedied 
by dividing it, as the (i<ithic architects did, into aisles. Tims a room 
50 feet wide and 30 high may ea.sily be restored to jiroportion by 
cutting olf 10 or 12 feet on each side, and loAvering the roofs of the side 
compartments, to say 20 feet. If great stability is not required, this 
can be done without enciunbering the floor with many pcjints of sup- 
port. The greater the number xised the more easily the effect is 
obtained, but it can be done almost Avithout them. 

Externally it is easier to remedy defects of proportion than it is 



\ A/ 



No. II. 

internally. It is easy to increase the apparent height by strongly 
marked vertical lines, or to bring it down by the employment of an 
horizontal decoration. Tnniing, for instance, to the diagram No. I. : 
if the two divisions c and n were on opposite sides of a street, and 
not in immediate juxtaposition, it would be difticult to make any 
one believe that c was not taller than d, and that the windows in 
the latter were not fxrther apart and more squat than those in the 
tirst division ; and the effect might easily be increased. 

If the length of a building is too great, this is easily remedied by 
projections, or by breaking up the length into divisions. Thus, a a 
is a long building, but B B is a square one, or 
practically (owing to the perspective) less than 
a square in length, in any direction at right 
angles to the line of vision ; or, in other Avords, 
to a spectator at a the building would look as 
if shorter in the direction of B B than in that 
of A A, owing to the largeness and importance 
of the part nearest the eye. If 100 feet in 
length by 50 feet high is a pleasing dimension 
for a certain design, and it is required that the 
building should be 500 feet long, it is only 
necessary to break it into five parts, and throw 
three back and two forward, or the contrary, and the proportion 
becomes as before. 

The Egyptians hardly studied the science of proportion at all : 
the}'' gained their effects by simpler and more obvious means. The 
Greeks were masters in this as in everything else, but they used the 
resources of the art with extreme sobriety — externally at least — 
dreading to disturb that simplicity which is so essential to suldimity 
in architecture. But internally, where sublimity was not attainable 
with the dimensions they employed, they divided the cells of their 
temples into three aisles, and the height into two, by placing two 
ranges of colrunns one above the other. By these means they were 
enabled to use siich a number of small parts as to increase the appa- 
rent size most considerably, and at the same time to give greater 
apparent magnitude to the statue, which was the principal object for 
which the temple was erected. 

The Romans do not seem to have troubled themselves with the 
science of proportion ; but during the middle ages we find, from first 
to last, the most earnest attention paid to it. Half the beauty of the 
buildings of that age is owing to the suocessful results to which the 
architects carried their experiments. 

The first great invention of the Gothic arcliitccts (though of Greek 
origin) was that of dividing the breadth of the building into three 
aisles, and making the central one higher and "wider than those on 
each side. By this means height and length Avere obtained at the 
expense of width : this latter, however, is never a valuable property 
artistically, though it may be indispensable for the utilitarian exi- 
gences of the building. They next sought to increase still further the 






Nu. 111. 

liuight of the central aisle by dividing its sides into three equal portions 
(as in woodcuts No. 490 and 507), which by contrast added very much 
to the effect ; but the monotony of this arrangement was soon apparent : 
besides, it was perceived that the side aisles were so 
low as not to come into direct comparison with the cen- 
tral nave. To remedy this they gradually increased its 
dimensions, and at last hit on something very like the 
following proportions. They made the height of the 
side aisle half that of the central (the width being also 
in the same proportion) ; the remaining portions they 
divided into three, making the triforium one-third, the 
clerestory two-thirds of the whole. Thus the three divi- 
sions are in the proportion of 1, 2, and 3, each giving 
vahic to the other, and the whole adding vciy cousidcr- 
abl}' to all the apparent dimensions of the interior. It 
Avould have been easy to have carried the system further, 
and by increasing the number of the pillars longitudi- 
nall}-, and the ninnber of divisions vertically, to have 
added considerably to even this appearance of size ; but 
it would then have been at the expense of simplicity 
and grandeur ; and though the building might have 
looked larger, the beauty of the design would have been 

One of the most striking exemplifications of the perfection uf the 
Gothic architects in this department of their art is shown in their 
employment of towers and spires. As a general rule, placing a tall 
building in juxtaposition with a low one exaggerates the height of the 
one and the lowncss of the other ; and as it was by no means the 
object of the architects to sacrifice their clmrches for their towers, it 
required all their art to raise noble spires without doing this. In 
the best designs they effected it by bold buttresses below, and the 
moment the tower got free of the building, by changing it to an octa- 
gon, anil cutting it up by pinnacles, and lastly by changing its form 
into that of a spire, using generally smaller parts than are found in 
the church. By these devices they prevented the sjjire from com- 
peting in any way with the church. On the contrary, a spire or 
group of sjiircs gave dignity and height to the wliole design, without 
deducting from any uf its dimensions. 

The city of Paris contixins an instructive exemplification of these 
doctrines — the facade of the cathedral of Notre Dame (exclusive oi" 
the upper story of the tower) and the Arc de I'Etoile being two 
buildings of exactly the same dimensions; yet any one who is not 
aware of this fact would certainly estimate the dimensions of the 
cathedral as at least a third, if not a half, in excess of the other. 
It may be said that the arch gains in sublimity and gi'andeur what it 
loses in ap]):iiiiit dimensions by the simplicity of its parts. The 
facade, thongli far from one of the l>est in France, is by no means 
deficient in grandeur ; and had it been as free from the trammels of 
tifilitarianism as the arch, might easily have been made as simple and 


a« graud, witlioiit losing its apj)arent size. In tlie other case, by 
employing the })iiuciples wliieh tlio Gothic arcliitects elaborated witli 
such pains, the a})[)arent dimensions might have been increased without 
detracting from its solidity, and the arch rendered one of the sublimest 
buildings in the world. 

St. Peter's at Romo is an example of a total neglect of these 
principles. Its great nave is divided into only four bays, and the 
proportions and ornaments of these, borrowed generally from external 
architecture, are so gigantic that no one can realize the true dimen- 
sions of the church but by the study of the plan ; and it is not too 
niucli to assert, that had that cathedral been built in the Gothic style, 
during the 13th or 14th century, with the same dimensions, it would 
appear as if from one-third to one-half larger, and would have been 
the most sublime as well as the largest temple ever erected. 

It woidd be easy to multipl}'" examples to show to wdiat perfection 
the science of proporfion was carried during the existence of a true 
style of architecture, and how satisfactory the result is, even ujDon 
those who are not aware of the cause ; and on the other hand, how 
miserable are the failures that result either from the ignorance or 
neglect of its rules. Enough, it is hoped, has been said to show that 
not only are the apparent proportions of a building very much under 
the control of an architect independent of its lineal dimensions, but 
also that he has it in liis power so to proportion every part as to give 
value to all those around it, and to produce that harmony which in 
architecture, as well as in music or in painting, is the very essence of 
a true or satisfactory utterance. 

VIII. — Ornament. 

Architectural ornament is of two kinds, constructive and decorative. 
By the former is meant all those contrivances, such as capitals, brackets, 
vaulting shafts, and the like, which sei've to explain or give expression 
to the constniction ; by the latter, such as mouldings, frets, lV)liage, 
&c., which give grace and life either to the actual constructive forms, 
or to the constructive decoration. 

In mere building or engineering, the construction being all in all, 
it is left to tell its own tale in its own prosaic nakedness ; but in true 
architecture the constniction is always subordinate, antl with an excess 
of strength it need not show itself unless it is expedient to do so ; but 
even in an artistic point of view it always is expedient. The vault, 
for ii]stance, of a Gothic cathedral might just as easily spring from a 
bracket or a corbel as from a shaft, and in early experiments this was 
often tried ; but the eSect was unsatisfactory, and a vaulting shaft was 
carried down to the capital of the pillar, and afterwards to the floor : 
by this means the eye was satisfied, the thin reed-like shafts being 
sufficient to explain that the vault rested on the solid ground, and 
an apparent propriety and stability'" were given to the whole. These 
shafts not being necessary constructively, the artist could make them 
of any form or size he thought most proper, and conseqiiently, instead 


of one he gcnorally used three small shafts tied together at vanouf:! 
intervals, and afterwards merely a p'onp of the most graceful mould- 
ing, so that they satisfied not only the exigencies of ornamental con- 
struction, hut became a real and essential decorative feature of the 

In like manner it was good architecture to use flj'ing buttresses, 
even where they were not essential to stability. They explained ex- 
ternally that the building was vaulted, and that its thrusts were 
abutted and stability secured. Tho mistake in their employment was 
where they became so essential to secui-ity, that the constnictive neces- 
sities controlled the artistic propriety of the design, and the architect 
was forced to employ either a greater nmnber, or buttresses of greater 
stiength than he would have desired had he been able to dispense 
with them. 

The architecture of the Greeks was so simple, that they recjuii-ed 
few artifices to explain their constiTiction ; but in their trigljiihs, their 
nuitides, the form of their cornices, and other devices, they took pains 
to explain, not only that these parts had originally been of wood, but 
that the temple still retained its wooden roof. Had they ever adopted 
a vault, they Avould have employed with it a totally different system of 
decoration. Having no constructive use whatever, these parts were 
wholly under the control of the architects, and they consequently be- 
came the beautiful things we now so much admire. 

"With their more complicated style the Ixomans introduced many 
new modes of constructive decoration. They were the first to em- 
ploy vaulting shafts. In all the great halls of their Jiaths, or of their 
vaulted Basilicas, they applied a Corinthian pillar to the front of the pier, 
which really supported the vault. All these have now been removed, 
but without at all interfering with the stal)ility of the vault; they 
were mere decorative features to exjdain the construction, but in- 
dispensable for that purpose. They also suggested most of the other 
decorative inventions of the middle ages, but their architecture ncA'er 
reached beyond the stage of transition, so that it was left for the 
(Jothic architects freely to elaborate this mode of architectural effect, 
which they carried to an extent never dreamt of befoie, but to which 
their luiildings owe at least half the beauty they possess. 

The same system of course applies to dwelling-houses, and to the 
iiioanest oltjects of architectural art. The string-course that marks exter- 
nally tho floor line of the different stories is as legitimate and indisi)ens- 
able an ornament as a vaulting shaft, and it would also be well that 
the windows should be grouped so as to indicate the size of the rooms, 
and at least a ]>l;iin space left where a ])artition wall abuts, or better still 
a pilaster or buttress, or line of some .sort, ought to mark externally 
that feature of internal c(mstruction. 

The comico is as indisitenstible a termination of the wall as the 
caitital is of a pillar: and besides, it not only suggests an appropriate 
su]t]iort for the roof, but also eaves to throw the rain oft' the wall. 
Tin- same is true with legard to pediments or caps over windows : they 
.sngg<st a means of protecting an opening from the wet ; and i)orchcs 


over doorways are equally obvious contrivances. Every thing, in short, 
which is actually constructive, or which suggests what was or may ho 
a constructive expedient, is a legitimate o1)ject of decoration, and 
affords the architect unlimited scope for the display of taste and skill, 
without going out of his way to seek it. 

The difficulty in applying ornaments borrowed from other styles 
is, that although they all suggest construction, it is not the con.struc- 
tion of the building to which they are applied. To use Pugin's clever 
antithesis, "they are constructed ornament, not ornamented con- 
struction," and as such can never satisfy the mind. However 
beautiful in themselves, they are out of place, there is no real or 
apparent use for their being there ; and in an art so essentially founded 
on utilitarian principles and common sense as architecture is, any 
offence against constructive propriety is utterly intolerable. 

The other class of decorative ornaments are forms invented for the 
purpose, either mere lithic forms, or copied from the vegetable king- 
dom, and applied so as to give elegance or brilliancy to the constructive 
decoration just described. 

The first and most obvious of these are mere moiddings, known to 
architects as Scotias, Cavettos, Ogees, Toruses, EoUs, &c.^ — curves 
which, used in various proportions either horizontally or vertically, 
produce, when artistically combined, the most pleasing effect. 

In conjunction with these, it is usual to employ a purely conventional 
class of ornament, such as frets, scrolls, or those knovvTi as the bead and 
reel, or egg and dart mouldings ; or in Gothic ai-chitecture the billet 
or dog-tooth, or all the thousand and one forms that were invented 
during the middle ages. 

In certain styles of art, vegetable forms are employed even more 
frequently than those last described. Among these, perhaps the most 
beautiful and perfect ever invented was that known as the honey- 
suckle ornament, which the Greeks borrowed from the Ass;)Tians, but 
made so peculiarly their own. It has all the conventional character of 
a purely lithic, with all the grace of a vegetable form ; and as used 
with the Ionic order, is more nearly perfect than any other kno-\\Ti. 

The Eomans made a step further towards a more direct imitation 
of nature in their employment of the acanthus leaf. As applied to 
a capital, or where the constructive form of the bell beneath it is 
still distinctly seen, it is unobjectionable ; but Avhen the leaf suj)ports 
the volute at the angles of the abacus, it is on the very verge of good 

With their disregard of precedent, and untrammelled wildness of 
imagination, the Gothic architects tried every form of vegetable orna- 
ment, from the purest conventionalism, where the vegetable form can 
hardly be recognised, to the most literal imitation of nature. 

By employing the former an architect can never sin against good 
taste, though he may miss many beauties ; with the latter class of 
ornament he is always in danger of offence, and few have ever em- 
ployed it without falling into mistakes. In the first place, because it 
is impossible to imitate perfectly foliage and flowers in stone; and 



Hccoiidly, if the pliant forms of jjlants are made to support, or 
do the work of, liard stone, the iiicongniity is immediately apparent, 
and the more peifeet the imitation the greater the mistake. 

In the instance (woodcut No. IV.), 
any amount of literal imitation that the 
sculptor thought proper may be indulged 
in, because in it the stone construction is 
so a})parent everywhere, that the vege- 
table form is the merest supplement con- 
ceivable ; or in a hollow moulding round 
a doorway, a vine may be sculptured 
with any degree of imitation that can be 
employed ; for as it has no more work 
to do than the object represented would 
have in the same situation, it is a mere 
adjunct, a statue of a plant placed in a 
niche, as we might use the statue of a 
man : but if in the woodcut (No. V.) 
imitations of real leaves were used to 
support the upper moulding, the effect 
would not be'so satisfactory; indeed it is 
questionable if in both these last exam- 
ples a little more conventionality would 
not be desirable. 

In too many instances, even in the 
best Gothic architecture, the consti-uction 
is so overlaid by imitative vegetable forms as to be concealed, and the 
work is apparently done by leaves or twigs, but in the earliest and 

purest style this is almost never the 
case. As a general rule it may be 
asserted that the best lithic orna- 
ments are those which approach near- 
est to the grace and pliancy of plants, 
and that the best vegetable fonns are 
those which most resemble the resru- 
larity and sjTumetry of those which 
are purely conventional. 
Although the Greeks in one or two instances employed human 
tigures to su]iport entablatures or beams, the good taste of such an 
anangcment is more than (piestionablc. They bonowed it, with 
the Ionic order, fi'om the Assyrians, with whom the employment of 
caiyatides and animal forms was the imle, not the exception, in contra- 
(lislinction from the Egyjitians, who never adopted this practice.' 
Kvcn the liomans avoided this mistake, and the Gothic architects also 
as a general i-ule kept quite clear of it. Whenever they did emi)l(iy 
ornamented figures for architectural pui-poses, they were cither mon- 

No. IV. 

iNo. V. 

' The Isis-lio;uli<(l Ty|il)(piii;iin;iiiitals cannot arc aflixes, and never appear to be doing the 
beqiiote*! iu> an exception to tliis rule: they work of the pillar. 


jstcrs, as in gargoyles, or griftbns ; or sometimos in a spirit of caricatm-o 
they used dwarfs or deformities of varioiis sorts ; bnt tlieir sculpture, 
properly so called, was alwaj's provided with a niche or pedestal, 
where it might have been placed after the building was complete, or 
from which it might be removed without interfering with the archi- 

No oinament is so essential or so important to true architecture as 
sculpture, whether emploj'ed as single figures, or as bas-reliefs, or on 
friezes ; but wherever it is introduced, it ought to be in niches or 
panels, or places where pains have been taken expressly to provide 
that the construction shall not interfere with them, and never where 
they seem to have anything to do either directly or indirectly with the 

Colour is one of the most invaluable elements placed at the 
command of the architect to enable him to give grace or finish to 
his designs. From its nature it is of course only an accessory, or mere 
ornament ; but there is nothing that enables him to express his 
meaning so cheaply and easily, and at ihe same time with such brilliancy 
and effect. For an interior it is absolutely indispensable ; and no 
apartment can be said to be complete till it has received its finishing 
touches from the hand of the painter. Whether exteriors ought or 
ought not to be similarly treated admits of more doubt. 

Internally the architect has complete command of the situation ; 
he can suit his design to his colours, or his colours to his design. 
Walls, roof, floor, fiimiture, are all at his command, and he can shut 
out any discordant element that would interfere with the desired 

Externally this is seldom if ever the case. A facade tliat looks 
brilliant and Avell in noonday sun may be utterly out of harmony with 
a cold gray sky, or with the warm glow of a setting sun full upon it ; 
and unless all other buildings and objects are toned into harmony 
with it, the effect can seldom be harmonious. 

There can now be no reasonable doiibt that the Greeks painted 
their temples both internally and externally, but as a general rule 
they always placed them on heights where they coidd only be seen 
relieved against the sky ; and they could depend on an atmosphere of 
uniform, unvarying brightness. Had their tem])les been placed in 
groves or valleys, they would probably have given up the attempt, 
and certainly never woxild have ventured upon it in such a climate 
as ours. 

Except in such countries as Egypt and Greece, it must always be a 
mistake to apply colour by merely painting the surface of the building 
externally ; but there are other modes of effecting this which are 
perfectly legitimate. Coloured ornaments may be inlaid in the stone 
of the wall without interfering with the constniction, and so placed be 
far more effective and brilliarit than the same ornaments would be if 
carved in relief. Again, string-courses and moiUdings of various 


coloured stones or marbles might bo employed with far better effect 
than can bo obtained by depth of cutting and boldness of projection. 
Such a mode of decoration can only be partial ; if the whole building 
is to be coloured, it must be done constructively, or the effect will 
never be satisfactoiy. 

In the middle ages the Italians can-ied this mode of decoration to a 
considerable extent ; but in almost all instances it is so evidently 
a veneer overlying the construction that it fails to please ; and a 
decoration which internally, where construction is of less importance, 
would excite general admiration, is without meaning on the outside 
of the same wall. 

At the same time it is easy to conceive how polychromy might l)e 
can-ied out successfully, if, for instance, a building were erected, the 
pillars of which were of red granite or poi-phpy, the cornices or string- 
courses of dark colouied marbles, and the plain surfaces of lighter kinds, 
or even of stone. A design so carried out would be infinitely more 
effective than a similar one executed in materials of only one colour, 
and depending for relief only on varj^ng shadows of daylight. 1'here 
is in fact just the same difficulty in lighting monochromatic buildings 
as there is with sculpture. A coloured painting, on the other hand, 
rerpiires merely sufficient light, and with that expresses its form and 
meaning far more clearly and easily than when only one colour is 
employed. The task, however, is difficult ; so much so, indeed, that 
there is hardly one single instance known of a complete polychromatic 
design being successfully carried out anywhere, though often attempted. 
The other mode of merely inlaying the ornaments in colour instead of 
relievinsi them bv carving as seldom fi\ils. 

Notwithstanding this an architect ought never to neglect to select 
the colour of his materials ^^^th reference to the situation in which his 
buildiufi; is to stand. A red brick building mav look remarkablv well 
if nestling among green trees, while the same building would be 
hideous if situated on a sandy plain and relieved only by the warm 
glow of a setting sim. A building of white stone or white brick is as 
ina]»})r<jpriate among the trees, and may look bright and cheerful in the 
other situation. 

In to^\^ls colours might be used of very great brilliancy, and if 
done coustnictivel}', there could be no greater improvement to our 
architecture ; but to do so is so difficult that it may be questioned 
Avhether it will be ever successfully accomplished. 

^Vith rcirard to interiors there can be no doubt. All architects in 
all countries of the world resorted to this expedient to harmonise and 
to give brilliancy to their compositions, and depended on it for their 
most important effects. 

The CJothic architects earned this a step further by the introduction 
fif jiainted glass, which was a mode of colouring more biilliant than 
had been ever before attempted. They went beyond all previoiis efforts, 
iniisnmch a.s they coloured not only the objects themselves, but also the 
light in which they weie seen. So enamoured were they of its beauties, 
tliat they sacrificed much of the constructive propriety of their build- 


iii<;-s to admit of its display, and paid more attention to it than to any 
other part of their designs. I'crliaps they carried this predilection a 
little beyond the limits of good taste ; hut colonr is in itself so exquisite 
a thing, and so admirable a vehicle for the expression of architcctui-al 
as Avell as of ajsthetic beauty, that it is difficult to find fault even with 
the abuse of what is in its essence so legitimate and so beautiful. 

X. — Uniformity. 

Considerable confusion has been introduced into the reasoning on 
the subject of architectural uniformit}' from the assumption that the two 
groat schools of art, the classical and the mediaeval, adopted contraiy 
conclusions regarding it, formality being supposed to be the character- 
istic of the former, irregularity of the latter. The Greeks, of course, 
when building a temple or monument, which was only one room or 
one object, made it exactly symmetrical in all its parts, but so did the 
Gothic architects when building a church or chapel or hall, or any 
single object : in ninety-nine instances out of a hundred, a line di'awai 
down the centre divides it into two equal and symmetrical halves ; and 
when an exception to this occvirs, there is some obvious motive for it. 

But where several buildings of different classes were to be grouped, 
or even two temples placed near one another, the Greeks took the 
utmost care to prevent their appearing parts of one design or one 
whole ; and when, as in the instance of the Erechtheium,' three temples 
are placed together, no Gothic architect ever took such pains to secure 
for each its separate individuality as the Grecian architect did. ^Miat 
has given rise to the error is, that all the smaller objects of Grecian 
art have perished, leaving us only the great monuments without their 

If we can conceive the task assigned to a Grecian architect of erect- 
ing a building like one of our collegiate institutions, he would without 
doubt have distingiiished the chapel from the refectory, and that from 
the libraiy, and he would have made them of a totally diiferent design 
from the principal's lodge, or the chambers of the fellows and students ; 
but it is more than probable that, while carefully distinguishing CA-ery 
pirt from the other, he would have arranged them with some regaixl to 
symmetry, placing the cliapel in the centre, the library and refectory 
as pendants to one another, though dissimilar, and the residences so as 
to connect and fill up the whole design. The truth seems to be that 
no great amount of dignity can be obtained without a certain degTce of 
regularity ; and there can be little doubt that artistically it is better 
that mere utilitarian convenience should give way to the exigences of 
architectural design than that the latter should be constrained to yield 
to the mere prosaic requirements of the building. The chance medley 
manner in which many such l)uildings were grcmped together in the 
middle ages tells the stoiy as clearly, and may be productive of great 
picturesqueness of effect, but not of the same nobility as might be 

• See woodcuts 223, 234, and 235. 


obtained by more icgiilarit}', and the highest class of design will never 
be reached by these means. 

It is not diflicnlt to discover, at least to a certain extent, the cause 
of this, as no number of separate units will suffice to make one whole. 
A niuiibcr of pebbles will not make a great stone, nor a number of rose- 
buKlies an oak; nor will any number of dwarfs make up a giant. To 
obtiiin a great whole there must be unity, to which all the parts must 
contribute, or they will remain sejiarate particles. The eft'ect of unity 
is luaterially heiglitened when to it is added unifomiity : the mind 
then instantly and easily grasps the whole, and knows it to be one, 
perceiving the ruling idea that governed and moulded the whole 
together. It seems only to be by the introduction of uniformity that 
.sufficient simplicity for gi-catness can be obtained, and the evidence of 
design made so manifest that the mind is satisfied that the building is 
no mere accumulation of separate objects, but the production of a 
master mind. 

In a palace irregi;larity seems unpardonable. The architect has 
there practically unlimited command of funds and of his arrangements, 
and he can easily design his suites of rooms so as to produce anj^ 
amount of unifoniiity he may require : the different heights of the 
ditfeient stories and the amoimt of ornament on them, wnth the 
employment of wings for offices, is sufficient to mark the various 
purjioses of the various parts ; but where the system is carried so far in 
great public buildings, that great halls, libraries, committee-rooms, and 
subordinate residences are all squeezed into one perfectly unifonn 
design, the building loses all meaning, and fails from the opposite 
errc )r. 

The rule seems to be that every building or every part of one 
ought most distinctly and clearly to express not only its construc- 
tive exigences, but also the uses for which it is destined ; on the 
other hand, that mere use ought, in all instances where architectural 
effect is aimed at, to give way to artistic requirements ; and an 
architect is consequently justified, in so far as his means will admit, 
in producing that amount of uniformity and regularity which seems 
indispensable for anj'thing like grandeur of effect. In villas and 
ismall buildings all we look for is picturesqueness and meaning com- 
bined with elegance ; but in larger and more monumental erections 
we expect something more ; and this can hardly be obtained without 
th(' introduction of some new element which t^hall tell, in the first 
]>lace, that artistic excellence was the ruling idea of the design, and in 
the next jilaco give it that perfect balance and synnuetry wliich seems 
to be as inherent a quality of the works of nature as of true art. 

XI. — Im^i^iox of Nature. 

The subject of the imitation of Nature is one intimately connected 
Avith those mot»ted in the preceding paragraphs, and regarding which 
considerable misunderstanding seems to prevail. It is generally as- 
sumed that in architecture we ought to cojiy natural objectts as we see 


them, whereas the truth seems to be that we ought always to cojjy the 
processes, never the forms of Nature. 'J'he error apparently has arisen 
from confounding together the iniitutivc arts of painting and sculj)tu]-e 
with the constructive art of architecture. The former have no otlier 
mode of expression than by copying, more or less literally, the fonus 
of Nature ; the latter, as explained above, depends wholly on a different 
class of elements for its effect ; but at the same time no architect can 
either study too intently, or copy too closely, the methods and pro- 
cesses by which Nature accomplishes her ends ; and the most perfect 
building will be that in which these have been most closely and 
literally followed. 

To take one prominent instance : — So far as we can judge, the 
human body is the most perfect of Nature's works ; in it the ground- 
work or skeleton is never seen, and though it can hardly be said to be 
anywhere concealed, it is only displayed at the joints or more promi- 
nent points of support, where the action of the frame would be other- 
wise unintelligible. The muscles are disposed not only where they 
are most Tiseful, but so as to form groups gracefully rounded in out- 
line. The softness and elegance of these are further aided by the 
deposition of adipose matter, and the whole is covered with a skin 
which by its beautiful texture conceals the more utilitarian construc- 
tion of the internal parts. In the trunk of the body the viscera are 
disposed wliolly without symmetry or reference to beauty of any sort — 
the heart on one side, the liver on the other, and the other parts 
exactly in those positions and in those fonus by which they may most 
directly and easily perform the essential functions for which they were 
designed. But the whole is concealed in a perfectly symmetrical sheatli 
of the most exquisitely beautiful outline. It may be safely asserted 
that a building is beautiful and perfect exactly in the ratio in which 
the same amount of concealment and the same amoinit of display of 
consti'uction is preserved, where the same symmetry is shown as 
between the right and left sides of the human body — the same differ- 
ence as between the legs and arms, where the parts are applied to 
different purposes, to adorn without interfering with what is useful, 
and wliere the same amount of ornament is added. In short there is no 
principle involved in the structure of man which may not be taken as 
the most absolute standard of excellence in architecture. The same is 
true of all other objects of Nature. If we could find Nature making- 
trees like stones, or animals like trees, or birds like fishes, or fixhes 
like mammalia, or using any parts taken from one kingdom for puiiioses 
belonging to another, it would then be jjcrfectly legitimate for us to 
use man's stature as the modulus for a Doric, or woman's as that of an 
Ionic column — to build cathedrals like groves, and make windows like 
leaves, or to estimate their beauty by their resemblance to sucli objects ; 
but all such comparisons proceed on an entire mistake of what imitation 
of Nature really means. 

It is the merest and most absolute negation of reason to apply to 
one purpose things that were designed for another, or to imitate them 
when they have no appropriateness ; but it is our highest privilege to 


uiulci-stand the processes of Nature. To apply these to mii- own wants 
and purposes is the highest stretch of human intellect and the per- 
fection of human ■wisdom. 

So instinctively, but so literally, has this correct process of imi- 
tating Nature been followed in all true styles of architecture, that we 
can always reason regarding them as we do with regard to natural 
objects. Thus, if an architect finds in an}- quarter of the globe a 
Doric or Corinthitm capital with a few traces of a foundation, he at 
once can tell the age of the temple or building to which it belonged. 
lie knows who the people were who erected it, to what purpose it was 
dedicated, and proceeds at once to restore its porticos, and without 
much uncertainty can reproduce the whole fabric. Or if he finds a 
few Gothic bases in sitii, Avith a few mouldings or frusta of columns, 
by the same process he traces the age, the size, the pui-poi-es of the 
building before him. A Ciivier or an Owen can restore the form and 
predicate the habits of an extinct animal fi-om a few fragments of bone, 
or even from a print of a foot. In the same manner an architect may, 
from a few fragments of a building, if of a true style of architecture, 
restore the whole of its pristine forms, and with almost the same 
amount of certainty. This arises wholly because the architects of 
those days had correct ideas of the true meaning c>f the expression and 
• imitation of Nature. They added nothing to their buildings which was 
not essential ; there was no detail which had not its use, and no orna- 
ment which was not an elaboration or heightening of some essential 
part, and hence it is that a true building is as like to a work of Nature 
as any production of man's hands can be to the creations of his Maker. 


It is the circumstance mentioned in the last section of the pertectly 
truthful imitation of Nature in all true styles of art that gives such a 
charm to the study, and raises the elal)oration of these principles to the 
dignity of a science. It leads also to one further conclusion : when men 
expressed their knowledge so tnithfully, they expressed also their 
feelings, and with their feelings their nationalit}'. It is thus that, 
looking on an ancient building, we can not only tell in what state of 
civilization its builders lived, or how far they were advanced in the 
arts, but we can almost certainly say also to what race they belonged, 
and what their affinities were with the other races or tribes of mankind. 
So far as my knt)wkdgc extends, 1 do not know a single exce^jtion to 
this rule ; and, as far as I can judge, I believe that architecture is in all 
instances jvs correct a test of race as language, and one far more easily 
applied and understood. Languages alter and become mixed, and wlien 
a change has once been ostalilished it is extremely difficult to follow it 
back to its origin, and unravel the elements which compose it ; but a 
building once erected stands xmchanged to testify to the time when it 
was built, and the feelings and motives of its builders remain stamped 
indelibly upon it as long as it lasts. 

Owing to the confusion of styles which has prevailed since the 


Jienaissancc, this branch of the subject has been little understood or 
followed out; but it is the (iharacteristic which lends to the study of 
ancient architecture its highest value, and which, when propei'ly 
understood, will elevate what has been conbidcrod as a merely 
instructive pastime into the dignity of an important science. 

XIII.— New Style^ 

There is still one other point of view from which it is necessaiy to 
look at this question of architectural design before any just conclusion 
can be arrived at regarding it. It is in fact necessary to answer two 
(questions, nearly as often asked as those proposed at the beginning of 
this Introduction. " Can we ever again have a new and original style 
of architecture ?" — " Can any one invent a new style ?" Eeasoning from 
experience alone, it is easy to answer these questions. No individual 
has, so far as we know, ever invented a new style in any part of the 
world. No one can even be named who during the prevalence of a 
true style of art. materially advanced its progress, or by his individixal 
exertion did much to help it forward ; and we may safely answer, that 
as this has never happened before, it is hardly probable that it will 
ever occur now. 

If this one question must be answered in the negative, the other 
may as certainly be answered in the afiinnative, inasmuch as no nation 
in any age or in any part of the globe has failed to invent for itself a 
true and appropriate style of architecture whenever it chose to set 
about it in the right way, and there certainly can be no great difficulty 
in our doing now what has been so often done before, if we only set 
to work in a proper spirit, and are prepared to follow the same process 
which others have followed to obtain this result. 

What that process is, may perhaps be best explained by an ex- 
ample ; and as one of a building character, though totally distinct, let 
us take ship-building. 

Let us take a series of ships, beginning with those in which William 
the Conqueror invaded our shores, or the fleet with whieli Edward III. 
crossed over to France. Next take the vessels which transjiorted 
Henry VIII. to his meeting with Francis I., and then pass on to the 
time of the Spanish Armada, and the sea fights of Van Tromp and 
De Huyter, and on to the times of William III., and then through the 
familiar examples till we come to such ships as the AN'ellington and 
Marlborough, now afloat. In all this long list of examples we have a 
gradual, steady, forward progress, without one check or break. Each 
century is in advance of the one before it, and the result is as near 
perfection as we can well conceive. 

But if we ask who effected these improvements, or who invented 
any part of the last-named wonderful fabrics, we must search deep 
indeed into the annals of the navy to find out. But no one has 
inquired, and no one cares to know, for the simple reason that, like 
architecture in the middle ages, it is a true and living art, and the 
improvements were not efi"ected by individuals, but by all classes, 



owners, sailoi-s. sliipwrij^lifs, and men of science, all working topfctliei- 
throngh centuries, each lending the aid of his experience or his rea- 

Jf wi' place alnngfsidc of this siTics of ships a list of churches or 
cathedrals, commencing with Charlemagne and ending with Charles V,, 
we find the same steady and assured progTcss obtained by the same 
identical means. In this instance, princes, priests, masons, and mathe- 
maticians, all worked steadily together for the whole period, striving 
to obtain a well-defined result. 

In the ship the most suifcxble materials only are employed in every 
part, and neither below nor aloft is there one single timber nor spar 
nor one rope which is supei-fluous. Nor in the cathedral was ever any 
material used that was not believed to be the most suitable for its pur- 
pose ; nor one foim of construction which did not seem the best to 
those who employed it ; nor any detail added which did not seem 
necessary for the pxirpose it was put there to express ; and the conse- 
quence is, that we can look on and contemplate both with the same 
unmitigated satisfaction. 

The one point where this comparison seems to halt is, that ship- 
Iniilding never became a purely fijie art, which architecture really is. 
Tlu' difference is only one of aim, which it would lie as easy to apply 
to the one ju't as it has been to the other. Had architecture never 
progressed l^eyond its one strictly legitimate object of house building, 
it never would have been more near a fine art than mer(;hant ship- 
building, and *])alaces would only have been magnified dwelling-places. 
Castles ajid men-of-war advanced both one stage further towards a fine 
art. Size and power were impressed on both, and at this stage they stand 
precisely equal to one another. Here ship-building halted, and has 
not progressed beyond, while architecture was invested with a higher 
aim. In all ages men have sought to erect houses more dignified and 
stately than those meant for themselves. They attempted the erection 
of dwelling-places for their gods, or tem]des worthy of the worshij) of 
Supreme Beings ; and it was only when this strictly useful art threw 
aside all shadow of utilitarianism, and launched boldly forth in search 
of the beautiful and the sublime, that it became a truly fine art, and 
took the elevated pcjsititai which it now holds above all other useful 
arts. It would have been easy to supply the same motive to ship- 
building. If we could imagine any nation ever to construct ships of 
(Jod, or to worship on the bosom of the ocean, shijis might easily be 
made such objects of beauty that the cathedral could hardly compete 
with them. 

It is not, however, only in architecture or in ship-building that this 
process is essential, but the progress of every art and every science 
that is worthy of the name is owing to the i^amc simple ])roccss of the 
aggregation of experiences; whether we look to metallurgy or me- 
chanics, cotton -s]iinning or coining, their perfection is owing to the 
same cause. So also the sciences — astronomy, chemistrj', geology — 
are all cultivated by the same means. ^\ hen the art or science is 
new, great men stand forth and niake great strides ; but when <jnce it 


roaches maturity, and becomes the property of the nation, ihe individual 
is lost in the mass, and a thousand inferior brains follow out steadily 
and surely the path which the one great intellect pointed out, but 
which no single mind, however great, could carry to its legitimate 

So far as any reason or experience yet known can be applied to 
this subject, it seems clear that no art or science ever has been or can 
bo now advanced by going backwards, and copying earlier foims, or 
those applicable to other times or other circumstances ; and that pro- 
gress towards perfection is only to be obtained by the united efforts of 
many steadily pursuing a well-defined object. Wherever this is done, 
success seems to be inevitable, or at all events every age is perfectly 
satisfied with its own productions. Where forward progress is the law, 
it is certain that the next age will surpass the present ; but the living 
cannot conceive anything more perfect, or they would apply it. 
Everything in any true art is thoroughly up to the highest standard of 
its period, and instead of the dissatisfied uncertainty in which we are 
wandering in all matters concerning architecture, we should be exult- 
ing in our own prodiictions, and proud in leaving to our posterity the 
progress we have made, feeling assured that we have paved the way 
for them to advance to a still higher standard of perfection. 

As soon as the public are aware of the importance of this rule, and 
of its applicability to architecture, a new style must be the inevitable 
result ; and if our civilization is what we believe it to be, that style 
will not only be perfectly suited to all our wants and desires, but also 
more beautiful and more perfect than any that has ever existed before. 


If we turn from these speculations to ask what prospect there is of 
the public appreciating correctly this view of the mutter, or setting 
earnestly about carrying it out, the answer can hardly be deemed 

The clei'gy, not only in England but on the continent of Europe, 
have arrived at the conchision that the Gothic style is the one most 
suited for church-building purposes ; and this has now become so 
established a point that no deviation from Gothic models is tolerated. 
Any architect who would attempt originality in plan, or introduce 
even a new detail or moulding, is immediately set down as ignorant 
of his profession, and the ex])eriment is not repeated. Evciy year that 
we continue in this path, and that our knowledge of the style becomes 
greater, the heavier will our chains become, and anything like ori- 
ginality or progress in this important branch of architecture more 
absolutely impossible. 

The study of the classical languages, to which so much importance 
is attached in our public schools, and in our own and most foreign 
universities, tended at one time in another way to withdraw attention 
from the formation of a true stylo of architecture by fixing it exclusively 
on Greek and Eoman models. The lienaissauce in the 15th century 

t' 2 


arose much more from admiration of classic literature than from any 
feeling for the remains of buildings which had heen neglected for 
centuries, and were far su7-])asscd by those wliich succeeded them. 
The same feelings i)erpetuated by early association are the great cause 
of the hold that classic art still has on the educated classes in Ein-ope. 
In clubs and mixed societies the style usually adopted is the 
Italian, out of which progress may come if common sense bo allowed 
to prevail over classical precedents, or the contrary if the reactionary 
element bo allowed to obtain the preference. 

Below these there is another class of men who have but little sym- 
pathy with Greece or Rome, and still less with mediaival monkery or 
feudalism, but who in their oAvn strong sense seem inclined to take a 
mure reasonable view of the matter, and these men are now erecting 
at Manchester and in other cities of the North a series of warehouses 
and other buildings designed wholly with reference to their uses, and 

oniaraented only in their constniction, and which consequently are 

as far as their utilitarian purposes will allow^as satisfiictory as any- 
thing of former days. Eastward of Temple liar there are many build- 
ings arising on the same system, and with a little more experience 
they promise to be as satisfactory as those in the North. 

In civil engineering, the lowest and most prosaic branch of archi- 
tectural art, our progress has been brilliant and rapid. Of this no 
better example can be given than the four great bridges erected over 
the Thames. Those of Westminster, Blackfriars, Waterloo, and London 
were erected at nearly equal intei-vals during one century, and the 
steady piogrcss which they exhibit is gi-eator than that of almost any 
similar l)ranch of art during any equal period of time. 

In this department our progress is so undeniable that aVc saw old 
London Bridge removed without regi-et, though it was a Avork of 
the same ago and of the same men wdio built all our greatest and best 
cathedrals, and in its own line was quite as perfect and as beautiful 
as they. But it had outlived its age, and we knew we could rejilace 
it by a better — so its destniction was inevitable ; and if we had made 
the same progress in the higher that we have in the lower branches of 
tlie building art, we should see a Gothic cathedral jtulled down with 
the same indiiferenco, content to know that we could easily rei>]ace it 
by one far nobler and more worthy of our age and intelligence. No 
architect during the middle ages ever hesitated to pull down any part, 
of a cathedral tliat was old and going to decay, and to replace it witli 
something in the style of the day, however incongruous that }night be ; 
and if wo were progressing us they were, we should liave as little com- 
punction in following the same course. 

In the confusion of ideas and of styles which now jirevails, it is 
satisfactory to be able to ccmtemplato, in the Crystal Talace at Syden- 
ham, at least one great luiilding carried out wholly in the princi])les 
of Gothic or of any true style of art. No material is used in it which 
is not the best for its puqiose, no constructive exixdient employed 
which was not absolutely ess.'utial, and it depends wholly for its cifect 
on the ai rangement of its parts ,in<l the display of its consti-uction. So 


essentially is its ])iinc'iplo the sninc which, as we have seen, animated 
Gothic architectnie, that we liaidly know even now liow nmch of the 
design belongs to iSii' .]oso})li Taxton, how much to the contractors, or 
how mnch to the subordinate officers employed by tlie Company. Here, 
as in a cathedral, every man was set to work in that department which 
it was supposed ho was best qualified to superintend. There was room 
for every art and for every intellect, and clashing and interference were 
impossible. This, however, is only the second of the series. A third 
would probably as far surpass it as it is beyond the first ; and if the 
series were carried to a hundred, with more leisure and a higher aim, 
we niight perhaps leani to despise many things we now so servilely 
copy, and might create a style surpassing anything that ever went 
before. We have certainly more wealth, more constructive skill, and 
more knowledge than our forefathers ; and living in the same climate, 
and being of the same race, there seems no insuperable difficulty in 
our doing at least as much if not more than they accomplished. 

Art, however, will not be regenerated by buildings so ephemeral as 
Crystal Palaces, or so prosaic as Manchester warehouses, nor by anything 
so essentially utilitarian as the works of our engineers. The one hope 
is that, having commenced at the bottom, the true system may extend 
upwards, and come at last to be applied to our palaces and churches, 
and the whole nation lend its aid to work out the great problem. 
Whenever its significance is rightly appreciated by the public, this 
result seems inevitable ; and with the means of diffusing knowledge 
which Ave now possess, we may perhaps be permitted to fancy that the 
dawn is at hand, and that after our long wanderings in the dark, day- 
light may again enlighten our path and gladden our hearts with the 
vision of brighter and better things in art than a false system has 
hitherto enabled us to attain. 








The countries commonly described under the general name of India 
fonn in tliemseWes a group completely detached from the otlier king- 
doms of the ancient world, and diii'cr entirely from them in all their 
most striking pecidiarities. We may therefore consider them sepa- 
rately from the rest, and as a subject complete in itself. India was 
undoubtedly one of the earliest civilised countries on the face of the 
globe. This fact is proved by her sacred writings which still remain 
to us, the Vedas, which were arranged in their present form at a very 
early period of the world's liistor}'. We also possess the laws of Menu, 
which are believed to have been compiled at about the same time as 
those of Lycurgus. Tliese, too-cther with such frairments of her history 
as can be extracted from the strangely falsified chronology of the Indian 
historians, testify that the plains of this great country were at a very 
early period covered with regular communities of civilised men. 
These actual records arc strt)ngly confirmed by the very fables and 
traditions of the West, which all point to India as the land of wealth 
and learning — the El Dorado of the ancient world. It was to India 
that the mythic heroes of ancient Greece, Hercules and Bacchus, bent 
their steps ; and, from the time of the scarcely less fabulous Semiramis 
to tliat of Cyrus, it was the desire to reach her long-coveted treasures 
that called forth the mightiest efturts of the great central monarchies 
of Asia. Darius and Alexander followed the same path of ambition 
with better success, but even they coidd never penetrate beyond her 
boundaries, never saw her sacred streams, nor the fertile plains they 

Persia and Parthia formed a barrier which prevented Pome from 
ever attempting to seize by conqiiest the wealth which, reaching her 
by the more peaceful channels of commerce, formed the staple of that 
till then unheard-of accinnulation of luxury and riches which dazzled 


tho ancient world, and still excites the incredulity of the present age. 
It was the memory of that Indian contribution to IJome's magnificence 
that formed the dream of the dark ages, and sent Columbus to seek her 
fiibU'd treasures in the distant west, and enabled Vasco da Gania to 
bravo the terrors of the stunny Cape. 

But while tho contemporary nations have left behind them archi- 
tectural monuments, there are no such traces remaining of the ancient 
greatness of India. What we have are entirely the work of a later age 
than tliat of which we are now speaking. The existing remains of these 
later times are on the whole very complete, and in good preservation. 
Notwith-standing this, the investigation of them is attended with much 
(lifHculty, arising from the indiflerence with which the whole subject 
is ]-('garded, almost universally, by the Anglo-Saxon sojourners in the 
country. In all the older BritLsh settlements all architectural remains 
have nearl}" disappeared ; and very little has been done to elucidate 
those which remain. 

In any attempt to understand either the history or the arts of India, 
the first and most important point to l)ear in mind is, that the mass of 
the p(»pulati<jn consists, and always has consisted, in historical times 
at leiust, of two races of men differing from one another as widely as 
any two races on the face of the globe. The first, or Tamul i-ace, still 
inhabits the whole of the southern part of the peninsula, and exists as 
a substratimi to the intruding races up to the foot of the Himalaya. 
This, race, so far as we know, is aboriginal. So imperfect is their 
literature, that we know nothing of their earlier history; and so little 
has it been studied, that we have not even now traced their affinities 
among the other races of mankind ; while, either Ijecause they were 
not builders, or because the climate or the unsettled state of society 
hits been unfavourable to the preseiA'ation of the monixments, we have 
now nothing from which we can judge how early they were settled, or 
to what extent they were civilised. 

Thu other race came into India from tho \\'est at a very remote 
epoch. Its first settlement was at Taneswar on the watershed between 
the Indus and the Ganges. In ]iroces8 of time they extended their 
settlements eastward. Ilastinapoora became their next capital, to be 
supplaiitetl by Delhi; then Ayodia (Oudo), which in like manner was 
sii])orsoded by Canouge. Then liajagriha on the hills near (iya became 
a capital city, till about three centuries before Christ they ventured 
down to Palibothra, the modem Patna, on the banks of the Ganges. 
Next came Gaur and Dacca ; Nuddya ; and lastly Calcutta, in which 
the wealth and power of that great valley is now centered. 

Modem researches have trjfced this intruding race to its origin ; the 
Persians were of the same stock as they were ; so were the races who 
suitj.lanted the Pelasgi in Greece; so were the Romans; so were 
all those races of barbarians now designated as the Indo-Gemianic, or 
.\rian tribes, who colonized Europe about or before tho Christian era, 
and to wlioin we belong. None of the Arian races seem originally to 
have been builders; at least they certainly were not temple-builders. 
This was owing to tho very .spirit of their religion. They Avould have 

Chap. 1. INTRODUCTOllY. 3 

thought it impious to rear witli hiunan hands a house for the one Great 
Spirit of the univei"se, whose manifestations were nothing meaner than 
the sun and phinots, and whose emblem on earth was fire, the purest 
and most suhtic of visiMo things. Aceordingly the Persians built no 
tejiiples. Even when Darius had learnt from more western nations 
some notions of architectural magnificence, the buildings which were 
raised in Persia were palaces rather than temples. The Grecian 
temples Avei-e borrowed from Egypt ; the Poman from Greece and 
Etruria ; and our o-\\ai from Pome. The Teutonic tribes, when first 
kno\\ni to the Pomans, " thouglit that to confine the gods within walls, 
or to represent them in the image of man, was unworthy of the great- 
ness of heavenly beings."' 

Throughout the Vedas there is no allusion to temples nor to images, 
nor indeed to any public form of worship. Every man stood forth in 
the presence of his God, and without intercessors ofiered up his prayers 
with the prescribed foims, or gave utterance to those hymns of praise 
which he thought were acceptable ; but always feeling himself to be 
in the immediate presence of the Deity, and appealing dii-ectly to His 
mercy or supplicating His favour. 

Among such a people it would of course be in vain to look for any 
monuments of importance ;^ and while these Arian races remained 
unmixed with the other inhabitants of India, and retained their pure 
V edantic feitli, they left, so far as we now know, not one single monu- 
ment to tell of their existence.^ 

In the seventh century before the Christian era, a prophet, Sakya 
]\Iuni. was bom. in India, the result of whose teaching was the intro- 
duction of the Buddhist religion into that countrj'' ; and conserpient on 
this change was the elaboration of a style of architcctui-e, the most 
ancient as well as the most interesting of those whose monuments are 
found scattered over the plains of India. 

Although much has lately been done to clear up the obscurity that 
has hitherto hung OA'er the history of the introduction of Puddliiism 
into India, much still remains to be done before the story of its founder 
can be said to be placed on a satisfactory basis. It is recorded of him 
that he was one of the last lineal descendants of that long line of kings 
called the Solar race, who for more than two thousand years had lield 
supreme sway in the Valley of the (Janges, but who, at the time of the 
birth of Sakya Muni, had dwindled before the rising influence of the 
Lunar races, from the imperial glories of the kingdom of Oude, to the 
position of petty princes of a small and undistinguished state near the 
foot of the Himalaya. Here it was that Sakya was born in the yeai' 
623 B.C., and spent the earlier j^ears of his life in the usual occupations 

1 Tacit. Germ. wliich can last more than a very limited 

^ Perhaps til is absence of old remains can number ot" years. .See book i. ch. iv. 
bo illustrated l>y a very analogous case. In * A curious negative corioboratiou of this 

Eurmah, a country of comparatively modern exists in the fact that neither Megasthenes 

settlement, no buildings, with the exception nor any (jreek writer ever alludes to any 

of temples, are allowed by law to be con- temple or remarkable building as existing in 

stiucted of brick or stone. Consequently India, which could hardly have been the case 

tliere are only a few pagodas in that country had any existed. 




and aiuiiseinents of those of his raiik. At the a}2;e of 35, he — to use the 
hxngnaj^o of his foHowers — attained to Huddhahood, and sjicnt the 
reniaiiiin<; 45 years of his life wandering through the various countries 
of Iiiilia, ]>r(nnulp»tiiig tlioso doctiines which snhseqiiently obttiined 
such universal acccptancu in all the countries of Kastcrn iVsia. 

One or two points in the doctrines of Buddhism will be necessary 
to be borne in mind. The present Buddha — Sakya Muni, or Sinha 
as he is generally called — is held to be only the fourth of the great 
Bmhlhas. I lis three i)redecessors, Kakusanda, Konagamma, and Kasy- 
a]ia, are su]ipttsed to liave existed in extremely remote ages. Tlieir 
history, as might be exi)ccted, is a mere mass of fables and absurdities. 

The Buddhists expect a fifth manifestation of the Deity in the 
person of Maitri Buddlia. who is supposed to bo now going through 
the iniiumeiable transmigrations necessary to the attainment of Bud- 
dhahood : these transmigrations being an essential part of the whole 
system. We shall find, in speaking of Thibet, a curious extension 
of tlie belief. There the divine soul is held to pass immediately 
from one ])elai Lama to his successor, so that tlioy are never Avithout a 
living manifestation of the lower class of Buddhas, which they believe 
their great Lamas to be. 

It is still a disputed point among the learned whether Sakya ^Muni 
was the original inventor of this religicm, or even its first introducer 
into India. There are many and stnuig reasons for supposing that he 
cannot even aspire to this last distinction, for there are certainly many 
traces of the existence of at least a similar faith, in that country, before 
his time ; though he no doubt gave it that mode of worship, and fixed 
upon it those peculiar doctrines, which aftei'wards distinguished it fi'om 
the other religions of the land. Traces exist of very similar institu- 
tions, long before the time of Buddha, in Ethiopia, and as far west as 
( 'yrene. In Syria we have something very similar to it in the tenets 
of the sect of the Essenes ; and at P>abyl(m it is nearly certain that a 
religion closely allied to it was long tlie faith of a large section of the 
lieoi)le. Pythagoras, the contemporary of Sakya ]\Ium, introduced 
doctrines of the same class at Crotona, in Ifcily ; and in Persia the sect 
of tlie Magi adopted rites and practices so simijar, that it is not easy 
always to detect the distinction between them. 

Immediately after the death of Sak>a Muni, the first great convoca- 
tion or c(uincil of his followers and disciples was held at Rajagriha in 
P.ehar, and a second about a century afterwards at Vaisjila on tlie 
(Junduck, o]iposite Patna ; and though, if we may believe the tradi- 
tions, these assemlilies were most numerously attended by thousjuids of 
priests from all parts of the country, we have still no proof of the 
religion having been generally adopted at that time by either the 
people or their rulei's. 

W e know that Chandragujjta. so familiar to us as the Sandracottus of 
Alexander's historians, still adhered, with all his court, to the old 
Braliminical faith ; so did his son Bimbasaro. His grandson Asoka, 
however, after leaching the imperial throne by the murder of his 
hundred brothers, forsook the faith in wliich lie liad been brought up, 


and adopted tliaf ol" I'liddha. lie then, witli tlic zeal ufa new eonveii;, 
used the influeuce he possessed nn the most i)owerful monarch of India 
in those ages, to establish it as the state religion of the conntry. lie 
afterwards extended it to Ceylon on the south, and Afglianistau on the 
nortli ; though, as hhatcd above, there is reason for suspecting that 
something similar to it existed before his time in the last-named 
country, one of the original seats of the Arian race. 

It was in the seventeenth year of the reign of this king that the 
third convocation was held in the city of Palibothra, the modern 
Patna, almost exactly 300 years after the death of the founder of this 
religion, where the doctrines and fornndas of the faith seem finally to 
have been settled. It is of more impoi-tance to our present pui-jiose, 
that wdth this king (250 B.C.) the architectural history of India com- 
mences : not one building nor one sculptured stone having yet been 
found in the length and breadth of the land which can be proved to 
date before his accession. From his time, however, the series of ukjuu- 
ments, some monolithic, some rock-cut, and others built, is toleiably 
complete during the ten or twelve centuries in which Buddhism con- 
tinued to be a prevalent religion in the country of its birth. 

After this we lose the thread of our architectural narrative in India 
Proper, but it is continued in C'e^don, Burmah, Java, Thibet, and 
China, to the present day; and we pro})Ose to follow it through all the 
mutations it has undergone in these different lands, before considering 
the other styles that arose and still exist in India. Each of them will 
occupy a niche to itself in the following order. 

After the Buddhist styles, as above enmuerated, will come — 

1. The Jaiiia style, a corruption of the pure Buddhist by admixture 
with the Hindu style. 

2. The Soutfwni Hindu, a style of architecture of the Tamul races of 
the South. 

3. Northern Himhi, a cognate style, occurring in the Valley of the 
Ganges .and its tributaries. 

4. The modern. Hindu, or that fonn which Indian architecture took 
after being modified by the influence of the j\Iahometan styles. 

5. The Cashnirian and other aberrant styles, which cannot be 
included under any of the preceding heads. 




Divisiou of subject — Topes, Sanchi — Temples, Karli — Monasteries, Ajunta 

Uruameutation of caves. 



Birtli of GauUima Uudiilia . ... B.C. 623 | Cuttack caves, from 200 b.c. to alxiul Christian era. 

I)cuth of Gautama Buddha, and first con- i Topes al Bilsali . 2nd ceut. b.c. to 2nd or 3rd a.v. 

Vocation huld 543 

Cliandragiipta, con tem]K)rary of Alexander 325 

Aaoka: third convocation held. Buddh- 
ism made the relit,'ion of the state. 
Ijflts erected. K.irliest monuments and 

inscriptions in India 250 

Dasaratha, his grandson. Earliest caves 
in Bebar about200 

Vicramaditya buildings at Oiyein . . . b.c. 56 

Salivah;ma cave at Karli A.D. 79 

Topes at Manikyala 1st cent. b.<:. to 3rd or 4th a.d. 
Topes in AfghanisUin . 1st cent. a.d. to 5th or 6tb. 
Caves at Ajunta Isl cent. a.d. to loili or llth a.d. 
Caves at Ellora . 5th cent. a.d. to stli or 9th A.D. 
Topes at Samath .... 6th to 9th cent. a.d. 

The exaiii])le.s -which remain of Buddhist architecture have hitherto 
been iuii)eifectly exaiuiucd, and are <i;enerally little kno^v^l. It is 
therefore by no means easy to classify them so txs to include all. and at 
the same time render the divisions clear and intelligible. The follow- 
ing an-angement, it is believed, -will represent our present knowledge 
of the sidiject with tt)lerable exactness. 

1. Topes. — I'nder this name are included the most important cla.>ss 
of liuildiugs. They consist of detached pillars, towers, and tumuli, all 
of a sjicred or moniunental character. The word is a coiTuption of the 
Sauscrit sthnixi, meaning a moiuid, heap, or caini. 

2. Temples. — Known fis Chaifi/a halls, or caves. 

3. Monasteries. — I Uiaras, being the residences of the priests. 


This chtss includes edifices diftering from one another i)rineipally 
in the purposes for Avhicli they were erected. The oldest and simj)lest 
topes were single pillars (.sY//(;»i'r/.s), either carved out of one stone or 
regularly built ; the former l)eing distingnished aw Lufs. The oldest 
monument** hitherto discovered in India are a group of these monoliths 
set up by Ascjka in the middle of the third centuiy B.C. Tliey were all 
alike in tonn. and all bore the sjinie in.scription. licing four .*<luii-t edicts 
containing llif creed and principal doctrines of Buddhism, which he 

Cii.vr. 11. 



summit. The neck- 
ing immediately lie- 
low the capital (wood- 

2. Honeysuckle ornameut from capiUil ol Lat. pnf Xn 2^ TPllTesents 

wdth considerable purity, the honeysuckle ornament 
of the Assyrians, which the Greeks borrowed from them 
with the Ionic order. It is very interesting to meet witli 

it also on tlie earliest known monu- 
ment of Buddhist art. The pillar at 
Allahabad litis lost its cajiital, but 
we are able to su])ply the deficiency 
from two of the Tirhoot examples, 
which retain their capitals with the 
lions which seem to have crowned 
the summits of all. In these we 
meet with the bead and reel orna- 
ment familiar to us from Persian 
Greek architecture. The capitals 
are so similar to the lower members 
of those at Tersepolis, and more 
especially to the bases of the columns 
there, as to leave no doubt of their 

3. Capital nf Lat mi llio Gim- 
Uiick. Krom advuwini; by 
tlie late Capt. Killoe. 

It is almost ceiiain that these 
jiillars of Asoka stood originally in 
front of some sacred buildings whic-h hav(> ]H'ris]ied. 
AVe know that the great tope of Sanchi had one oi- two 
such monoliths in front of each of its gateways, and the 
great caves of Karli (woodcut No. 18) and Kennari show ' 


liad recently embracetl.' Of tliese one is at Delhi, having been re- 
erected by Feroose Shah in his pabice, as a monument of 
his victory over the Hindus. Three more are standing 
near the river Gunduck, in Tirhoot ; and one, represented 
in the annexed woodcut (No. 1), has recently been placed 
on a pedestal in the fort of Allahabad. A fragment of 
anotlier was discovered near Delhi, and part of a seventh 
was used as a roller on the Benares road by a Com- 
l)any's engineer ofHcer. 

The following description of the Allahabad pillar will 
of c(.)U)-se serve for all. It is one stone, 42 ft. 7 in. in 
height, of which 7 ft. 7 in." may be considered as the 
base, which probably was buried to some extent in the 
ground, or in the masonry that supported it. The shaft, 

projierly so called, 
'^^x\^ was 3 ft. in diameter 
at the hixse, diminish- 
ing to 2 ft. 2 in. at the 

li:;:^:':';:: . ■;!« 

•1/ ', ■ ■''T'. 


';':'"-iK Vi 

mi' q 


. ^.II.S 

'! i. 


■^ — ■'i'^ 

. Lut ul AUaliabud. 

' TraiislateJ by .1a^. I'liiiso]!, in tlio sixth * 'I'liese diinensioiih are t;ikcii iVuin ('apt. 

volume of the Heiigal Journal of the Asiatic Biiit's ilia\vini;s jmblished in the J. A. S. 15., 
Society, p. 566 ct scq. vol. iii. plate 3. 



Book 1. 

similar pillai-s cut in the rock in front and on each sitle of tlic entrance 
of the ^-roat halLs, which, therefore, we may assume to he their proper 

There is no instance, so far as I am aware, of a built monumental 

jiillar now standing in India. This 
is sufficiently accounted for by the 
ease with which they could be 
thrown doAvn and their materials 
removed, when they had lost the 
sanctity by which alone they had 
been })rotectcd. There arc, how- 
ever, two such pillars among the 
topes of Cabul, and evidently coeval 
with them, now called the Surkh 
Miliar, and ]\Iinar Chakri. These 
are ascribed by the traditions of the 
place to Alexander the Great, though 
they are evidently liuddhist monu- 
ments, meant to mark some sacred 
spot, or to commemorate some event, 
the memory of which has passed 
away. They are probably of the 
third or fourth century of our era, 
and their shape and outline exhibit 
great degeneracy from the purer 
forms with which architecture com- 
menced in India, and which were 
there ret<ained to a much later pe- 
riod than in this remote ju-ovince. 
There can be little doubt but that 
their upper members are meant to 
be copies of the tall capitals of the 
rcrsc])olitan pillars, which were 
probably common also in Assyria 
and throughout this part of Asia. They may also have resembled the 
chapiters which fonn so important a part of the two pillars which 
Solomon set up before his tem})le at Jenisalcm.' 

The remaining topes are not distinguishable from one another in 
external sha])c, tliough they diflercd considerably in the puqioses for 
which they were designed, and in the feelings of veneration with 
which they were K'garded. Tlie most impoiiant of these puqioses was 
the presci'vation of relics, the worship of these objects b(>ing one of the 
principal characterLstics of l>uddhism. In some of the tojics which 
have been opened regvdar relic-chambers are found, some still furnished 
^v^th the relics themselves, others ])lundered of their treasure. These 
were projierly designated as tkir/Dhas (from dhntn, relic, and (lalilm or 
(jarlKi, shrine or womb), of whieh the word pagoda ajtpears to be a 

4. Surkli Minar, Cabul. 

From a drawing by Mr. Arasson in Wilson's 
Ariima Antiqua. 

' 1 Kin^s vii. l(i, ct scq. 

c'i[Ai>. II. Tor?:s. 9 

corruption. Other topes have been found to contain neither relic nor 
relic-chamber, and these must have been erected to nuirk some sacred 
spot or ct)nuueniorate some event in tlie history of I'uddlia or of his 

The origin of relic-worship is thus accounted for by the traditions of 
JJuddhism. It is said that at the death of the founder of the religion 
eiglit cities disi)uted the possession of his mortal remains. The 
diliticulty of a decision was avoided by a disti"ibution to each of some 
portion of the sacred relics. Of these by far the most famous is the 
Tooth relic, which, till the last few years, was so carefully guarded by 
the British govern(n's of (Jeylou, as the Palladium of our sovereignty 
over that island. This originally foil to the lot of Kalinga, and was 
magnificently enshrined on the spot where now stands the celebrated 
temple of Juggernath at ruri. Here it remained till the fourth cen- 
tury, when it was conveyed for a short time to Patna, then the capital 
of the country. After pei-forming many miracles there it was restored 
to its original place of deposit, but only for a very short time ; — for, on 
the invasion of the country by strangers from the East, it was conveyed 
to Ceylon, concealed in the hair of the king's daughter : it was 
received there in the year 311 of our era, and has ever since continued 
the most precious treasure of the realm.' 

Besides this, Ceylon possesses the left Collar-bone relic, enshrined 
in the Thuparamya pagoda at Anuradhapoora (woodcut 31), and the 
Thorax-bone, enshrined at Bintenne, near Kandy. The Mahawanso, 
or groat Buddhist history of Ceylon, describes the mode in which this 
last building was raised, by successive additions, in a manner so 
illustrative of the principle on which these relic-shrines arrived at 
completion, that it is well worth qiioting: — "The chief of the Devos, 
Sumano, supplicated of the deity worthy of offerings for an offering. 
The Vanquisher, passing his hand over his head, bestowed on him a 
handftil of his pure blue locks from the groAving hair of the head. 
Receiving and depositing it in a superb golden casket, on the sjjot 
where the divine teacher had stood, he enshrined the k)ck in an 
emerald dagoba, and bowed down in worship. 

" The thero Sarabhu, at the demise of the suprenie Buddha, 
receiving at his fiuieral pile the Thorax-bone relic, brought and 
deposited it in that identical dagoba. This inspired personage, causing 
a dagoba to be erected 12 cul)its high and enshrining it, thereon de- 
parted. The younger brother of King Devenampiatisso (b.c. 250), 
discovering this marvellous dagoba, constructed another encasing it, 
30 cubits in height. 

"King Duttagamini (b.c. IGl), while residing there, during his 
subjugation of the Malabars, constructed a dagoba, encasing that one, 
80 cubits in height." 

" Thus was the Mahiyangana dagoba completed."* It is possible 

' See account, of Tooth relic liy the Hon. xv. p. 2(>o, &c. &c. 
G. Tunioiir, .'. A. S. B., vol. vi. p. 8r>(> it - Abstracted linni 'rumour's, 

seq. Sterling t'uttack, Trans. A. S. B., vol. p. 4. 



Book J. 

that at each succetssivo addition some new deposit wa« made ; at least 
UKtst of the topes examined in Afghanistan and the Punjanb show 
signs of these successive increments, ami successive deposits, one alK)ve 
the other. 

About 30 topes have been opened near liilsfih by Major Cunning- 
ham, of the Bengal Engineers, and Lieut. Maisey, ten of which have 
yielded relics of the most interesting character. One tope contained 
relics of tlie two principal disciples of Buddha; another of Moggali- 
jmtra, who presided over the third great convocation held by Asoka. 
Others contained relics of those missionaries whom we know to have 
l)een sent by Asoka to convert the nations of the Himalaya and of 
the banks of the Indus, liclics were found of other priests and saints 
whose names and acts are still iniknown to us. The whole of these 
discoveries tend to confirm to a very great extent the traditions that 
have come down to us, besides making the intent and pui-pose of these 
buildings perfectly clear and intelligil)le. 

By far the finest as well as the most perfect tojie in India is that 
of Sanchi, the ])rincipal one of those opened near Bilsah, in Central 
India. It is uncertain whether it ever contained relics or not, as it 
had been dug into in 1819 by Sir Herbert Maddock, since which time 
it has nnuaincd a ruin, and may have been ])lundcred by the Uiitives. 
At any rate it must have been a s])ot of peculiar sanctity, judging both 
from its own magnificence and fi-om the number of subordinate topes 
grouped around it. In fact there are a greater number of these monu- 
ments on this spot, within a space not exceeding 17 miles, than tliere 
are. so far at least as we now know, in the whole of India from the 
Sutlej to Cape Comorin. 

The general appearance of the Sanchi Tope will be understood 

View of Sancbi Tope. 

from the view of it (woodcut No. 6), and its sha])e ami anaiig. 
from tlie plan and section (Nos. 6 and 7). From these it will lu 
observed that tlie princijial building consists of a ilome sijmewhat less 
than a hemis].here, 10(i feet in diameter, and 42 feet in height, with a 
l-latfoi-m on the top 34 feet across, which originally formed the basis 

CllAl'. II. 



of the tee or cupitul, which was the invariable finish of these monu- 

The dome rests on a sloijinjj; base, 14 feet in height by 120 in 
diameter, having an olfset on its 
summit about G feet Avido. This, if 
we may judge from the representa- 
tions of topes on the sculptiires, 
must have been surrounded by a 
balustrade, and was ascended by a 
broad double ramp on one side. It 
was probably used for processions 
encircling the monument, which 
seem to have been among the most 
conmion Buddhist ceremonials. The 
centre of this great mound is qxiite 
solid, being composed of bricks laid 
in mud ; but the exterior is faced 
with dressed stones.' Over these 
was laid a coating of cement nearly 
4 inches in thickness, which was, 
no doubt, originally adorned either wath painting or ornaments in 


Plan of Tope at Sanchl. 


5 10 


1. Section of Tope at Sauchi. 

The fence by ^vhich this tope is surroimded is extremely curious. 
It consists of stone posts 8 ft. 8 in. ^ 

high, and little more than 2 ft. apart. 
Tliese are surmounted by a plain archi- 
trave, 2 ft. 4 in. deep, slightly rounded 
at the top. So far this enclosure re- 
sembles the outer circle at Stunelu'iige ; 
but between every two uprights three 
horizontal cross-pieces of stone are in- 
serted, of an elliptical foiTu, of the same 
depth as the top ])iece, but only 9 in. 
thick in the thickest part. This is the only built example yet discovered 


■i55i^^^^^^^^^^JJS^';" ■'■'^»f^y^ 

Stone bahistiado fonniiij; the enclo- 
sure at Sandii. 

' The diawini^s, j)lans, &c., are tivken from a Memoir by (.'apt. ,1. 1 ». t'uiuiiiigliani, J. \. 
S. R., August, 1847. 

12 liUDDHiST Alien ITECTUllE. Book T. 

of an architectural ornament which is found carved in evety cave, 
ami, imlocil. In almost every ancient linddhist Iniildinp; knoAvn in 
India. Thi' uiiiM<;lit ])i>st.s or ])illars of this (■nrlosiirc hear inscriptions 
iudicatinj;- that tlicy were all <;iven l»y iliil'crent individuals. i'nt 
neither these nor any other inscriptions foinid in the whole tope, or in 
the smaller topes surrounding it (though there are as many as 250 
inscriptions in all), contain any known name, or any clue to their age.' 

Still more curious, however, than even the stone railing are the 
four giitcwaj's. One of these is sho\\7i in the general view of the 
buildings (woodcut No. 5). It consists of two square pillars, covered 
with stulptures, with hold elephant capitals, rising to a height of 
IS ft. 4 in, ; above this are three lintels, slightly cun-ed upwards in 
the centre, and ending in Ionic scrolls ; they are supported by con- 
tinuations of the colimms, and three uprights inserted in the spaces 
between the lintels. They are covered with elaborate sculptures, and 
sunnouiited by emblems. The total height is 8;} ft. 6 in. One gateway 
has fallen, and if removed to this country would raise the character of 
Indian sculpture, as nothing comparable to it has yet been transported 
from that part of the world to Europe.* 

No account has been pxdjlished of the other topes, 30 or 40 in 
nundoer, composing this group. We only know that none are so large 
tis the one just described : some are not more than G ft. in diannster, 
and in no instance are the enclosures and gateways so comiilete as those 
of the great Tope.^ 

Though the inscriptions, as has been said, fail to give tis the date 
of these tojies, the characters in which they are written, together with 
the architectin'o of the buildings, prove that they must be as old as 
tlic Christian era. They could not have been anterior to Asoka's time 
(i3.c. 250), so that we obtain an approximation to their age/ 


The only other very important group of topes now knoAvn to exist 
in India is that at JManikyala, the Taxila of Alexanders historians, 
situated between the Indus and the Jelum, or Hydsispes. The prin- 
cipal stnicture there is a tope, nearly of the same dimensions in ground- 
])lan as that at Sanchi, but taller, being between 70 and 80 ft. in height, 
while the latter is only 5<) ft. It differs also in appearance, the dome 
being a i)erfect hemisphere, and the offset of the b.ise omitted. The 
base itself is far more ornate, being surrounded by a series of dwai-f 

' The celebrated Chandiaj;iipta inscrip- niiigliain (J. A. S. H., Aug. 1847, ]>. 74(i et 

tion on tlie eastern piteway (J. A. S. li., vol. «''/.), the illustrations of which, thon^h iii- 

vi. |). 4.">4) is evidently a siil)se<iuent adcli- complete, indicate some remains of hiiilt teni- 

tioii, ;uid l>eloni;s to the fourth century A.I). pies and monasteries at the same place. 

* One of these gateways is engraved in ■* Since this work went to pres.s, Majoi-, 

great detail, and to a lar^^e scale, as a title- now Col., Cunningham's work on these 

j)age to the author's Illustrations of Indian Topes has been jiublished in this country, 

Aicliitcifuie. anil, though full of interesting details and 

' The above particulais have been taken illustiations. adds little to the infoiniation 

from a ])aper by the late Cajit. .1. !>. (/un- jireviously obtained. 


pilasters in low relief, prol:)iil)ly as a snbstitTite for the independent 
railing of the Sanelii Tope. These M. Court describes as having 
capitals with ranis' heads (tpieri/, bulls' ?), like those at I'ersepolis.' 
This is likely enough in itself, but could scarcely have failed to be 
mentioned by the accurate Elphinstone,* had it been correct. 

This tope was opened in 1830 by General Ventura ; and three 
separate deposits of relics were found at the depths of about 25, 45, 
and 65 ft. respectively, each apparently increasing in value with its 
depth fi'oni the top. \V ith these were buried a great niuuber of coins, 
besides many placed intermediately between the principal deposits. 
From these it appears that the upper deposit is certainly as modern as 
the time of the Sassanidoe, being of the fourth or fifth century. But 
the lower relics may be two centuries earlier, though the evidence on 
this point is by no means so clear as might be desired, nor were the 
excavations so carried on as to show whether the tope had reached its 
present dimensions by successive additions like that at Bintenne (p. 0), 
or Avhether it had been erected at once. The former was probably the 
case, judging from the difierent depths at which the relics were 

The most important relic appears to have been a brown liquid 
contained in a box with an inscription on its lid. When this inscrip- 
tion shall have been deciphered, we shall probably know in honour of 
what saint this vast mound was erected. 

There are at least 15 other topes in this group, one of which was 
opened by M. Coiirt, who found in a square chamber, 10 ft. above the 
level of the ground, a gold cylinder enclosed in one of silver, and that 
again in one of copper. The inner one contained -i gold coins, 10 
precious stones, and 4 pearls. These were no doubt the relics which 
the tope was intended to preserve. The inscription was illegible, so 
that we cannot ascertain to whom they belonged. There were silver 
coins in the tope, and in the cylinders, though not in the innermost 
one. These are Roman Consular coins^ of Mark Antony and Augustus 
Cajsar. The others are Bactrian and native coins, generally supposed 
to be near the Christian era in date, so that we can have no hesitation 
in ascribing the tope to the first century. It is so ruined externally 
that we can form no comparison of the probable age of this and the 
others. The dates therefore of the greater part of these topes must 
remain micertain till they have been systematically examined. 

A very large enclosure of a tojie is foiind at Amravati, near the 
mouth of the river Kistna, in the IMadras territory. It now bears 
the name of Dipal-dinna, or IMount-of-liglit, but why it is so calhul 
has not hithei-to been accoimted for. The annexed plan (No. 9) 
will explain the general arrangement of the place. The tank shown 
in the centre is nt)t an original part of the stnicture. Its excavati( )n 

' J. A. S. B., Vol. iii. J). 557. drawn by the author. .1. A. S. B., vol. iii. 

* Journey to Cabul. The view in his p. 314 et seq. 
work, though the best we has-e, is not pro- ^ J. A. S. B., vol. iii. pp. 5G0 and 635. 

bably to be depended upon. It was not 



Book I. 




was comnicneed in the last century, and continiied in the present, till 
sumo troubles in the district caused it to he abandoned and left as it 

MOW is, incomplete. 
As far }i.sthe traditions 
collected hy Colonel 
Mackenzie are Intel - 
ligil)le, the monu- 
ment in the centre 
wa.s o])ened by a lo- 
cal liaja in search of 
treasu'-e, but, failing 
in finding any, he de- 
ti'rmined to utilize 
the space he had 
cleared by forming 
in it a reservoir of 
water. These opera- 
tions have effectually 
destroyed all trace 
of what the cen- 
tral shrine originally 
consisted of. It can 
scarcely have been a 
large and solid mound like that of Sanchi, because, if so, an immense 
ma.s.s of worthless material has been entirely removed, while many 
stones of far greater value, and easily transported, remain in situ. 
From the great size of the whole enclosure, and fi-om the care and 
labour displaj'cd in the parts which remain, we may conclude the 
central shrine to have been some object highly ornamented and of great 

These remaining parts consist piineipally of two concentric circles 
of npriglit stones, the outer 19.] ft. in diameter, and between the two a 
paved jjathway 13 ft. in -w-idth. The upright stones are not, like those 
of the Druidical circles in Europe, mere nnshaped masses, but are 
cant'd with a minuteness unkno^\^l anywhere else, even in India, 
'i'his may lie seen both in the elaborate and beautiful drawings which 
( "olonel ^Mackenzie caused to be made of them — copies of which exist 
at ^ladras, Calcutta, and in the East India House — and also in speci- 
mens of the stones themselves, which he sent to all these places. 
\\ ith our impoifect knowledge of Buddhist history, it is impossible to 
identify jiiany of the scenes and siibjects represented, but they cer- 
taiidy form one of the most complete illustrations of Bnddliist foi-ms 
and traditions that can possibly be conceived. 

Besides these two circles of stones, the remains f )f two < if its gate- 

Toi)e of Amraviili. From a MS. plan in thf India House. 
Scale 10(1 fl. lo 1 in. 

• Tho p.-jrticulars from which the account Collection in the Indi.i House, and .i pajjer 
iin<l pliin oC the Uijial-diiuia are compiled are communicated to Mr. Buckinjrham by Co- 
contained in 2 vols, of drawings of the monu- lonel Mackenzie in March, 1822. 
nu'Ut, and some MS. notes, in the Mackenzie 

CiiAr. ir. TOPE AT SARNATH. 15 

ways (out of four tliat probably originally existed) have been cxhnmed, 
tliongli the drawings do not snflfice to explain what their form and 
elevation were. We may, however, believe them to have been of the 
sanio character witli those at Sanchi above described, as very similar 
gateways are more than once represented on the sculptiires at this 
very place. 

The moinid of earth that surrounds it, backing up the outer circle 
of stones, seems merely to be the rubbish from the excavation of the 
tank, and not at all a part of the original design. This is evident from 
the tact that tlie carving at the back of the stones, which is of the same 
character with that at the front, is hidden by it. The removal of this 
rubl)ish is much to be desired, and would probably lead to important 
discoveries. At present we cannot fix the date of the tope witli any 
exactness. All that we can now say is, that it probably was com- 
menced in the third or fourth century of our era, and may have been 
continued down to the tenth or twelfth. 

A great number of tiunuli of various sizes surround this great tope, 
but none, so far as I am aw^are, have been opened or examined with 
care. Caves too, with their walls adorned wdth fresco paintings, occur 
in the neighbourhood, but they too are unexplored. 

Besides these usual accompaniments, this district abounds in wdiat 
are called Panchc Kalis, being circles of unhewn stones, identical in 
every feature with the Druidical circles of Europe, except that their 
dimensions are smaller, their diameter being generally about from 10 
to 20 ft. As far as has been ascertained, they were nearly always 
burying-places, which does not appear to have been the case wdth the 
circles in Europe. 

A few^ miles north of Benares is a group of topes, known Ijy the 
name of Saniath, the principal of which is of a tower-like form, between 
50 and 60 ft. in diameter, and 110 ft. in height. The lower part is 
cased with stone, and adorned with eight niches, surmounted by 
triangular canopies, and ornamented by bands of scroll-woi'k of great 
beauty and delicacy. These, however, have only partially been 
finished ; for, like all Indian sculpture, it was added after the masonry 
was complete. The upper part is in a ruinous state, and appears most 
probably never to have been finished. It has been opened,' but no 
relic or relic-chamlier was found. This spot has been visited by two 
Chinese travellers. Fa Hian ^ in the year 405, and Hiouen Thsang in 
the seventh century, who describe all these topes and the purposes 
for which they were erected. 

The great tope now standing at Sarnath seems to have been raised 
in the end of the 6th or beginning of the 7th century, and to be the 
identical one described by Hiouen Thsang. It must have replaced oi- 
enclosed that seen by Fa Hian. As neither of these travellers mentions 

' This building was opened by Major Cun- count ever been given of the result of the 

ningham, under Mr. I'rinsep's auspices, in excavation. 

1830, and careful drawings made of ever)' * Fuo Koue Ki, p. .10."). Voyages de Hi- 
part of it, which Were, I believe, engravcil, ouen Tlisang, p. 13o. 


it never ])ublis]ied, nor has any detailed ac- 




any relics as existing; here, we are perhaps justified in assuming that. 
none were ever deposited, but that this and the neighbouring topes 
were erected to eomincniorate events in the life of Buddha. 

At Keseriah, in Tirhoot, about 20 miles north of IJakra, where one 
of the })illars of Asoka mentioned above is found, are the niins of what 
ajipeai-s to have been a very large tope. But it is entirely ruined 
externally, and has never been explored, so that we cannot tell what was 
its original shape or purpose.' All along this line of country numerous 
Buddhist remains are found, though all more or less ruined, and none 
of them have been carefully examined. This is the more to be re- 
gretted, iis this was the native coxnitry of the founder of the religion, 
and the place where apparently his doctrines were originally promul- 
gated, if anything older tlian the age of Asoka is preserved in India, 
it is probably in this district that we must look for it. 

The annexed woodcut of a tower on the Giriyek hill south of Patna, 

in Behar, is coi)ied from an engrav- 
ing which is the only piddished 
descri})tiou of the object it repre- 
sents. It is ascribed by the natives 
to Jarasandhu, a king who lived and 
reigned here five or six centm-ies 
before Buddha's time. He is a fa- 
voiu-ite popular hero, like the Pan- 
dus, his contemporaries, to whom 
half the ancient things in India are 
ascribed. P.ut there is no doubt that 
it is a Buddhist monument, and pro- 
bably of Asoka's time, or a little 
later, and erected to commemorate 
some action, or the performance of 
some miracle.* 

The most extensive group of 
topes known to exist is that of 
Jelalabad. These are situated be- 
yond the Indus, and therefore not 
strictly witlun the limits of India 
as usually defined. But they stand 
directly in the track by which the Arian races entered India. That 
district, at the time when they were erected, and indeed long before, 
was so closely connected with India as to be almost always confounded 
with it by the earlier historians. 

The oldest tope hitherto discovered in these parts, or probably 
indeed in India, is one at Jamalgiri, 30 miles north of Peshawur. 

10. Tower on Oiriyik Ilill. 

From o drnwinR l>y Mr. Knvonsliaw, J. A. S. 
of Itciig^l, vol. viii. J). 35:i. 

A view of it is given, .1. A. S. 15., vol. .is contr:ulistin;;iiished from the last mortal 

IV, p. r-2. one. I cMH, however, trace no .such distinc- 

* Mnjnr riinninirliMm. in a jjaper recently tion in form in the Buddhist writings or tra- 

read to the h'oyal Asiatic Society, suggests ditions, and am not aware on what he founds 

that those to|)es which contained no relic such an assumption, 
were dedicattti to the first immortal I'.uddlia 

CiiAi". II 1 iJl'DDIliST AlU'lIi'lKCrrinv 17 

Tt consists of a circular buildiiij;', proluibly 20 ft. in diameter,' 
ornamented by 18 figures of Buddha sitting in the usual cross-legged 
position, each figure separated from the one next it hy a pilaster of 
Coi'iuthian design . 

This central building is surroundetl by an enclosure probably 50 ft. 
in diameter — a poKgon of 13 sides with an opening in each face — now 
a mere wall of rude masonry, but once no doubt richly omamcnted. 
Fragments of its sculpture have been recovered, and are so nearly 
Greek in character, so infinitely superior in design and execution to any- 
thing else which has hitherto come home from that coimtry," as to prove 
incontestably that they must have been executed while the influence 
of the Graeoo-Bactrian kingdom was still strong in that quarter : a 
conclusion which is further confirmed by the relative importance of 
the enclosure, and the general architectural arrangements of the 

A great number of the remaining topes were opened by Dr. 
Honigberger in the years 1833 and 1834 ; and the results of his numis- 
matic discoveries have been published in Paris and elsewhere. The 
only account that we have of the buildings themselves is that given by 
]Mr. Masson, who, with singular perseverance and sagacity, completed 
what Dr. Honigberger left undone.^ 

The topes examined and described by Mr. Masson as existing 
around Jelalabad are 37 in number, viz. 18 distinguished as the 
Darunta group, 6 at Chahar Bagh, and 13 at Hidda. Of these about 
one-half yielded coins and relics of more or less importance, proving 
the dates of their erection to extend from a few years before the 
Christian era to the fifth or sixth century. 

In general appearance they difler considerably from the great 
Indian topes just described, being all taller in proportion to their 
breadth, and having a far more tower-like appearance, than any found 
in India, except the Samath example. They are also smaller, the 
largest at Danmta being only 160 feet in circumference. This is 
about the usual size of tlie first-class topes in Afghanistan, the second 
class being a little more than 1 00 feet, while many are much smaller. 

In almost every instance they seem to have rested on a square base, 
thougli in many this has been removed, and in others is buried in 
rubbish. Above this rises a circular base or drum, crowned by a belt, 
sometimes composed merely of two architectural string coTirses, with 
different-coloured stones disposed as a diaper pattern between them. 

' The building was discovered and e.xca- ham, by tlieir proprietor, E. C. Baylej', Ksq., 

vated by Lieuts. Lumsden and Stokes of the B. C. S. 

Company's service, and some drawings and ^ l\Ir. Masson's account was communicated 

plans published in the Journal of the Asiatic to Professor Wilson, and by him juiblislied 

Society of Bengal, in Nov. 1852, but without in his Ariana Antiipia, with lithographs from 

scales or dimensions, or any such description ^Ir. JIasson's sketches, which, thouijjh not so 

as would make the architectural arrange- detailed as we could wish, are still sufficient 

nients intelligible. to render their form and appearance intelli- 

'^ These sculptures are at present deposited gible. 
for exhibition in the Crvstal Palace at Syden- 





^'•'W^^SBPBS^^^MIK^nV . 


Sometimos a r!in<;-o of ])lain pilasters ncciijiics this space. More genc- 
rallv the pilastfis aiv joined l)y arelies souietimes circular, sometimes 
111" an oji;ee toiiii. In one instance — the retl to])e — tliey are alternate 
circular and three-sided arches. That this l)elt represents the enclosing- 
rail at Sanchi and the pilastered base at Manikvala cannot be doubted. 
It shows a vny considerable chanj2;e in style to find it elevated so far 
lip the monuiuent as it here is, and so completely chan<;\'d from its 
original ])nqtose. 

(IcniTallv s]ieakin_2;, the dome oi- I'oot" rises imniediately above this, 

but no example in 
,. u .% this fjjroup retains its 

'' ""' tennination in a per- 

fect state. Home aji- 
pear to have had 
hemispherical roofs, 
some ccmical, of 
greater or less steep 
uess of pitch ; ami 
some, like that rv- 
presentcd in woodcut 
No. 11, it is pro 
bablo were fiat, or 
with onl}' a slight 
elevation in the cen- 
tre. It is very pro- 
V)al»le that there was 
soim^ connection between the shape of the roof and the purpose for 
which the tope was raised. But we have not evidence to lead us to 
any decision of this point. 

One interesting peculiarity was brought to light by Mr. Ma.sson in 

his excavation of the tope at .Snl- 
tani)ore, as shown in the annexed 
section (woodcut No. 12). It is 
proved that the monument origin- 
ally con.sisted of a small tope on 
a large scpiare base, the relic being 
])laced on its smnmit. It wa« after- 
wards increased in size by a second 
tope being built over it. 

Besides these tlu-re are about 
lilt or ;>() -topes in the neighbour- 
hood f)f Cabul. but all vt-ry mncli 
ruined, and few of any .striking im- 
portance. 8o at wi' are led 
to infer from Mr. Masson's very brief notice of them. No doubt 
many others still remain in spots hitherto unvisited by Europeans. 

In the iimnediate vicinity of all these topes are found caves and 
tumuli, the fonner being the residences of priests, the latter for the 
most pai-t burviTjg-places, perha]»s in some instances smaller relic- 

11. Tupe at Bimcrjiii. 

From a. ilrawing by JMr. Massun, in Wilsuii's Arimia AiiUqua. 

2. I'opf , Suliiiiiporc. 

From n drawing liy Mr. Masson, in Wilson's 
Ariaiia Anti<|iu. 

C'llAl'. II, 




shrines. 'ilieir exact destiiiatiou cannot he ascertained witliout a 
careful investigation by persons thoronglily conversant with the snh- 
ject. Tliei-e are many points of great interest which still require to he 
cleared up by actual examination. \Mieu this has been done we may 
hope to be able to judge with some cei'tainty of their afHnity with 
the Indian buildings on the one hand, and those of Persia on the 

None of the topes described above— indeed, no built tope in India 
— retains a vestige of its tei'- oi- terminal, which nevertheless must have 
(irowncd them all when in their original and perfect state. No re- 
presentation of a tope — and there are some hundreds among the 
sculjitures of Amravati and Sanchi, and in the painting at Ajunta and 
elsewhere — is ever without this indispensable accompaniment. All 
complete rock-cut topes in the caves, as well as the models Avhich are 
strewn by hundi'eds about Gya and other Buddhist sites, are so adorned, 
as are also all modern topes in Burmah, Thibet, and elsewhere. With 
so many authorities there is no difficulty in restoring this member, 
though it certainly would be a satisfaction to find one in situ. 

Its earliest form seems to have been that represented in the annexed 
woodcut, from the relic-shrine in the cave No. 10 at Ajunta.' It con- 
sists of a square box, probably 
(n'iginally of wood, and afterwards 
copied in stone, its lower part 
being an exact copy of the 
railing enclosing the tope at San- 
chi (p. 11). Above this is an or- 
namental frieze of window-heads, 
exactly resembling tlie arch here- 
after to be described in the Karli 
cave. The whole is covered with 
three horizontal slabs projecting 

one beyond the other. In this form there can be very little doubt but 
that it was, or at all events represented, a chasse, or relic-box ; and it 
is more than probable that originally the relic was not placed in the 
tope, but on its top. At all events, we find from Fa Hian and others 
that the relics were frequently exhibited in public, and consequently 
must have been placed in some accessible slirine ; and nowhere could 
one be placed in a position more consonant with the purpose of the 
monument or its architectural peculiarities than this one is. 

If we may venture to adopt this conjecture, it will at once explain 
several peculiarities, and reconcile several difficulties. In the case of 
topes in wliieh no relic has been found, as that of Sanchi, Ave may con- 
clude that there was in many cases originally some sacred object which 
has disappeared mth the terminal which contained it. In the Sultan- 
pore tope (woodcut No. 12), it would be only necessary to suppose a 
determination to enclose a relic that had previously been accessible, to 

l.t. Haso of a W'Q cnl in llio rock at Ajiintn. 

Ilhi.strations of the Rock-cut Temples of India, by the author, p. 17, anil plate iii., 

tVoni which tlie woodcut is tai<cn. 

c 2 



[Hook [. 

axicount for the peculiarities of its stnictiire. Had we draAvin<:;s of the 
exterior of the chambers in Avhich relics are found in the inside of tlu- 
topes, this question would he easily settled, but in the researches 
which have been made this has been entirely overlooked. 

The representations of toi)es would lead us to believe that this base 
was in most instances — though not invariably — surmounted by an 
umbrella, the most common S3^nbol of royalty and state among Eastern 
nations. All modern pagodas have this ; and in one of the oldest eaves 
in India (that at Ivarli, woodcut No. 18) a wooden umbrella still sur- 
mounts the shrine, and is apparently an original part of the design, if 
not indeed the very mnbrella first set up 1800 years ago. 

In some instances three of the mnbrellas were placed one above the 
other; and in process of time all these wooden ornaments came to be 
copied in stone, and to assrune a more strictly architectural character, 
and the tope and its teniiinal took a more spire-like form, like the one 
in cave 19, at Ajunta (woodcut Ko. 14), where the three umbrellas 
have become a spire, and the tope itself as tall in proportion as any of 
those in Afirhanistan. 


Rock-ciU Tope at Ajiinti. 
Kridi) .1 rlniwiiiR l>y tlip Anllicr. 

Small model found in the Tope at 

CiiAi'. 11.] 15UDT)MIST AUCHITKCTUKI':. 21 

Oiico enfrancliisocl I'ruiu the exigencies of wooden coustructioii, the 
ti'ansforniation of the terminal went on rapidly until it comes to con- 
sist of seven,' or even a greater number of discs or umbrellas. This is 
shown in the model (woodcut No. 15) of a tope in steatite,^ found in 
the to[)e at Sultanpore ^ (Avoodcut No. 12), belonging most probably to 
the second or third century of our era. It will be observed that the 
discs, which constitute the u])per part of this model, are of a shape 
which coiild not well be copied on a lai-ge scale in stone, at least 
in the 0])cn air. But it is evidently the type of numberless other 
examples found all over India, and more especially of the models found 
near Gya, except that the latter are so far modified in shape that large 
copies of them could be worked in stone. 

In modern times the terminal has frequently become the whole 
monument, and in Thibet, and more especially in China, the domical 
part is wholly omitted, and the moniunent expands into a seven or 
nine-storied tower, vdth scarcely a trace of its origin or oi'iginal 
destination. In India, too, the Jains biiilt seven and nine-storied 
towers, which no doubt had the same source, but without retaining 
more of the original form than the trans-Himalayan examples. 


The tumuli of India now remaining have no features which would 
entitle them to be regarded as architectural objects. In fact they are 
little different from the barnnvs of Europe and other parts of the Avorld : 
and this analogy is of itself worthy of remark. Bixt it is b}' no means 
certain that the tumuli were all as devoid of decoration from the first ; 
for in Ceylon, Thibet, and other Buddhist countries, the tombs of 
princes and distinguished individuals are built and ornamented 
exactly like the topes. It is far from certain also that the same may 
not be true with regard to those in Afghanistan. It has been before 
observed that the object of the topes in that country is very imper- 
fectly knoAvn. 


As before hinted, no built examples exist in India of the two remain- 
ing classes, the temples (^Chaitt/as) and monasteries ( I iharas), into 
which we have divided the objects of Buddhist architectui'e. But the 
rock-cut examples are so numerous and so ])erfect, that this is hardly 
to be regretted, except for one singular and somewhat puzzling i)ecu- 
liarity — that it leaves us wholly Avithout the means of judging what 
the external appearance of those buildings was. We are thus forced 
to treat it wholly as an internal architecture. Thus for one-half of the 
subject we have abundant materials ; for the other none at all.'' It is 

' Supposed to be symbolical of the seven ' Wilson's Aiiana Aiitiqua, pp. 5;5 and 89, 

Dyani Buddhas. " idate iii. 

- The steatite was cunsideied a sacred ■* It is probabU" that a tolerably correct 

stdiie by the Buddhists in all ay;es, and is so idea of the cj^-neral exterior appearance (if the 

now by the Chinese, under the name of Yu buildin;4S from which these wives were i opied 

stono. All their more sacied vessels are may be oljtained from tiie 7u(f/is (as they are 

made out of it. called) of Mahavellipore (book i. ch. vii., 

22 lllSTOUY (IK AHriHTECTL'HI-:. ' Book 1. 

by no meiiDs iniiiossibk- that in tliL' in.'i<;libuiirhood of Sauehi and else- 
where some remains may be found tliat may ; us out of this dilH- 
ciilty ; and when we are more familiar with the scidptures and freseoes 
than we are at present, many of the buildin<:;s there represented may 
be identified and serve as illustrations, but these illustrations would be 
most unsafe fi;uides at present, unless used with the utmost caution. 

The descriptions hitherto jiublished are not suflicient to enable us 
to form a complete stiitistical account of the cave-tem])les of India, as 
they are usually called. I have myself visited and described all the 
most imi)ortiint of them ; ' and in an interesting paper, recently read to 
the Bombay branch of the Asiatic Society by the Kev. Dr. Wilson, he 
ennmeratcd 37 ditferent i;roui)s of caves, more or less known to 
Europeans. This number is exclusive of those of Bengal and Madras, 
and new ones are daily being discovered ; we may therefore fairly 
assume that certainly more than 40, and probably nearly 50, gi'oups of 
caves exist in India Proper. 

Some of these groups contiiin as many as lOU different and distinct 
excavations, many not more than 1 or a dozen ; but altogether I feel 
convinced that not less than 1000 distinct specimens are to be found. 
Of these probably 100 may be of Brahminical or Jaina origin : the 
remaining 900 are Buddhist, either monasteries or temples, the former 
bein"" incomparably the more numerous class ; for of the latter not 
more than 20 or 30 are known to exist. This difference arose no doubt 
from the greater number of the viharas being grouped aroinid built 
topes, as is always the case in Afghanistan : and, consequently, they 
did not reipiire any roek-ciit place of worship while possessed of the 
more usual and appropriate edifice. 

One lm])ortant feature is an exception to what has been said of our 
ignorance of the exterior aitpearance of Indian temples and monasteries. 
Of the caves the fo^ades are generally peifect, and executed in the rock 
with all the detail that could have graced the buildings of which thc}^ 
are copies. In the investigation of .these objects a very important 
advantage is the perfect immutability of a temple once hewn out of the 
live rock. No repair can add to, or indeeil scarcely alter, what is 
once so executed ; and there can be no doubt that we see them now, 
in all essential peculiarities, exactly as they were originally designed. 
This advantage will be easily appreciated by any one who has tried to 
grope for the evidence for a date in design, afforded by our much- 
altered and often reconstructed cathedrals of the middle ages. 

The geographical distribution of the caves is somewhat singular, 
more than nine-tenths of those now kno>vn being found within the 
limits of the Bombay presidency. The remainder consist of two groups, 
those of Behar and Outtack, neither of which are imjiortuiit in extent, 
in Bengal ; one only, that of Mahavellipore, in Macbiis ; and two or 

woodcut 42). Tlipsp are monuments of a doubt t"lu'ir being, in most respects, close 

niiicli later date, and belonging to a dillbrent copies of tiiein. 

ri-li'.;ion, but tliey •orrespond so nearly in all ' Illustrations of the liouk-cut Teiiij)les ol 

tlurir |»iiits witii the temples and uionastcrio India, 1 vol.; text 8vo., with folio plates, 

now under consideration, that \\f cannot Wcale, l.onclon, 1845. 

('11A1-. U.j BUDDHIST AKCIIITKfTriMv 23 

three not very iin))oitant groups, wliicli luivc Llth traced in At'glum- 
istan and the I'uiijauh. 

1 was at one time inclined to connect this rcmaikabh' Ideal distri- 
hution Avith the comparative proximity of this side of India to the 
rock-ciitting Egyptians and Ethiopians. Ihit the ctnncidcnce can be 
more simply accounted for by the existence of rocks in both countries 
[)erfectly adapted to stich works. 'J'he whole cave district of India is 
composed of horizontal strata of amygdaloid and other cognate trap 
formations, generally s})eaking of very considerable thickness and gi'eat 
unitbrmity of texture, and possessing besides the advantage of their 
edges being generally exposed in perfectly perpendicular cliffs. So 
that no rock in any part of the world coidd either be more suited for 
the purpose or more favourably situated than these formations are. 
They were easily accessible and easily worked. In the rarest })ossible 
instances are there any flaws or faults to disturb the uniformity of the 
design; and when complete they afford a ])erfectly dry temple or 
abode, singidarly uniform in temperature, and more durable than :uiy 
class of temple found in any other part of the world. \\ itli these 
advantages we need hardly look further for an explanation of the 
phenomenon ; though some collateral points of explanation may perhaps 
reveal themselves to future explorers. 

Their distribution as to time also presents a curioiis anomaly. iSo 
far as our knowledge now goes, the oldest are luuloubtedly those of 
Behar and Cuttack in Bengal. The former of these were all excavated 
in the two centuries preceding the Christian eia, and of the latter 
the greater part are equally ancient, though a few probably extend to 
a century or two after our era ; whereas the oldest on the westein side 
— the earliest, for instance, at Ajunta and Karli — can hardly date 
anterior to the birth of Christ, if so early, and extend to the tenth or 
perhaps even the twelfth centiuy of our era. Thus the juactice of 
excavating the rock was almost immediately abandoned in the coixntry 
where it arose, and was taken ^^p and pursued to an extraoi'dinar}- 
extent in a district where it certainly was not original. 

From the time of Dasaratha, the grandson of Asoka, who two 
hundi-ed years before Christ excavated the first cave at liajagriha, to 
Indradyumna, who apparently finished the last of those at Ellora, the 
series is uninterrupted ; and, if properly examined and dra-vvai, the 
caves would furnish us with a complete religious and artistic history 
of the greater part of India during fourteen centuries, the darkest and 
most perplexing of her history. But, although during this long })eriod 
the practice was comnuju to Buddhists, Hindus, and Jains, it ce;ised 
with the Mahometan concpiest, or before it. Hardly one excavation 
has been made or attempted since that period, except perhaps some 
rude Jaina monoliths in the rock at Cualior. and it may be one or two 
in southern India. 


The well-known cave at Karli, situated on the road lietAveen Bond)ay 
and Poonah, is the largest as well as the most complete hitherto dis- 




cDvereil in India, and was excavated at a time wlieii the style vva« in 
its ijjri'atest jmrity. 

There are no very certain gi'oundis for fixing the date of its excava- 
tion, hut \vc sliall not err far in attributing it to the ceutuiy before or 
aftci- tlie Christian era — most ]»rt)bably the latter. There are some 
rciisons for ascribing it to the era of Salivahana ( a.d. 7S). although this, 
it must be confessed, is at present little more tlian a mere apj)roxi- 
mation to the truth. 


Section "f Cave at Karli. 
S<ale 5(1 M. to 1 ill. 


IMaii of Cave at Karli, iloiilile the usual size. 

The building, Jis will be seen by the annexed illustrations, resembles 
to a very great extent an i^ai-ly Christian chuvch in its arrangements; 
consisting of a nave and side aisles, terminating in an apse or semi- 
dome, round which the aisle is carried. The general dimensions of 
the interior are 12Gft. from the entrance to the back wall, by 45 ft. 7 in. 
in width fn»m wall to wall. The side aisles, however, are very nnich 
narrower tlmn in ( 'hristian churches, ihe central one being 25 ft. 
7 in., so that the others are only 10 ft. wide, including the tliickness of 
the pillars. As a scale for comparison, it may be mentioned that its 
arrangement and dimensions are verj' similar to those of the choir of 
Norwich Cathedral, or of the Abbaye aux llommes at Caen, omitting 
the outer aisles in the latter Iniildings. The tliickness of tlie jiiers at 
Norwich and ( 'aen nearly corresponds with the breadth of the aisles in 

CllAI-. II. I 


' ■.•! :r.k' ' 



tlie Indian tcniidc. In lHii;lit, liowcvcr, Karli is very inferior, being 
only 42 or peihaps 45 it. from the floor to the apex, ua nearly a« ean 
be ascertained. 

Fifteen pillars on Ccicli side separate the nave from the aisles ; eaeli 
of these has a tall base, an oetagonal shaft, and riehly ornamentetl 
eajiital. on whieh kneel two elephants, each bearing two figures, gene- 
rally a man and a woman, l)ut sometimes two females, all very mneh 
better exeented than sueh ornaments nsually are. The seven })illars 
behind the altar are plain oetagonal piers, without either or 
eapital, and the four iinder the entrance gallery differ considei'ably 
from those at the sides. These sculptures on the capitals supply the 
place usually occupied by frieze and cornice in Grecian architecture ; 
and in other examples plain painted surfaces occupy the same space. 
Above this springs the roof, semicircular in general section, but some- 
what stilted at the sides, so a« to make its height greater than the semi- 
diameter. It is ornamented even at this day by a series of wooden 
ribs, j)robably coeval with the excavation, which i)rove beyond the 
shadow of a doubt that the roof is not a copy of a masonry arch, but of 
some sort of timber construction which we cannot now very well 

Immediately inuler the scmidome of the apse, and nearly where the 
altar stands in Christian churches, is placed the shrine, in this instance 
a plain dome slightly stilted on a circular drum. As there ai'O no 
ornaments on it now, and no mortices for wood- work, it probably was 
originally ])lastered and painted, or may have been adorned with hang- 
ings, whieh some of tlie sculptui'cd representiitions would lead us to 
sujjpose was the usual mode of ornamenting these altars. It is sur- 
mouiited by a teiminal the base of which is similar to the one sho\vni 
on wr)odcut No. 13, and on this still stand the I'cmains of an inul)rella 
in wood, very much decayed and distorted by age. 

()pl)osite this is the entrance, under a gallery exactly corresponding 
with our n)odloft, consisting of three doorways, one leading to the 
centre, and one to each of the side aisles, and over the gallery the 
whole end of the hall is open, forming one great window, through 
whieh all the light is admitted. This great window is arched in the 
shape of a liorseslioe, and exactly resembles the omament« on the 
upper part of the terminal found at Ajunta (woodcut 13). and the 
arches whieh suimount the niches in the hall of the (ddest monastery 
cave at Ajunta, to l»e described hereafter, 'i'he outer porch is con- 
siderably wider than the body of the building, l)eing 52 ft. wide, and 
is closed in front by a screen coinposed of two stout octagonfil pillars, 
without either base or capital, supporting what is now a plain mass of 
rock, but was onc-e ornamented by a wooden gallery Avhich fornu'd the 
jirincipal ornament of the facade. Above this a dwarf colonnade or 
attic of four columns between pilasters admitted light to the great 
window, and this again was surmounted In' a wooden cornice or onia- 
mciit of some sort, though we cannot now restore it, as only the 
mortices remain that attaciietl it to the rock. 

Still further in advance of this st-finds the lion-])illai', in this instance 


ti ])liiiii shaft with ."{2 flutes, or ruthcv faces, snrnionntccl l)y a caiiital 
not unlike that at Kesariah (woodcut No. 3), but in this instance it 
su})ports four lions insteatl of one. Another similai- ijillai- jti-ohahly 
stood on tlie ojipositc side, but it has either fallen or been taken down 
to make way for the little temple that now occupies its place. 

The absence of the wooden ornaments, as well as our ignorance of 
the mode in which this temi)le was finished laterally, and the porch 
joined to the main temple, prevents us from judging of the eil'ect of 
the front in its perfect state. But the proportions of such parts as 
remain are so good, and the cflFect of the whole so pleasing, that there 
can be little hesitation in ascribing to such a design a tolerably high 
rank among architectural compositions. 

Of the interior we can judge perfectly, and it certainly is as solemn 
and grand as any interior can well be, and the mode of lighting the 
most perfect — one undivided volume of light coming through a single 
opening overhead at a very favouralile angle, and falling directly on 
the altar or principal object in the building, leaving the rest in com- 
parative obscurity. The effect is considerably heightened by the 
closely set and thick columns that divide the thi'ee aisles from one 
another, as they suffice to prevent the boundary walls from ever being 
seen, and, as there are no oi)enings in the walls, the view between the 
pillars is practicalh' xuilimited. 

All these peculiarities are found more or less developed in all the 
other caves of the same class in India, varying only with the age and 
the gradual change that took place from the more purely wooden forms 
of this cave to the lithic or stone architecture of the moi-e modern 
ones. This is the principal test by which their relative ages can be 
detci-mined, and at the same time proves incontestably that the Karli 
cave was excavated very shortly after stone came to be used as a 
building material in India. 

The following list, of which I have placed Karli ' at the head for 
the sake of comparison, includes I believe the seven inost beantiful. or 
at least best known, examples of this sort. There are many other 
cave-temples scattered through the various groups of the western 
ghats, but none of them have either been diawn or described in such a 
manner as to allow of their being classified or even enumerated i 1 1 
such a work as this. 



Probable age. 

Karli . 


. 126- 

. 45-7 . 

1st contiiiy after Cli 


Ajunta (Xo. 

10) . 

. 94- G . 

. 41-3 . 

. Ditto. (?) 

Do. (No. 

9) . . 

. 45- 

. 2:3- 

2iiil or orJ century. 

Do. (No. 

19). . 

. 4i;-4 . 

. 23-7 . 

5th century. 

Do. (No. 

2G). . 

. ij(j-l . 

. 3y3 . 

. 9th or 10th ceutuiy. 


EUoia . 

. 85-1 . 

. 43- 

7th or 8th century. 

Kauiiari . 

. . . 

. 88-0 . 

. 39- lU . 

. ;)th or loth ceutury. 

As will be seen from this list, the next in age and size to Karli is 

' 'i'he other six 1 have niVM'lt' vi.sited ainl ineanureil. 



[Book 1. 

19. Section of Cave No. 10, Ajunta. No scaK'. 

the oldest cave at Ajuntu.' 'I'hese two caves are very similar, except 
that at Ajunta all the pillars are pliiin (iL-t;i.<;oiis, without either eapital 
or base. They are stuccoed, and jiaiiited with hg'ures of Buddha and 
of various saints. Above the jdllars is a phiiii space or belt, corre- 
sponding in position to the triforinin of a luediiiival cathedral, onia- 
inented with painting or with sculpture illustrative of the puii^oses to 
whieh the temple was dedicat(>d. Over this rose the roof, somewhat 
flatter than the Ivarli oue, but like it adorned with wooden ribs; in 

this instance, however, these 
have peri.shed, and left only 
their marks and fastenings be- 
hind. But in the aisles these 
wooden ribs are represented by 
stone ones, carved out t>f the 
solid rock. 'J'his wt)uld seem to 
indicate an advance in style, and 
consequently more modem date ; 
but the greater simiilicity of 
other parts precludes the idea of 
anv great dift'erence in aoe. Its 
section will be luiderstood by the 
annexed woodcut, which also ex- 
plains the arrangement of all the 
caves, and may give us some 
notion t)f the exterior form of the buildings Avliicli these caves imitate. 
The next cave, No. 9, is nearly similar to this, except in size, and 
has less appearance of age than its neighbour ; it is, however, very 
much ruined, and both of them have lost their fa(;ades, from the preci- 
pice having fallen awa}', in the face of which they were excavated. 

No. !!•, at Ajunta. is one (,)f the most perfect of the class in India, 
having been excavated before the style had become utterly degenerate, 
but after all the essential parts of the style had so long and so fre- 
(piently been repeated in stone, that they had lost all the raw a^jpear- 
ance of their wooden originals, and had in consequence become, strictly 
speaking, architectural features. 

No. 2(5, though very similar to this in many respects, was exca- 
vated at too late a period to retain much purity of style, and all its 
details are coarse and clumsy when conqtaied with the last ; while its 
sculjitural arrangements show such a degenerate tendency towards 
modern liiuduism, as to denote that the style was at its last gasp when 
this cave was commenced. 

The well-known cave, the Viswakarma, atEllora, occupies an inter- 
mediate ])lace between these two. In it the style has become so com- 
]>letely a stone one, that, had we no knowledge of the earlier wooden 
originals, we might be led to suppose that many of the forms and 
details arose from the exigencies of construction and vaulting. It is 

' Tlio toe of its tliifjolKi is ilrawn, woodcut llliistratiniis i>t' tlit- Kock-cut Teinjilcs ot" 
Nil. i:{; a view of its interior is s^iven in the India, \>\;\U- iii. 

, ■* 


certain from the earlier examples that this was not the case, for we are 
able in every detail to trace the transition from wood to stone, without 
missing a single link of the chain of evidence. 

The last cave mentioned in the list, that of Kannari, at Halsette, 
near IJombay, is, 1 am convinced, for reasons stated at lengtli else- 
where,' merely a copy of the Karli cave, executed at a time when 
Buddhist art had greatly decayed, and mere copying had taken the 
place of orignal design and thought. It resembles its great prototype 
in every respect, both externally and internally, except in such a com- 
plete degradation of style as tt) form a puzzle to an antiquaiy on any 
other hyi>othesis than the one suggested above. 

Besides these, several of the Behar caves are perhaps entitled to be 
called cave-temples, though, never having had an opportunity of visit- 
ing them myself, and no correct or detailed dra\A'ings of them having 
yet been published, I speak with considerable diffidence legarding 

The most interesting of them, architecturally at least, is that called 
the Lomas Eishi, the only one of the group that possesses an archi- 
tectural facade. It is covered with an inscription which, if authentic 
and coeval, might induce us to ascribe it to the fourth century ; every 
detail, however, betrays so distinctly its wooden origin, that it must 
be earlier — perhaps even before the Christian era — and therefore the 
earliest we are acquainted with. All the peculiarities of the wood are 
so literally copied in the rock, that if drawn in detail we should have 
no great difficulty in restoring the original built form from what we 
find here. 

'J'he arrangements of this cave are very peculiar, and difier from 
those of Western India in many respects. As 

will be seen from the annexed plan,^ the door- -r*«*^>|a^»^t««»«w«^ 
way with the architectural facade is at the side -^'"'^W^ ' ^^^ 
instead of the end ; and the innermost part or ^i '*' j^ - « s 'W 

shrine, instead of being a copy of the exterior *4s*^.,v*' 3.'. s" . 'JS 

of a tope, is here a domical chamber, capable of j -__^ 

receiving a relic or any other sacred thing for 20. Lomas iiishi Cave. 
which such a sanctuary might be used. 

This peculiarity is so interesting, and so illustrative of the original 
form of these caves, that I have giA-en a plan and section of another, 
the Sat Gurbha cave (woodcut jSo. 21), which is veiy similar to that 
last described both in size and arrangement, but with the shrine some- 
what differently arranged. These caves receive no light excejit 
through the narrow entrance at the side, so that the interior is nearly 
dark, and that of the innennost chambers quite so. 

The Sat Gi;rbha cave is perfectly complete and polished through- 
out, while the Lomas Kishi is not, as it was apparently never quite 

' Illustrations of the Rock-cut Temples of * From one published by Capt. Kittoe, in 

India, by the author, to which I must refer an iiiferestintj paper on the caves in the May 

for further particulars and illustrations of all number of the J. A. S. B. for 1847, from 

these examples. which the woodcuts are taken. 

30 HiSTOliY OF AliClllTKCTCnE. [B.mK 1. 

finished iiitornally ; and as both caves are excavated in Syenitic 
granite of the hardest and most compact character, the hiljoiir tlic}' 

must liave required will alnictst hear coni])ari- 
MHMM|MMgM|MMMMH| son witli that IJCKtowcd on their lar<;er and 
^B^^^^^^™^^^^R more ornate rivals in the west. Their age, 
BP' ^1 ; i B however, renders them still more deserving of 
■HIHHHHHHMH attention ; for if I am not very much mistaken, 
^^^MM^MMn|HMM^ they are the oldest of their class in India, 
^^^^^L\ IB and the germ of what we find develni)ed so 

B''*r"'" wi' ''■'" i9 fully at Ajunta and Ellora. From the in- 

^^^^^^^^^^:.-^B scriptions they appear to belong to the age 
^H^H^^IHIV..9H of Dasiiratha, the giandson of Asoka, and con- 
21. Sat Guibha Cave. scquently to the sccoud century B.C., or there- 

One very cxirious peculiarity of these, the earliest caves in India, 
is, that they only, of all the buildings or caves of that countr}', possess 
the sloping doorway, narrower at the top than at the bottom. This 
shaite is usually called Egyptian; which, though not found in that 
country, does exist in Ethiopia, in Etniria, in ancient Greece, and 
Asia ]\Iinor. It is remarkable that these are precisely the countries in 
which traces of the Pehasgic race are most certainly to be foiuid. We 
must content ourselves here with pointing out the fact that similar 
tiaccs are here found in the earliest of all the specimens of Buddhist 
architecture, and that we find in conjunction with these sloping jambs 
the honeysuckle ornaments of the Ionic order, which the Greeks cer- 
tainly iiiij)ortcd from Asia, and which as certainly came to India from 
the west. Much of course remains to be done before these impiiiies 
can lead to any satisfactory conclusion ; but we now at least know 
that the path is open, and that important discoveries must eventually 
reward the earnest explorers of these hitherto neglected antiquities. 


It is probable that the cave-monasteries differ far more widely than 
the temples from tlu-ir built originals. The number of priests in the 
most Houiisliing tiuu's of Uuddliism apjicars to have been enormous. 
Its records show that it must have exceeded that (tf Roman (.'atholic 
monks in the middle ages. In fact no religion probably ever indulged 
in a more excessive ])riesthood, and none ever more certainly sank 
beneath the weight of its indolence and eonuption. \\c may conclude 
from this that the number and size of the moujisteries was very great : 
and we have rcJUiou to believe, both from descriptions and tradition, 
that many of them were buildings of several stories in height. It is 
true that wu have very slight traces of this in the cave-montisteries ; 
for in most instances, even where we find them in two or three stjiges, 
one above the c)ther, they are distinct excavations and have no con- 
nection one with another. The caves are moreover limited by the 
neccs.sity of admitting light from the front onh* ; and mme of them 
contain more than a cintral liall with its surrounding cells. Nor of 


course do the caves <;i\(' any iilca of what \\\v, exterior of the originuls 
iiiiiy hiive het'ii. nl' w hicli thcrclnic wo can only aftirin that they iiuist 
have heeii important and iniposin*;' ohjccts. 

The s;"encial puiposes of botli the temples and the monasteries aie 
perfectly well known. Any one who has seen liiiddhist }uiests cele- 
brate either matins or vespois, or some of their more pompous cere- 
monies, will at once understand the use of every part of the edifices 
we have been describinjj;. To those who have not witnessed tliese 
cei'emonies, it Avill suttice to say that in all the principal forms they 
resemble those of the Koman Catholics. It is beside the purpose of this 
worlv to trace the source of this resemblance, which has attracted tlu^ 
atti'ntion of every Roman Catholic priest or missionary who has visited 
P)uddhist countries, from the earliest missicms to China to the recent 
joui'ney into Thibet of Messrs. Hue and CJabet. All they can suggest 
by way of explanation is, " que le diable y est pour beaucoup." 

The same is true with legard to the monasteries. At the time 
when they were excavated, Buddhist pnests were, as now, swoi-n to 
celibacy and poverty, and lived apart from their fellow-men in monas- 
teries devoted wholly to religious observances. They shaved theii- 
heads, wore a peculiar garb, and obtained, like the mendicant friars, 
their subsistence principally by alms, which they collected by begging 
from house to house. Their principal duties were the study of tlie 
law and precepts of Buddha, and the continually recurring perform- 
ance of an unmeaning ceremonial, in which the laity took no part. In 
some instances these ceremonies were performed within the monas- 
teries themselves, which were all in later times provided with one or 
moi-e chapels, containing images of Buddha or of subordinate saints, 
before which their prayers were repeated. But in earlier times, at 
least, the monasteries were always in the immediate neighbouihood df 
temples ; from which we may gather that either the monasteries were 
mere residences, and all the services were performed in the temples; 
or that the great and solemn acts of worship took })lace in the temples. 
while the ordinary daily devotions were celebrated within the walls of 
the monasteries themselves. 

Tt has been already said that the monasteries are far more numerous 
than the temples. From 700 to 800 examples are known at the pi-esent 
day, and probably there aie many more. In age they extend from the 
simple unadorned cells excavated by Dasaratha, the grandson of Asoka , 
about 200 B.C., in the granite rocks at Behar, nearly to the time of the 
Mahonretan conquest. The cidminating point, however, of this style 
of art, was shortly after the Christian era ; the greatest numbei', cer- 
tainly the best, having been excavated during the first five centuries 
after the birth of Christ. 

Bexgat. Cavks. 

The oldest caves in India are those in Behar, close to the old cajiital 
of Eajagriha ; but, except the two temples already mentioned (p. 29). 
they arc all mere cells, devoid of architectural t)rnament either exter- 



[Book I. 

nally or internally, generally square, and Avith a sl()])ing jambetl door- 
way. In one instance, however, the Gopi Koohlia.' the cell is magnitied 
into a hall 4() ft. ."> in. by 10 ft. 2 in., with scniicircnlar ends and a 
curvilinear roof, the whole being most carefully polished, which, con- 
sidering the hardness of the granite rock in which it is cut, makes it a 
work of far more labour than many of those in the West, though they 
are generally not only laiger, but more elaborately ornamented. 

The caves in the L'dyagiri, near Cuttack, being cut in a far more 
tractable material, a fine-grained sandstone, show much more fancy and 
architectural magnificence in design, and consist of all the various 
cla&ses and grades of such residences, from the simple cell of the soli- 
tary ascetic to the rich and ]io]iulous monastery. 

One of the most remaikable of the first class is the so-called Tiger- 

cave, being in fact a large mass 
of rock, cai'ved into a form in- 
tended to represent the head 
of that animal, whose extended 
jaws form the verandah leading 
into a small apartment exca- 
vated in the interior of the 
skull (see woodcut No. 22), 

(Jenerally speaking, these 
single cells have a porch of 
two pillars to protect the door- 
way, which leads into a small 
room 10 or 12 ft. square, consti- 
tuting the Avhole cave, build- 
ings on precisely the same plan 
are still very common in India, 
exce])t that now, instead of being the abode of a hermit, the cell is 
occuitied by an image of some god or other, and is surmoimted by a 
low dome, or pyramidal spire, converting it into a temple of some 
pretensions. The lower part, however, of these small temples is very 
similar to the rock-cut hermitages of which we are speaking. 

The next extension of the cave system was to fonn an oblong cell 
with a verandah of the same length in front of it, 
in plan like the Ganesa cave at Cuttack (woodcut 
No. 2.'}) ; all Ihe larger caves at this place being 
either similar, or extensions of the same idea. The 
Thakoor cave, for insbmce. has a A'crandah 55 ft. in 
length, with wings extending at right angles in front 
of the principal facade. This cave, being two stories 
in height, might accommodate froiu 40 to 50 monks, 
whereas the Ganesa cave, supposing it to have been divided between 
each of ihi- four doors it possesses, could only accommodate four or five. 


Tiger Cave, Cuttatk. 

23. Giinesu Cave. 
Scale 100 ft. to I ill. From 
a pluii by tlic .Viitlior. 

' For p.irticiilars of these caves I am in- the .T. A. S. B., March, May, and .'September, 
debtwl to sevenil pji|)ers, bv ('ajit. Kittoe, in 1847, from which the woodcut is tiiken. 

Chap. II. 



In uonu of these uivcs is there seen cithci' a tsliriue ur any phiee 
where one eoukl he jihiced ; the probahility, therefore, is, that they 
were attached to some sacred edifice which has long since disappeared. 
Another pccnliarity, showing that they must have been constnicted 
before the Christian era, is, that no trace of a sanctuary is foinid, nor 
any image of Buddha or of saints. The only actual worship of Avhicli 
there is any trace is that of the Bo-tree, represented on one bas-relief 
in a cave called the Jodeo Gopa, proving how early that worship was 
introduced, and how j)re-eminent it was among Buddhists in those 

Western Caves. 

Among the various groups of caves in the Bombay Presidency we 
lind counteii:)arts of all those existing in Bengal ; but the former caves 
generally speaking have assumed a shape which makes a marked dis- 
tinction between them and the older caves of Bengal. This consists in 
separating the cells from the hall around which they are placed — an 
arrangement, I believe, unknown in Eastern India. The oldest cave- 
monastery at Ajunta is a hall 30 ft. 7 in. square. It is adorned with 
seven niches on every side, arched in a horse-shoe shape like the great 
window at Karli. Of these seven niches the first, third, fifth, and 
seventh are blank. The remaining three are occupied in the inner 
sides by doors leading to cells, of Avhich there are thiis nine, on the 
outer side by the entrance-door and two windows. 

It is evident, however, that it requires the stratum of rock in Avhich 
the cave is excavated to be singularly perfect to admit of such a surface 
being left wholly without support. The next step, therefore, seems to 
have been to introduce 4 pillars on the floor, which is done at Ajunta 
in the cave No. 1 1 , next in age and situation to the one last described, 

r • 1 I 


'1 ^ 






24. Cave No. 11, at Ajunta. 

From a plan by the Author. Scale 50 ft. to 1 in. 

25, Cave No. 2, at Ajunta. 

From a plan by the Author. Scale 50 ft. to 1 in. 

which, thoiigh the area is not larger, has this necessary adjunct arranged 
as shown in the annexed diagram (woodcut No. 24). 

The next step was to introduce 12 pillars to support the roof, 
there being no intennediate nimiber which Avould divide by 4, 
and admit of an opening in the centre of every side. This arrange- 




l^OOK I. 

ment is slxowii in tlie woodcut No. 25, representing the plan of 
the cave No. 2 at Ajunta. Before this stage of cave architecture 
had been reached, the worship had degenerated considerably from 
its original ])urity ; and these caves always possess a sanctuary con- 
taining an image of IJuddha. There are frequently, besides this, as 
in the instance under consideration, two side chapels, like those in 
Catholic churches, containing images of siibordinate saints, sometimes 
male, sometimes female. 

The next and most extensive arrangement of these square monastery- 
caves is that in which 20 pillars are placed in the floor so as to support 
the roof, 6 on each side, counting the comer pillars twice. There are 
several of these large caves at Ajunta and elsewhere ; and one at 
Raugh, on the Tapty, represented in woodcut No, 26, has, besides the 
ordinary complement, 4 additional pillars in the centre, a precaution 
taken evidently in consequence of the rock not being sufficiently homo- 
geneous and perfect to be able to support itself without this additional 




















a a ffl 



U J ^ 

26. Cave ul Uaugh. 

From ii pliiii, by Capt. Diiiigerfiold, in the 'rransactioiis of the Bombay Literary Society. 

These — which might be classed, according to the teims used in 
(iieek architecture, astylar, when having no pillars; distyle, when 
with two j)illar8 in each face; teti-a-style, AN^th four; and hexastyle 
with six — form the leading and most iharactenstic division of 
excavations, and with sliglii an- to be found in all the 
modem seiies. 

The forms, however, of many aie so various and so abnormal, that 
it woidd require a far more extended cla.ssitication to enable us to 

ClIAl-. H. 




Durbar Cave, Salsette. From a plan by the Author. 
Scale 50 ft. to 1 in. 

describe uud iuLludo iliciu all. lii many iiiKtances the great depth of 
the cave which this square arrangement required was felt to be incon- 
venient ; and a more obhjng form was adopted, as in the plan of the 
Durbar cave at Salsette (woodcut No. 27), where, besides, the sanctuary 
is projected forward, 
and assists, with the 
pillars, to support the 
roof. In some examples 
this is earned even 
further, and the sanc- 
tuary, standing boldly 
t'orAvard to the centre 
of the hall, forms in 
reality the only sup- 
poit. This, however, 
is a late arrangement, 
and must be considered 
Hiurc as an economical 
than an architectural 
improvement. Indeed 
the dignity and beauty of the whole composition are almost entirely 
destroyed by it. 

Ornamentation of the Caves. 

The principal mode of embellishment adopted in these caves was 
painting, if not exactly in fresco, at least in some soii of distemper, 
in many, indeed in most instances, the plaster with which the walls 
were prepared to receive the coloured decorations has peeled oft", owing 
either to the dampness of the rock, or to the mischievous violence of 
idle men. In some of the caves, however, at Ajunta and elsewhere, 
the paintings still remain nearly complete, and as fresh as the day 
they were painted. A competent artist, Captain Gill, of the Company's 
Sei'vdce, has been employed for some years in copying these. ^\ hen 
the series is complete they will not only form a most valuable illus- 
tration of Buddhist history and tradition, and of the mannei's and 
customs of India more than a thousand years ago, but the}- will illus- 
trate to a very considerable extent the form and ordinance of the very 
Imildings they adorn, as many representations of architectin-al objects 
are interspersed among the figured subjects, quite sufficiently well 
drawn to be understood by those who are familiar with the style they 
belong to. 

In some of the older caves not only the walls and roof, but even the 
pillars, are wholly covered with stucco, and oi-naniented with painting. 
This painting is divided, generally speaking, according to the following 
rule. On the walls are extensive compositions of figures and land- 
scapes ; on pillars, single detached figures, representing either Buddha 
or Buddhist saints ; while the paintings on the roof are almost invaii- 
ably architectural frets and scrolls, often of extreme beauty and ele- 
gance, rivalling many of those at Ponq)eii and the Baths of Titus. 
This threefold division is in fact the only one admissible in good taste, 

D 2 


or only with the «li<;htest possible modification where figures and 
conventional oniaments are to be combined. 

At a later period many of the ornaments which had been painted 
on the earlier pillars came to bo can-ed on them in relief, as happened 
in Europe in the transition from the Norman to the Gothic style. The 
pillare were naturally the first to undergo this transfoimation, but it 
was extended in some instances to the walls, and even to the roofs. 
In some cases there still exist traces of painting on these engraved 
ornaments, but it seems that in the last ages of the style the architects 
were satisfied with the effect produced by the light and shade of 
bold reliefs, and abandoned colour, to a considerable extent at least, if 
not altogether. 

There is abundance of evidence to prove that stucco and paint were 
used at an early age for the adornment of the external faces of the 
caves ; and traces of this still exist at Karli and else^vhere. In such 
a climate they must soon have been foiuid perishable and unsuited to 
the purpose, and therefore abandoned. One of the most frequent sub- 
jects for this art is the front or principal feature of the temple itself. 

This, perhaps, will be best imderstood bj- referring to the Roman 
or Italian style, where windows are constantly ornamented with small 
temple ends, or pedunents, and blank spaces filled up either with blind 
windows crowned by pediments, or with similar fonns used as niches. 
80 at Karli (woodcut No. 18) we find all the plain faces of the hall 
covered with niches representing the gi'eat faQade of the temple itself; 
and in the later caves at Ajunta these niches are always filled with 
cross-legged figures of Buddha or similar representations. 

^^^lerc raised or architectural fonns are used for the roofs, they aie 
mere repetitions in stone of the wooden fonns universally prevalent in 
India at the present day, and as common apparently then as now. 
The mode of constniction is to lay large square beams, a foot or more 
square, parallel to one another, and two or three feet apart, cros.sed by 
smaller timbers, about three inches square, at such distances, say one 
foot, as will allow tiles to be laid upon them ; these are covered with 
a bed of concrete and plaster, which fonns a solid and impei'vious 


The only objects requiring further notice before leaving this branch 
of the subject are the i)illars, which in India seem ncA'cr to have been 
of wood, and are indeed the only parts of the architecture which do 
not show most unnaistakeable evidence of their timber origin. My 
own impression is that this arose from the white ants being then, as 
now, the certain destroyers of an}- wooden object which touched the 
earth, and from the consequent necessity that has always existed of 
l)lacing some indestmctible banier between them ami those parts 
which must necessarily be constructed of wood.' 

' To .on Kiirojiean architect this may seem At all events, I can suggest no better of a 

a strange and insiillicicnt explanation of the fact whose universality, whatever the anise 

fact; hut I think most of those who have re- may be, .idmits of no doubt, 
sided in India will acknowledge its validitv. 

CiiAr. II. 



In the earliest caves, as was no doubt the case in the earliest build- 
ings, the pillar is a square mass, from four to six diameters in height. 
This is brouglit within the domain of 
architecture by cutting oft' the angles, 
so as to reduce it to an octagon, in 
the oldest temple at Ajunta this is done 
for the whole height ; but a more com- 
mon practice is to reduce only the cen- 
tral part to an octagonal form, leaving 
the base and capital square, as in the 
example from the Ganesa cave at Cut- 
tack (woodcut Ko. 28). 

This system is carried to a greater 
extent by again cutting oif the angles 
of the octagon, so as to produce a shape 
of 16 sides; and these are sometimes 
fluted, as in the example on the next 
page from one of the monasteries (No. 
17) at Ajunta. It shows also the con- 
struction of the roof explained above, 
consisting of larger and smaller beams, 
crossing one another at right angles, so 
as to support the tiles of the flat roof. 
In this example only the central part 
of the pillar is adorned with painting, 
the plainer members being covered with 

stucco, but each fluting is filled with a scroll intermixed with flowers, 
beautifully painted, and the discs, which are introduced where the 
form changes from a square to a figure of 16 sides, are also coloured. 

In the third example (woodcut No. 30) the pillar changes regularly 
from 4 to 8 and 16 sides ; then, as is frequently the case, a circular 
member is introduced, and it returns thi'Oiigh the octagon to the 
square which supports the bracket, forming a whole which may be 
considered as the typical order of Indian architecture ; the division 
into 4, 8, and 16 parts pei-vading every member of it, and the orna- 
ments in this instance, both sculptured and coloured, being continued 
with increasing I'ichness from the base, or near it, to the capital. 

These, and indeed most Indian pillars, terminate upwards in a 
bracket capital, more or less developed. In woodcut No. 28 the capital 
is only a wooden ornament repeated in stone, this being one of the 
(Eldest examples in India. In the next example it is more important, 
and in the last full}^ developed ; though in many instances it is both 
wider and deeper, and more important than even in this example. 

In all these instances it will be observed that the ornament is not, 
as in Grecian and Eoman architecture, confined to the base and capital ; 
but when ornament is attempted in India, it is nearly equally distri- 
buted over the whole surface of the pillar, from the gTOund to the 
horizontal member it is destined to support. This is a peculiarity 
wliicli gives singular richness to some of the buildings, and when 

Pillar in Ganesa Cave, Cuttadi, 
From a sketch by tbe Author. 




executed with taste is particularly effective, for internal architecture 
at least. 

Another circumstance which p^ves considerable richness to the style 

is, that the pillars in 
a building are never 
exactly alike, but va- 
ried in design accord- 
ing to their position, 
or, as often happens, 
for the mere sake of 
variety.' In some of 
the older and simpler 
caves, where there is 
little or no car\'ing 
on the pillars, the va- 
riety is in the paint- 
ing, and that only ; 
but when they are 
carved, the varia- 
tions are much more 

In a 20-pillared 
vihara, for instance, 
the two pillars on 
each side of the en- 
trance are genei-ally 
alike; so are those 
immediately beyond 
on the right and left ; 
and so again are the 
next pair fui-ther re- 
moved on each side 
from the centre. The 
range on the right 
and left generally 
take their character 
from the last two, 
and those on the 
fourth side again in- 
crease in richness to- 
wards the centre, the 
two most elaborately' 
adorned being the 
central pair opposite 

29. Pillar in VUiara No. 17, at AJunta. From a skcUli ly the Author, the altar. When 

done symmetrically 
in this manner, the effect is singularly pleasing, though the practice 
cannot be defended when mere caprice seems to gxiide the hand of 
the designer. It then requires that the variation should be so slight 

CllAl'. 11. 



as not at first sight to bo apparent, or the efiect is fiir from i)lcasiiig. 
In all the host Indian examples, however, these defects seem to haAc 
been avoided with singular taste and judgment. 


Pillar at Ajunta. From a sketch by the Author. 




Description of niius ni Auuradhapoora — Ruins at Mohenteie — Great monastery ami 
sacred tree at Amiradhapoora — Ruins of Pollonarua. 



novonanipirttissa, conteniporary witli Asoka. 

Introduction of Buddhism to Ceylon. Build- 
ing of Tlnii>aramya 'i'ope, and that at Me- 
hentele, &c B.C. 250 

Dootoogamoiii. Huilding of Ruauwelle 
Tope, and Malia lx)\va I'aya Monastery. 161 


Walagambalni Iniilds Abay.igiri . . . b.c. 104 
Abha Sena builds Lanka Raniaya . . . a.d. 231 
Malia Sena builds letawana Tope . . . 275 

Pandu: invasion fri mi Caslinieer . . . 431 

Aggrabodlii diauLjcs capital to Pollonarua. 769 

W^ayabahoo, capital Hambadiaia . . . 1235 

It will liavo been obsei-ved that none of the remains of Biiddliisni in 
India arc foimd in the great cities. We are enabled to judge of the 
greatness and .splendour of the buildings Avhich have there perished 
from the ancient capital of the island of Ceylon, -which still retains, 
though in ruins, the greater part of the religious monuments that 
adonied it in the days of its greatness. 

Anuradliapoora became the capital of Ceylon about 400 years before 
Christ, or about a century and a half after the death of Buddha, and 
the fabled introduction of his religion into the island. It Avas not, 
however, till after the lapse of another 150 years that it became a 
sacred city, and one of the ])rincipal capitals of Buddhism in the, 
which it continued to be till about the year 700, when, owing to the 
repeated and destiiictive invasions of the ]\Ialabars, the capital was 
removed to Bollonania. That city flourished for two centuries ; and 
after that, dui-ing a long period of disastrous decay, the seat of govern- 
ment was moved hither and tbitlu-r, till the country fell into the hands 
of the Portuguese and Dutch, and linally succumbed to our power. 

The city of Anuradhapoora is now totally deserted in the midst of 
an uninhabited jungle. Its public luiildings must have suffered 
severely from the circumstances under which it perished, exposed for 
centuries to the attacks of foreign enemies. Besides this, the rank 
vegetation of Ceylon has been at work for 1000 years, stripping oif all 
traces of ydaster ornaments, and splitting the masonry in many places. 

But the very desolation of its situation has preserved these ancient 
monuments from other and greater dangers. No bigoted JMoslem has 
juiUcd them down to build mosques and mtmuments of his own fixitli ; 

Chap. 111. CEYLON. 41 

iin iiulolcnt. Hindu has allowed their materials to be used for private 
|)iui)()ses or appropriated as private plunder ; and no English magis- 
trate has yet rendered them available for mending station-roads and 
bridges. We may be sure, therefore, that these ruins deserve the 
greatest attention from the student of Buddhist architecture, and that 
a vast fluid of information may be drawn from them when once they 
shall have been suflficiently explored and described. 

For ten centuries Anuradhapoora continued the capital of Ceylon. 
Alone of all Buddhist cities it retains something like a complete series 
of the remains of its greatness during that period. We possess, more- 
over, in the Mahawanso and other Ceylonese sciiptures, a tolerably 
authentic account of the building of all these monuments, and of the 
purposes to which they were dedicated. 

Among the vestiges of former grandeur still to be found at Anurad- 
hapoora, are the ruins of seven dome-shaped topes or dagobas, of one 
monastery, of a building erected to contain the saci'ed Bo-tree, and 
several other iiiins and antiquities. Among these is the great mound, 
called the tomb of the usurper Elaala, but more probably it is a tope 
erected by the king Dootoogamoni to commemorate the victory over 
that intiiider which he gained on this spot about the year 161 B.C. As 
it is now a mere mound, without any distinguishable outline, it will 
not be again alluded to. 

Two of the topes are of the largest size known : one, the Abayagiri, 
was erected 88 b.c. ; its dome is exactly hemispherical, and described 
wilh a radius of 180 ft., being thus more than 1100 ft. in circumference, 
and with the base and spire making up a total elevation of 244 ft., 
which is only 16 ft. less than the traditional height of 120 cubits 
assigned to it in the Mahawanso.^ It was erected by a king Wala- 
gambahu, to commemorate his reconquest of his kingdom from some 
foreign usurper who had deposed him and occupied his throne for 
about 16 years. 

The second tope is the Jetawana, erected by a king Mahasen, 
A.D. 275. In form and dimensions it is almost identical with the last 
described, though somewhat more ]5erfect in outline, and a few feet 
higher, owing probably to its being more modern than its rival. 
These two were commemorative monuments, and not relic-shrines. 

Next to these, but far more important from its sacredness, is the 
Euanwelle tope, erected by king Dootoogamoni, between the years 
161 and 137 B.C., over a very imposing collection of relics, of which a 
full account is given in the 31st chapter of the Mahawanso. Its 
dimensions are very similar to those of the two last described, but it 
has been so much defaced, partly by violence, and partly, it seems, 
from a failui-e of the foundations, that it is not easy to ascertain either 
its original shape or size. The same king erected another smaller 
tope, 260 ft. in diameter. It is now known as the Mirisiwellya. Like 
the last described it is very much ruined, and not particulaily inte- 
resting, either from its form or histoiy. 

The cubit of Ceylon is nearly 2 ft. 3 in. 


nrnniiisT aim'hitkiti'i^k. 

Book I. 

Besiaes these four lar^c buildings there are two considerably 
smaller ones, known as the Thuparamya and Lanka Ramaya, very 
similar to one another in size and amingcnient. The first named is 
lepresontcd in woodcut No. :n. The tope itself, though small and 

31. Tliuparamya Tope. From an unpublished litliogrnph by the late James Prinsep. 

somewhat mined, is of a singularly elegant bcll-shapcd outline. Its 
diameter and height are nearly the same, between oO ft. and 00 ft. ; 
and it stands on a platform raised about Oft. from the giouud, on 
which are arranged three rows of pillars, which form by far the 
most important architectural ornament of the building. The inner 
circle stands about 2 ft. from the mound, and the other two about 
10 ft. from each other. The pillars themselves arc monoliths 26 ft. 
in height, of which the lower part, to the height of 9 ft., is left 
square, each side being about 1 ft. The next divisicm, 14 ft. 6 in. in 
length, has the angles cut off, as is usual in this style, so as to fonn an 
octagon ; the two parts being of one piece of gianite. These sustain a 
capital of the same material, 2 ft. C in. in height. 

Accounts differ as to the number of the pillars, as Mr. Knighton 
says there were originally 108 ; ' whereas Capt. Chapman counted 149, 
and states the original number to have been 184.* 

This relic-shrine was erected by the celebrated king Devenampia- 
tissa, abo\it 2oO years h.c, to ccjntain the right jawbone of Buddha, 
which — say the liuddhist chroniclers — descending from the skies, 
placed itself on the crown of the monarch. As contemi»orary A^nth 
Asoka, it belongs to the most interesting period of Buddhist history, 
and is older than anything now existing on the continent of India so 
far as we at present know ; and there is evciy reason to suppose it 

' .1. A. S. B. for March, 1847, p. 218. 

* TranMctions K. A. S., vol. iii. p. 474, and .'. K. A. S. 


iu)\v exists as nearly as may be in the form in wliicli it was originally 
designed, having escaped alteration, and, what is more unusual in a 
I>iiddliist relic-shrine, having escaped augmentation. When the cele- 
brated Tooth relic was brought hither from India at the beginning of 
the fourth century, it was placed in a small building erected for the 
purpose on one of the angles of the platform, instead of being placed, 
as seems generally to have been the case, in a shrine on its summit, 
and eventually made the centre of a new and more extended erection. 
Perhaps it was an unwillingness to disturb the sacred circle of pillars 
that prevented this being done, or it may have been that the Tooth 
relic, for some reason we do not now understand, was destined never 
to bo pei-manently hid from the sight of its adorers. It is certain that 
it has been accessible during the last two thousand years, and is the 
only relic of its class that seems to have been similarly preserved and 

The Lanka Eamaya is extremely similar to the last, though con- 
siderably more modern, having been erected a.d. 221, and looks of 
even more recent date than it really is, in conseqiience of a thorough 
repair it has undergone within the last few years, which has nearly 
obliterated its more ancient features. 

There is still another, the Saila tope, within the limit of the city, 
but so niined that its architectural features are i;ndisting"uishable, 
though tradition would lead us to suppose it was the oldest in the 
place, even belonging to a period anterior to the present Buddha. 
The spot at all events is said to have been hallowed by the presence of 
the preceding one. 

Besides these, there are on the hill of Mehentele, a few miles to 
the north-east of the city, two important relic-shrines : one of the first 
class erected on its summit to cover a hair that grew on the forehead 
of Buddha over his left eyebrow. The other, on a shoulder of the hill 
immediately below this, is of the same class as the Thuparamya ; a 
small central building suiToimded by concentric rows of granite jiillars, 
which, as appears to have been the principle of this mode of decora- 
tion, rose to half the height of the central mound. 

There are besides these a great number of topes of various sorts 
scattered over the plain, but whether any of them are particidarly 
interesting, either from their architecture or their histoiy, has not 
been ascertained, nor will be till the place is far more carefully sur- 
veyed than it has yet been. 

There is another ruin at Anuradhajiooi'a, which, if a little more 
perfect, would be even more interesting than these topes. It now goes 
by the name of the Maha Lowa Pa^-a, or Great Brazen Monaster}-. 
We have a full account in the Mahawanso of its erection by the pious 
king Dootoogamoni (101 B.C.), according to a plan procured from 
heaven for the purpose, as well as a histoiy of its subsequent destmc- 
tiori and rebuildings. 

When first erected it is said to have been 100 cubits or 225 ft. 
square, and as high as it was broad ; the height was divided into nine 
stories, each containing 100 cells for priests, besides halls and other 


iiulispensaljle apartments. Nearly 200 years after its erection (a.d. 
;iO) it required considerable repairs, but the first gi-eat disaster occuned 
in the reij^n of the apostate Mahasena, a.d. 28(3, who is said to luivo 
destroyed it utterly. It was re-erected by his son, but with only five 
stories instead of nine, and it never after this regained its pristine 
magnificence, but gradually fell into decay even before the seat of 
government was removed to Pollunania. Since that time it has been 
completely deserted, and all that remains of it now are the 1600 pillars 
which once supported it. These generally consist of unhewn blocks of 
gianite about 12 ft. high; some of the central ones are sculptured, and 
many have been split into two, apparently at the time of the great 
rebuilding after its destruction by Mahasena ; as it is, they stand now 
about (3 ft. apart from centre to centre in a compact phalanx, 40 on each 
face, and covering a space about 250 or 260 ft. each way. On this 
must have been placed a strong wooden framing, as in the Bui-meso 
monasteries at the present day — as explained in the next chapter : and 
the remaining 8 stories rose on this, one above the other, each dimi- 
nishing as it ascended, so that the building assumed the outline of a 
pyramid. This, it is true, is not distinctly asserted in the IMahawanso, 
nor do the remains sufi&ce to prove it. But we have strong CAidencc 
in favour of this supposition in the arrangement of later l)uil(lings, 
which there is eveiy reason to believe were erected frum this or 
similar models. The pjTamidal shape is that adopted to this day in 
all Buddhist countries. If I am not very miich mistaken, the many- 
storied Hindu temples in the south of India are literally only copies of 
such buildings as this. They all assume the pyramidal foiin, and are 
furnished \\h\i small cells on every story, precisely as we may suppose 
this to have been.' 

The name of Brazen was applied to it in consequence of the roof of 
brass that covered it, and, gilt and ornaniented as it no doubt was, it 
must have been one of the most s])lendid buildings of the East. It 
was as high as the topes, and, though not covering quite so much 
gi'ound, was equal, in cubical contents, to the largest of our English 
cathedrals, and the body of the building was higher than any of them, 
omitting of course the spires, which arc mere ornaments. 

Its form and arrangement will be more clear when we have 
described, further on, the characteristics of the early Hindu style, 
which seems almost without doubt to have been copied from this. 

To us these are the most interesting of the remains of the ancient 
city, but to a Buddhist tlie greatest and most sacred of the vestiges of 
the past is the celebrated Bo-tree. This is now reverenced and wor- 
sliipj)ed even amidst the desolation in which it stands, and has been 
worehippcd t»n this spot for more than 2000 years ; and thiis, if not the 

' F« Hian, in doscribing the great rock- fabulous mixed with what he says about this 

cut monasten- of the Deccan as it existed in cdiiice, wliich, bpsidos, he never saw himself; 

his time — about a.d. 400 — says it had five but it is tlie only one he describes in such de- 

storics; the lower with 500 cells, the next tail, and it points to a construe tion similar to 

with 4n0. then :5(iO, then 2i>0, and the tipper what I have suggested in the text. — See Foe 

uiib 1<M» rells. There is a good deal that is Koue Ki, p. 314 et seq. 

Chap. III. CEYLON. 45 

oldest, is certainly among the most ancient of the idols that still com- 
mand the adoration of mankind. 

AV^hcn vVsuka sent his brother Mahindo, and his sister Sanganiitta, 
to inti'oduce Buddhism into Ceylon, one of the most precions things 
which they introduced was a branch of the celebrated tree which still 
grows at Gya.' The branch, so says the legend, spontaneonsly severed 
itself from the parent stem, and planted itself in a golden vase pre- 
pared for its reception. According to the pi'ophecy, it was to be 
"always green, never growing, nor decaying," and certainly present 
appearances would go far to confirm such an assertion, for, notwith- 
standing its age, it is small, and, though healthy, does not seem to 
increase. Its being evergreen is only a characteristic of its species, 
the Ficus religiosa ; our acquaintance with it, however, must extend 
over a longer series of years than it at present does, before we can 
speak with certainty as to its stationary qualities. 

It grows from the top of a small pyi-amid, which rises in three 
terraces, each about 12 ft. in height, the one above and within the 
other, in the centie of a large square enclosure close by the IMaha 
liowa Paya. But though the place is large, sacred, and adorned with 
gates of some pretension, none of its architectural features are such as 
to require notice here. 


The ruins of Pollonarua, which became the capital of the island 
on the abandonment of Anuradhapoora in the eighth century, show 
considerable traces of magnificence and splendour, though of a class 
very different from that displayed in the older city, and far more 
resembling the more ornate style of the Hindus than the simpler 
magnificence of the earlier Buddhists. They are in fact a link between 
the ancient and modern stjdes of architecture.^ 

The ruins of this city consist principally of one long straight and 
terraced street, nearly an English mile in length, bordered on either 
side by the ruins of temples, houses, tombs, and all the accompaniments 
of an Eastern city. It terminates at one end in a small rocky hill, in 
which are cut several temples. These are ornamented with figures of 
Buddha, one of which is 45 ft. high, and with rich and elaborate 
carvings on all sides. At the other end of the street is a building 
represented in the annexed woodcut (No. 32), evidently a tem]-)le, though 
now unroofed, and diifering singularly in all its aiTangements from the 
older examples found on the continent of India. At the inner end of it 
is a statue of Buddha 58 ft. in height. The relic-shrine is placed on 
one side, as sho^\^l in the view. 

' Singularly enough, the natives of Behar son Tennent's work on ' Christianity in Cey- 

ascribe the planting of their Bo-tree to Doo- Ion ;' but they are only picturesque views 

toogamoni, the pious king of Ceylon. They without plans or dimensioas, not available for 

mistake the date, however, placing him 414 scientilic ])urposes. They suflice, however, 

B.C. — See Buchanan Hamilton's Statistics of to sliow how complete is the series of mate- 

Bchar, p. 7fi. rials for a liistory ot' Buddhist art to be found 

^ The only illustrations that have yet been in this counti'v 
i)ublished are a few woodcuts in Sir Kmer- 



IVlOK 1. 


CiiAi'. Iir. CEYLON. 47 

This temjile i.s built with biick, and coveietl with stucco, aiul, 
though consequontly vovy inferior both in material and character to 
the earlier edifices of the same class, is still, from its size and richness, 
a tine specimen of the style in its decline, and woi-thy to close the 
history of the art in the island where it had tlourished for twelve 
i-enturies when this building was erected. 

We know but little of the great caves of Dambool and others which 
lie scattered over the island. They ditfer from the Indian cave-temples 
in being natural caverns slightly enlarged and improved by art, but 
Avithout having been moulded into architectural copies of buildings, as 
is always the case on the continent of India. What architecture they 
do possess is developed on applied facades of masonry, never of the 
same ago as the caves themselves, and generally moie remarkable for 
their grotesqueness than their beauty. Besides, the form of these 
caves being accidental, they want that interest which attaches so 
strongly to those of India, as illustrating the religions fonus and cere- 
monies of the Buddhists in early times. Indeed, the only point of 
interest they now possess seems to consist in their being still used for 
the celebration of the same rites to which they were originally dedi- 
cated 2000 years ago. 

48 15UDDH1ST AltClllTECTrRE. Book 1. 



Furms of Bui-mese buildings — Dagobas at Khomadoo — Pegue— llangoon, &c. 




Rahamam, son of Asoka, begins to reign at I Panya becomes the capital a.d. 1300 

I'rome about B.C. 243 

Sjiniundri I'rome era established . . . a.d. 76 
SunniiWa Riya begins to reign at I'ugan . 107 

Uuddhagosa visits Ceylon 386 

I'ugan destroyed 1356 

Panya and Cliitk;iiiig destroyed, and .\va 

becomes the capital 1364 

Alompra in Monchabo 1752 

The kingdom of Bm-mab, lying to the eastward of Bengal, is one of 
those countries which, like Ceylon, received its religion direct from 
India, and has retained it to the present hour, although it has long 
ceased to exist in the countiy that gave it birth. 

Like all Buddhist countries its authentic annals commence Avith the 
sovereigns of Central India, who were the contemporaries of Sakya 
Muni, the founder of the foith. There is no record even of names of 
native kings till we come to the all-powerful and all-pei"\'ading name 
of Asoka. He sent his son or grandson to this countiy to introduce 
the new faith, and to establish a regular sovereignty on the banks of 
the Trrawaddy, which seems at that time to have been verj' thinly 
peojiled by nomade and half-civilised tribes. 

The new king fixed his residence at Prome about the year 243 B.C., 
and that city continued the capital of the kingdom for about three 
centuries and a half. About a.d. 107 the seat of government was 
removed farther up the river to Pugan, which continued to be the 
cajjitul for twelve centui'ies, when, in consequence, it is said, of some 
l)rophecy or evil omens, it was removed still farther up the river near 
its south-eastern bend, where thi-ee distinct cities, Chatkaing, Ava, and 
Amerapoora, situated near to one another, have enjoyed with frequent 
changes the distinction of being the royal residence. 

At Prome we have no knowledge of any buildings of considerable 
antiquity or otherwise remaikable. 

The remains of Pugan cover a space extending 10 or 12 miles along 
the river and to a depth of 4 or 5 miles inward. Our annics, during 
the war in 182.'>. ptissed and repassed through tliL' jilaee, and it is 

Chap. IV. liUl^MKSE l'A(J()DAS. 4<J 

noticed in several published narratives of juuraeys in the country. But 
i»ur materials for a description of them are scarcely more ample than in 
the case of the older capital. For those accounts give us no ]>articul;irs 
from wliioh we can discover what peculiar characteristics Buddhism 
assumed in this country, or what degree of civilisation the Burmese 
had reached during the long period that this city maintained itself as 
ca|)ital of tlie empire. 

From such mateiials as are available we collect that the city 
contains no ancient example of the great dome-like topes which form 
such remarkable objects in India and Ceylon. Some there are of 
considerable size, but they are modern, whereas the ancient ones are, 
if circular, of a tower-like form, probably more like those in Afghanistan 
than any others we are acquainted with. But the greater number of 
the religious edifices here seem to have been square in plan, Avith 
porticos and central chambers, and teiTuinating upwards in octagonal 
or polygonal straight-lined pyramids or spu-es. It is not improbable 
that these buildings are monasteries with relic-shrines included in theii- 
precincts. It will be remembered that in the more modern caves at 
Ajunta and elsewhere the monastery had come to contain a chapel and 
place of worship in some measure independent of the temple to which 
it was originally subordinate.' The same seems to have been the case 
here, but carried to a greater extent. These buildings, therefore, 
being a distinct class from any of those hitherto described, may be 
properly called pagodas, by which name they are generally known. 

One feature remarked by Colonel Symes,^ and shown in several 
drawings, published and unpublished, is worthy of observation, which 
is the existence in these ruins of pointed arches of the Gothic form, 
coupled with vaidted apartments. This presents a peculiarity unknown 
elsewhere in Buddhist architecture, or indeed in any Indian style of 
any age : but until we know the epoch of the buildings in which these 
arches are ft)und, it is needless speculating on their existence, or 
guessing at the mode of their introduction. At the same time, if they 
are old, which it is generally supposed they are, they form the most 
interesting features of these edifices. 

In the modern caintals of Burmah there are no religious edifices, of 
brick or stone, remarkable either fjr theii" size or beauty. It will be 
well therefore to confine what further remarks are to be made on the 
pagodas of the country to those specimens which seem to be the finest 
and best that the land possesses. 

The first of these, called Khomadoo, is situated on the opposite 
bank of the Irrawaddy from Ava, and a short distance loAver down. It 
is described both by Symes^ and Crawford.'' According to the latter 
authority it is 100 ft. 9 in. high, and surmounted by a spii'e 22 ft. in 
height and 15 in diameter; the circumference of its base is 9-14 ft., and 
it is suii'ounded by a stockade of dwarf pillars of sandstone, about 5 ft. 

' Sno p. 31. ^ Knibassy to the Kingdom of Ava, vol. 

- Kmliassy In (hr K'iiigilinn of Ava. iii. \k 209. 
I,oiidon, ISou. VcA. ii. ji. '247. •> liinbassy to Ava, 4to. edit. p. 200. 



in hei^lit and 802 in niiml)or. Its fonn is nearly that of a peifect 

From these particulars it is evident that it is extremely simibir to 
the tirrator topes of Aiinr;i<lh;i|)oora, only sli«»;htly less in size, the 
diameter beiiij;' apparently :50(1 instead of 3()0 ft. It also possesses 
the circmnseribing circle of jnllars which in Ceylon is confined to the 
smjiller examples. Its age lias not been ascertained. The natives 
cunstdted by ("olonel Symes aseiibed its erection to the most remote 
anti(piity ; while Mr. ('raA\i"ord, from an inscription, dates it as late as 
A.I). l()'2(i, probably the time of the last repair. From its form we 
should infer that it belongs to the earlier centuries of the Christian 
era : but without more details than we possess it is not easy to fix its 
age I'ven ;ip]»roximately. 

The next in importance is the great Shoemadoo ' ])agoda at Pegue. 
of which a plan and elevation are given from those published by Colonel 
Sjines in his account of his embassy to Ava. As will be seen from 
the woodcTits opposite, the plan deviates considerably from the circular 
form. Avhich is exclusively used in all edifices of this class hitherto 
described. Here it approaches more nearly to those elaborately poly- 
gonal forms which are affected by all the Hindu builders of modern 
date. It returns, however, to the circular form before tenninating. 
and is cro\\nied, as all l>Mrmese buildings of this class are, by an iron 
sjiire richly gilt. 

Another peculiarity is strongly indicative of its modem date ; it is 
that, instead of a double or triple range of jiillars surrounding it« base, 
we have a double range of small models of pagodas, a mode of oma- 
montation that subsequently became typical in Hindu architecture ; 
their temples and satires being covered and indeed composed of innu- 
merable models of themselves, clustered together so as to make up a 
whole. As before remarked, something of the same sort occurs in 
Eoman art, where every window and opening is surmounted by a 
pediment or miniature temple end, and in Gothic art, where a great 
spire is surrounded by piiniacles or spirelets ; but in stj'les it is 
never carried to the excess to which it goes in Ilindii art. In this 
instance it is interesting as being one of the earliest attempts at this 
cla,ss of decoration. 

The building stands on two terraces, the lower one about 10 ft. 
high, and 1301 ft. square ; the upper one, 20 ft. in height, is 684 ft. 
sfjuare ; from the centre of it rises the pagoda, the diameter of whose 
base is •.\9h ft. The small pagodas are 27 ft. high, and 108 or 110 in 
number: while the great pagoda itself rises to ihv height of .'{:51 ft. 
aV)ove its terrace, or MM ft. above the country, thus reaching a height 
nearly equal to that of St. Paul's Cathedral; while the side of the 
upper terrace is only 83 ft. less than ^hat of the great Pyramid. 

Tradition ascribes its commencement to two nierchants, who raised 
it to thi; height of 12 cidnta at an age slightly subsequent to that of 

' Literally " Golden great god.' 

CiiAP. TV. 



I>ii(l(lha himself. Successive kings of Pegiie added to this from lime 
to tiiiu', till at liist it assumed its ])resent form, most probably about 
tluve or four ceiitiirics ag;o. 


Shoeraadoo Pagoda, I'egue. From Col. Symes Embassy tn Ava. 

3+. Half-plan of Shoemadoo Pagoda. From Col. Syines' Embassy to Ava. Scale 100 ff. to i in. 

The third pagoda in importance, so far as Ave know, is the more 
generally knoAvn Shoedagong pagoda at Eangoon, a bnilding veiy 
similar in dimensions to the last, and by no means nnlike it. except 

.")2 BUDDHIST AHClHTEC'il'KK. Book I. 

that the outline of the biise is more cut ti]i, aiKl the f>i)ire more atteini- 
atecl — both signs of a more modem date. Its base is even more 
crowded by littk' tcin]d('t.s than that at I'egne, and it is a few feet 
k)\ver. There is, however, no essential diiference between the two, 
and it is jirincipally interesting as leading us one step further in tlie 
series from the solid hemispherical mound to the thin spire, whi<li, 
both in this country and Siam, is the more general niudeni fonn which 
these edifie(>s assume, till they lose all but a traditional rescnddance to 
the buildings wliieh were tlie o)"iginals from wliieli they sprang. 

This pagoda, like all the more important ones, is fabled to have 
been commenced about 2300 years ago, or about the era of liuddha 
himself: its sanctity, however, is owing to its containing relics, not 
only of the last Buddlia, but also of his three predecessors — Buddha 
liaving vouchsafed eight hairs of his head to two merchants, on the 
iniderstanding that they were to be enshrined with the relics of the 
three fonner Buddhas, wdiere and when found.' After numerous 
miraculous indications, on this s2")ot were discovered the staff of 
Kakusanda, believed to have lived some 300Q years before Christ, the 
water-dipper of Konagamma, and the bathing-garment of Kasya]ia, 
which, with the eight hairs . above-mentioned, are enshrined within 
this great pagoda.* Originally, however, notwitlistanding the value of 
its de]iosit, the building was small, and it is probably not more than a 
centuiy since it assinned its present form. 

An immense number of smaller jiagodas suiTOiuid this larger oni% 
of all sizes, from 30 ft. in height to 200 ft., and even more. There is 
scarcely a village in the country that does not ]>ossess one or two, and 
in all the moi"e im])ortant to^\^ls they are numbered by hundreds ; so 
that they may almost be said to be innumerable in this country'. They 
are almost all quite modem, and so similar one to another as not to 
ini^rit any distinct or separate mention. They indicate, however, a 
degree of increasing Avealth and power in the nation, from the cai'liest 
times to the ])resent day, and an increasing ])revalence of the Ihul- 
dhistical system. This is a direct contrast to the history of Ceylon, 
whose hour of greatest glory was in the earlier centuries of the 
Christian i-ra, and was ])assing aAvay more than 1000 years ago, at a 
time when tlie architectural history of Burmah first da^^^ls ujion us. 
Thus the buildings of (me country are an exact continuation to those 
of the other, and together they present a series of examples of the 
same class ranging over more than 2000 years, reckoning from the 
oldest topes in Ceylon to the most modern in T'urniah. 


As I'urmah is a country in which the monastic system of Buddhism 
flourishes at the present day to the fullest extent, if we had some 
information regarding its monasteries, or Monms as they are called, it 

' ."^I'c p. 4. sjnon, liy the Rev. G. H. Hough. — Asiatic; 

* See nccoiint of tlie Oical Hill at ILm- Kisraiches, vol. xiv. p. 27t>. 

ClIAl'. IV 


might enable ii8 to uii(ler.staiul tlic arrangement of the okler ones. 
The travellers who have visited the country have been silent on the 
subject, ]irinri])ally becanso the monasteries are, in almost all instances, 
less iiiagnilicent than the pagodas to which they are attached, and are, 
with scarcely an exception, built of wood — a practice destructive of 
their architectural character, and also depriving them wholly of that 
monuniental appearance of stability which is so essential to true archi- 
tectural expression. 

This peculiarity of being of wood is not confined to the monasteries ; 
all residences, from that of the poorest peasant to the palace of the 
king, having been constrncted from time immemorial of this ])erishable 
material. The custom has now passed into a law, that no (jne shall 
have the power of erecting buildings of stone or brick, except it be the 
king himself, or the edifices be of a purely religious character. Nor is 
this exception taken advantage of, for the king's palace itself is as 
essentially a wooden erection as the dwelling of any of his subjects. 
It is, however, not the less magnificent on this account — rather, per- 
haps, more so — immense sums being spent on the most elaborate 
carvings, and the whole being lacquered, painted, and gilt, to an 
extent that we have no conception of in our more sober clime. 

The same profuse decorations are bestowed upon the monasteries, 
one of which is represented in the annexed woodcut (No. 35), showing 


Burmese Kioum. From Col. Syinos' Embassy to Ava. 

a building in which all the defects arising from the use of so easily 
carved a material are carried to excess. If the colouring and gilding- 
could be added, it would represent a building such as the West never 
saw, and, let us hope, never will see; for, however dazzling its s]dendour, 
such bai'baric magnificence is worthy only of a half-civilized race. 


Besides, however, its ovni merits, as sliowing the extent of richness 
to whicli this ephemeral style of art may be canied, the hiiildin-- is 
interesting as explaininj; how tlie DJOO columns of the Maha Lowa 
I'uya of Teylon ' supix.ited the lower floor <jf that great monastery^ It 
also exhibits the general fonn of outline which I believe all these great 
monasteries to have possessed. ITie one represented here is of three 
stories, but is, I believe, in outline, the same as the five or nine 
storied edifices of Avhich we read, but of which no example now re- 
mains to us. 

The fact that all the buildings of Bunuah are of wood, except the 
pagodas, may also explain the fact of India possessiiig no architectural 
remains antei-ior to the age of Asoka. Except the comparatively few 
masonry jiagodas, none of which existed prior to his era, there is nothing 
in Burmah that a conflagration of a few hours would not destroy, or 
the desertion of a few years entirely obliterate. That the same was 
the practice of India is almost certain, from the essentially wooden 
fonns still found prevailing in all the earlier cave temples; and if so, 
this fully accounts for the disappearance of all earlier monuments. 

We know that this wooden architecture was the characteristic of 
Nineveh, where all the constnictive parts were fonned in this ]terisli- 
able material ; and from the Bible we know that Solomon's edifices 
were chiefly so constructed. Tersepolis presents us with the earliest 
instance in Asia of this wooden architecture being petrified, as it were, 
in consequence apparently of the intercom-se its builders maintained 
with Egypt and Greece ; but in the remote lands we are now de- 
scribing the old Asiatic type of art remains unchanged in all its 
eplicmeral splendour to the present hour : bad and l)arbarous, it must 
be confessed, as a style of art, yet not wholly without interest from its 
historical bearing upon other styles. 

' See p. 43. 

Cii.u'. V. JAVA. 

J A V A. 

Buildiugs at Boro Buddor — Temples at Brambauaui. 

Thk island of Java is another of those countries which }eceived their 
ci^'ilisation and their arts direct from the continent of India, but by a 
diiferent route from that by which they passed into Ceylon and Burmah. 

Neither in the island, nor on the continent of India, are any veiy 
distinct evidences found of the early colonisation of this country, but it 
seems most probable that it took place in the first centuiy of the 
Christian era. At that time the west of India was in a state of con- 
tinuous ferment in consequence of the struggle between the Brahmins 
and the Buddhists, the latter of AA^hum seem then to have gained the 
ascendancy under King Salivahana, who established the Saka era in 
the year 76 or 78 a.d., which is still used as the epochal date in Java, 
and these events are the earliest to which their traditions refer. 

Among the Javanese traditions we find no traces of the sovereigns 
uf central India, and neither does Asoka mention this island as one of 
the countries to which he sent missionaries, noi" does his name appear 
in any of the records collected by Sir Stamford Ivafflcs or Mr. Craw- 
ford, who are almost our only authorities on the subject. On the con- 
ti'arv, the earlier heroes of the jMahabharat are the tniditional rulers of 
the land, and all their myths are derived from Ilintlu and not from 
Buddhist sources. 

Hence the first colonists seem not to have been BudJhisis, ]m\ 
Hindus from Guzerat, or the west of India, driven to seek in the 
islands of the east the enjoyment of that I'eligion from which they were 
debaiTcd b}^ the ascendancy of their livals in theii- native land. 

For some centuries after this date even the tiaditional annals are 
silent as to any important events, or the foundation of any great cities 
on the island, though we gather from theni, and from the more certain 
testimony of Fa Hian, who ■visited the island a.d. 418 in sailing Irom 
Ceylon, that the intercourse was frequent between the Brahmanical 
possessors of both countries at this eai'ly ])eriod ; and wi- liave also his 
certain testimony that in those days there were no Buddhists in the 
country, though many Brahmins from India.' 

Koe Koue Ki, p. 360. 

56 r.LDDillST ARCHITECTURE. Book 1. 

Tlio ITindn kingdom of Java seems never to have extended into the 
wostcni jiart of tl)e island. In tlie earliest times it was confined to 
the di-stritt of Matarem. near the centre, on the southern side. Here 
the two gi'catest and most ancient groups of ruins are situated, those 
of Brambanara and of Boro Buddor, or the Great Buddha. 

We do not know even now when Buddhism was introduced ; pro- 
bably not till the followers of that sect were expelled from the conti- 
nent of India in the 10th or 12th century of our era, when they in their 
turn took refuge from the persecution of the Brahmins, in that insular 
asylum which ten centuries before the Hindus had sought, to avoid 
their intolerance and bigotiy. 

Certain it is that the most splendid temple fif the I»uddhists in 
Java, that of Boro Buddor, is assigned, both by tradition and b}' the 
evidence of its style, to the 14th century, and is indeed the onl}' build- 
ing of a decidedly Buddhist character to be found on the island. 


Boro BuDnon. 

This great temple fonns, if not the purest and most gi-aceful, cer- 
tainly the most curious and elaborate monument of the style fountl in 
this or any other country. Its plan and arrangements will Ijc best 
understood from the woodcuts. No. 36, representing half the plan of 
the monument — the other half being exactly similar has been omitted 
— No. 37, being a section through one half, and an elevation of the 
other half of the building, slightly reduced from the usual scale of 
50 ft. to one inch; and No. 38, a section and elevation of one of the 
small domes surrounding the great one. 

From the plan or elevation it "will be seen that it is a nine-storied 
pyramid of a square form, measuring about 400 ft. across. The five 
lower stories consist of narrow terraces running round the building, 
rising on an average about 8 ft. the one above the other. ( )n their 
outer edge is a range of buildings of tlie most various and fantastic 
outline, covered with small spires and cupolas of various shapes and 
forms, the principal ones covering 436 niches, occupied by as many 
statues of lUuldha as large as life, seated in the usual attitude with his 
legs crossed. Between each of these are one or two bas-reliefs repre- 
senting the god in the same attitude, besides architectural ornaments 
and cai-v-ings of all sorts. lielow these on the lower story is an 
innnense bas-relief ninning round the whole building, and consequently 
KiOOft. long, representing scenes from the life of Buddha and religions 
subjects. These are all on the outside, but the inner faces of the five 
ranges of buildings are even more ]irofusely and more minutely' oma- 
niented with bassi-relievi, and seated figures, and architectural orna- 
ments can-ied to an extent unrivalled, so far as 1 know, by an}- either 
building in any part of the world. 

Above and within the upper square ten-ace are three circular ones, 
the outer omamented Avith 32, the next with 24, and the upper with 16 
small domes, each containing (as shown in woodcut No. 38) a seated 
statue of Buddha, which can be seen through the open woik of their 

ClIAl'. V. 



iri H 
















d ! 





rtKifs. Tlio wh()l(i is isnnnomitcd l)_v what must be considered us the 
pjij^uda itself (woodcut No. .'{'J), which is now empty, it« centre l)eini;" 
oeemtied only by a sunken chamber 10 ft. deep, meant originally no 
doubt to contain the relic for which this splendid temj)le was erected. 

a^. Scctiuii uf uiR' ol' Ibe smaller domes at 39. Klevatinn of principal Jome at Uoro Huildur. 

Boro Buddor. From Sir S. Ilaaics History of Java. 

On loolvint; at this gorgeous edifice the first thing that strikes the 
beholder is the singular arrangement of its five lower terraces. I 
have myself no doubt wliatever but that they are copied from and 
re})rcsent the terraces of such a monastery as the Maha Lowa Paya 
already described ;' that in the originals these niches, occupied by the 
cross-legged figures, wcj-e .the entrances to cells, whose Avails were 
painted, perhaps sculptured, as these are. In India, as we shall ]ire- 
sently see, the Jains, who were the successors of the liuddhists, carried 
this pnictice to a considerable extent. Thc}^ continue to surround 
their court-yards with cells, but lodge a cross-legged divinity in each 
instead vf a shaven priest. 

Indeed, the whole of the arrangements of the lower stories of this 
l)uilding seem to be intelligible onlj^ on the supposition of its being 
built on the model of some monastery, extended beyond anything we 
know tif that class, and altered so as to be a mere copy of the abodes 
of piiests instead of their actual residence. 

The arrangement of the upper stoiy will be easily undei-stood by 
refen-ing to the description of the Shoemadoo at Pegue.* The arrange- 
ment is tlie same, except that there are three ranges of smaller temples 
suiTounding the larg(;r one instead of two. We here observe an ana- 
logy to the three ranges of pillars that surround the base of the Thujia 
li'amaya and other topes at Ceylon. 

The buildijig is therefore not only a compound of a monastery with 
a tope, such as j)robably existed in India, but it is so modern. an<l so 
far removed from the early types, that almost all the parts have lost 
their original signilieation, and have been consecrated to other pur- 
poses, while retiiining the ancient fonus — a tiansfonuation connnon 
eniMigh in the history of an.-hitecture, but seldom more distinctly 
shown than in this in.stance. 

H w.iuld |je singularly interesting if we coulil lind some siinilai' 

' 1'. 43. ' r. 5'i. 

CiiAi'. V. JAVA. :)9 

example in India, for in Java iinfortnnately ti certain Malay eleiuijnt 
has been su]icrinduced, which prevents our recognisins;' at once all the 
parts, and it does not eonseipiently furnish us with that aniounl nf his- 
toric deduction which a purer example would afford. We cannot, 
however, doubt tliat it is really Buddhist, oi- at least a transition spe- 
cimen, unlike anything else we are a('(]uainted with in its details, and 
unsurpassed, so far as 1 know, in the amount of scidptured decoration 
that is lavished on every part of it. 


Not far from the ruins of Boro Buddor are situated the temjiles (jf 
Branibanam, certainly one of the most extraordinary gi-oups of build- 
ings of its class, and very unlike anything we now find in India, 
though there can scarcely be a doubt but that the whole is derived 
from an Indian original now lost. 

The great temple is a square building above 45 ft. square, and Toft. 
high, terminating upwards in an octagonal straight-lined pyramid. 
On each face of this is a smaller temple "of similar design joined to the 
gi'eat one by corridors ; the whole five thus constituting a cnicifoim 
building. It is raised upon a richly ornamented square base. One of 
the smaller temples serves as an entrance-porch. The building itself 
is very curiously and richly ornamented with sculpture, but the most 
remarkable feature of the whole group is the multitude of smaller 
temples which surround the central one, 239 in number. Immediately 
beyond the square terrace which supports the central temple stand 28 
of these, forming a square of 8 on each side, counting the angular ones 
both ways. Beyond these, at a distance of 35 ft., is the second square, 
44 in number ; between this and the next row is a wide space of 
above 80 ft., in which only (5 temples are situated, two in the centre of 
the north and south faces, and one on each of the others. The two 
outer rows of temples are situated close to one another, back to back, 
and are 1(50 in number, each face of the square they form being about 
525 ft. All these 239 temples are similar to one another, about 12ft. 
square at the base, and 22 ft. high,' all richly carved and ornamented, 
and in every one is a small square cell, in which was originally ])laced 
a cross-legged figure, probably of one of the Jaina saints, though the 
drawings which have been hitherto published do not enable us to 
determine whom they represent — ^the persons who made them not 
being aware of the distinction between Buddhist and Jaina images. 

The arrangement of this great group will be better understood from 
the woodcut on the next page, being the plan of a smaller one in the 
immediate neighboin-hood, surrounded by only 1(5 subsidiary tenq)les 
instead of 239, and the central one having only one cell instead tif five. 

' The iiifonnatiou here given is taken from believo, from the seak.-- in the oriniual diaw- 

Sir Stamford Raffles' History of Java, sccoiiil iii^js — wliich 1 have before me — lieiiiLj in 

edition, vol. ii. p. 17 et scq. His phuis, lUifinland rdods, which are not always eoii- 

however, do not quite agree with the mea- vcitcd into I'hiij,iish feet, 
siirements in the text, a mistake arising, 1 



Book I. 

Q m p Q a 




B Q 




Small Temple at Urnmbanani. From a drawing 
nt the India House. No scale. 

In other rcRiiocts tlic iUTan«;;oment is the same, and it is preferable 

for the pnq)ose of ilhistration, as 
it immediately i-eminds us of the 
arrangement of the eells that sur- 
round the Buddliist cave-Viharas 
at Ajunta ' and elsewhere, already 
described ; and it seems hardly 
doubtful but that this Avas the 
aiTangement of the cells of the 
priesthood in the original build- 
ings in India, which, when copied 
in the rock, took the form we now 
find. It is tnie these cells, instead 
of being occupied by henuits, are 
either empty or have a statue in 
them, but, as wiU. presently be 
showTi, this was usual in India 
with the Jains, to whose religion 
the temples at Brambanam probably belong. 

'^riie date given to these monuments by the natives is about the 9th 
or lOth century, at which time the Jains were making gi-eat progi-ess 
at Giizerat and the western parts of India ; and if the traditions are to be 
relied upon, which bring the Hindu colonists of Java from that quarter, 
it is almost cei'tain that they would have brought that religion with 
them. If the age, hoAvever, that is assigned to them be correct, and I 
sec no reason to doubt it, they are specimens of an earlier date and 
form than anything wo noAv find in India, and less removed from the 
old Buddhist type than anything that now remains there. 

The value of these examples Avill be better understood when we 
come to examine the Hindu and Jaina styles of architecture, the 
elements of which, though considerably altered here by local ])ceuli- 
arities, are still sufficiently distinct to enable us to understand what 
Avithout them would be nearly unintelligible. 

A good local history of -Javanese architecture — which was nobly 
commenced by Sir Stamford lialfles — would be curious and higldy 
instructive if fully carried out ; and ample materials exist for writing 
it, though much requires yet to be done before so extensive a subject 
can be rendered even partially intelligible. It is rendered more 
difficult from the apparent inversion that took place in the order of 
the stylus ; the Jaina temples of Brambanam preceding the Buddhist 
<»f Boro Buddor ; and the Hindu l)ei)ig mixed through tdl, for, though 
I do not know of one single temple that can be called purely Hindu, 
Hindu sculpture is found everywhere combined with the architecture 
of other styles. In Bali, where Hinduism still ])revails, and in the 
extreme ciistem parts of the island, about Majai)ahit and elsewhere, 
the case may be different. 

' Si'e p. 33. 

Chap. Vi. TllllU-yr AND NEPAL. 61 


Monastery of Bouddha La — Temples in Nepal. 

It wonUl be a matter of the deepest interest if we were able to compile 
a satisfactory account of the Buddhist style in Thibet, for it is there 
that Buddhism exists in its greatest purity at the pi'esent moment, and 
there only is it entirely and essentially a part of the system of the 
people. We would gladly therefore compare the existing state of 
things in Thibet with our accounts of India in the days of the supremacy 
of the same religion. The jealousy of the Chinese, however, who are 
now supreme over that nation of priests, prevents free access to the 
country, and those who have penetrated beyond its forbidden barriers 
have either done so in the disguise of mendicants, and consequently 
neither dared to draw nor examine minutely what they saw, or have 
had little taste for portraying what was unintelligible, and consequently 
considered of very little interest.' 

So far as can be made out from such narratives as we have, there 
does not seem to be in Thibet a single relic-shrine remarkable either 
for its sanctity or its size, nor does relic-worship seem to be the 
object of either the architecture or the religious worship. But as no 
country in the world possesses a larger body of priests in proportion 
to its population, and as all these are vowed to celibacy and live 
together, their monasteries are more extensive than any we know 
of elsewhere — some containing 2000 or 3000 lamas, some, if we may 
trust M. Hue, as many as 15,000.^ The monasteries do not seem to be 
l)uilt with any regularity, or to be grouped into combinations of any 
architectural pretensions, but to consist of long streets of cells, most 
of which surroiuid small court-yards, three or four on each side, and 
sometimes two or even three stories high ; generally, i"»erhai)S always, 
with a small shrine or altar in the centre. The monastery of Bouddha 
La, outside the city of Lassa, where the Delai Lama resides, seems to 
be of more magnificence than all the rest — the centre being occupied 
by a building four stories high, crowaied by a dome (making the 

• Captain Turner, it is true, who was sent monuments wliicli is tlie suliject of our jire- 

to Teeslioo Loniboo bv Wanen Ilastinsjs, lias sent inquiry. 

published witli his interesting; narrative a ^ Voyage dans h' 'i'hib<'t, vol. ii. ]>. 289. 

number of very faithful views of wliat lie saw, 'i'ho monasteiy refeired to is that of !<era, in 

but they are not selected from that class of the neighbourhood of Lassa, the capital. 



Book T. 

fifth) covered entirely with sheets of gold, rjithor perhaps merely gilt, 
and surrounded by a peristyle of coliunns, which are gilt also. Ai-ound 
this central i^alace are grouped a number of smaller ones, where the 
inferior mciiibcis of this great ceclesiastical order reside ; but of all 
this it is difficult to form a distinct idea without some better drawings 
than the native ones which are at present alone available. 

The Delai Lama, who resides in this palace, is believed bj' the 
Thibetans to be the living incarnation of the Deity, and in consequence 
is the ])rincipal, if not tlu- only, object of worship in Lassa, though 
there are four or five subordinate incarnations in diiferent parts of 
Thil)et and Mongolia, who, though inferior to this one, are still objects 
of woisliip in the ])laces where they reside, and by particular sect« of 


Nepalesc Koslliakar. No scalo. 

It is tliis worship of a living rather than of a dead deity that seems 
to !)»' the ]irincipal cause of llic diti'erence of the architectural fonns of 
India and Thibet. In the countries we have hithei-to been deseribiiig 
no actual incarnation of the Deity is believed to have taken place since 
tlio death of Sakya Muni, though the spirit of God has descended on 
many s;iints and holy men ; in India therefore they have been ccmtent 
tt> worshiji images of the <leparted deity, or relics which recal his 
presence. In Thibet, where their deity is still present among them, 
i-ontinuallv tran.smi;ri-ating. but never dying, of course such a form of 


worship would be ab.siiiil ; no relic of a still living god can exist, nor 
is the senihlaufc or ilu- nu'inory of any past manifestation tlK)Uglit 
worth preserving. ^1 ])riori, therefore, we should scarcely look liere 
for the same class of sacred edifices as we find in India or Ceylon. 
Some smaller relic-shrines, however, do exist, at least in Nepal, hut 
scarcely differing in any essential point from those in India ; and we 
have no representations nor measiu-ements of those which have been 
described, (hie class of temple is fomid in Nepal which deserves men- 
tion ; it is called Kosthahar,^ and consists of a square base containing a 
cell intended to be occupied by a statue like those at Brambanam in 
.lava, and is crowned by what seems to be a copy of a tope with its 
t(>rminal. One is represented in woodcut No. 41, not so much on 
account of any merit of its own, but as explaining a form of Hindu 
ai-chitecture afterwards common, and also as throAving light on some 
of the buildings just described. The temple of Boro Buddor, for 
instance, is nothing more — on an immensely exaggerated scale — than 
such a compound temple as this ; cells that were originally residences 
turned into image-places, and the relic shrine become a mere crowniing 
ornament. When speaking of Hindu architecture we shall understand 
the full significance of the change. 

The remaining coimtries in which Buddhist architecture has been 
or is practised are China and Japan. With regard to these it will bo 
more convenient to speak of their Buddhist architecture when we 
speak of their art in general ; for they have so altered the style, and 
so completely adapted it to their ovni peculiar idiosyncracy, that it is 
almost impossible to recognise the original in the copy, and the two 
styles have become so difterent that little is gained bj^ placing them 
in juxtaposition. 

' Soe Trnns. Iloynl As. Soc., vol. ii. p. v. ; and Trans. A. S. B., vol. xvi. )>. 44'2. 




Katbs of Mahavellipore — General Remarks on Buddhist Architecture. 

T5i:i-(iitK leaving the subject of Biiddliist iircliitocture there is one 
further illustration which it A\all be Avell to quote, not only as throwing 
light on what has been said, but also as preparing the way for what is 
to follow. 

On the Coromandel coast, some way south of Madras, and near the 
village of Sadras, i.s a spot well known to Indian anticiuaries by the 
name of .Maha-Balipoora^n, or, more properly, Mahavellipore; familiar 
also to English readers from the use Southey makes of it and its ti-a- 
dition in his 'Curse of Kehama.' Near this spot nms a long low 
ridge i>f granite hills, the highest part rising, perhaps, 100 ft. from the 
level of the ])lain. In these hills some half-dozen caves have been 
excavated, and several others commenced, some as excavations, others 
as monoliths.' Between the hill and the sea-shore seven masses of 
granite protnide from the sands, which have been carved by the 
Hindus, probably about 1300 A.n. The three principal of these are 
represented in the annexed woodcut (No. 42). It is evident that the 
object on the right imitates a Buddhist monastery of five stories. The 
lower story is wholly occupied by a gi-eat square hall ; the three next 
stories possess central halls, diminishing in size according to then- 
position, and surrounded by cells on the out.side ; the ui)per one is 
crowned by a dome, or rather such a dome-fonned tennination as 
crowns the Nepalese temple, woodcut No. 4 1 . Altogether the building 
seems to represent, with gi'cat exactness, all that we know and all that 
we read of the I'uddhist monasteiies. Nor is this a mere accidental 
coincidence. The time at which it was executed was very little re- 
moved fn.m that of Buddhism in this part of India. Its being cut in 
the rock is obviously a iieculiarity of that religion. There is little or 
none of the extravagance of later Hindu styles in the sculiituros. We 
must remember, too, that neither the -lains nor the Hindus introduced 

' The host arcomit of this spot nmi its an- Tndin by the aiithoi-. Thoyaro also (h'snibed 

fi<liiitiw is that j;ivcn bvl>r. r.abiii.,'lon in by Messrs. Clianibors and lioMiiif^liani, Trans, 

vol. ii. of tlic Tnins. H. A. S. Si-o also A. S. H., an.l niontionid by Mrs. (iraliam, 

llhistiiitions of tlie Kock-cut Temples of Bishop Hcber, and othei-s. 

Chai'. VII. 



anytliiiig like a new stylo i)f architectTire. They adapted the Buddhist 
stylo to their o^vn pur[)OSOS, and I have no doubt that this is a very 
close copy of a five-storiod Buddhist monastery, used as a temple. 


llaths, Mahavellipore. From a skelcli bj- tlie Author. 

What confirms this view of the case is, that the next building, the 
central one in front, is the only representation I know in India of such 
a temple as those cut in the rock at Ajunta and elsewhere. The front, 
— turned from the spectator in the view — is exactly the front of one of 
the more modern Chaitya caves in the Bombay presidency ; and we see 
here the rounded apsidal end — nowhere else lepresented that I am 
aware of — with the ornaments, Avhich may in all instances have re- 
lieved its monotony. The side aisle is here seen to be open externally, 
which is not the case in the caves hitherto explored, though it probably 
was so in biiildings ; but it woiild evidently be impossible to represent 
this feature in the rock. There is also an additional story in this case, 
besides the ranges of cells over each of the aisles, which we have no 
reason to suppose existed in the older examples. But in this, as in all 
more modem structures of this class, we find considerable confusion 
between the forms belonging to the temple and those of the monastery. 
This is no more than might be expected when we consider that the 
original purposes to which those forms weie adapted had ceased to 
exist, and that in these late copies what Avere originally essential con- 
structive necessities have become mere ornamental appendages. The 
third building, behind the one last described, c\idently belongs to the 
same system ; nothing like it exists structurally, so far as I know, in 
the south of India ; though in the north there is a class of oblong 



temi^les with pointed roofs, wlii(;h may be derived from the same 
ongiual, and all the ji^ateways in the south have a similar tenuination. 
There can be little doubt that it is a copy of a variety of the Buddhist 
temple or C/uiiti/n, of which we have no exact re])resentation in the 
caves. It is probable that this is an imitation of a built Buddhist 
temple, for it is by no means certain that those which stood alone and 
were capable of receiving light from all sides would have the apse, 
which all the rock-cut examples have. 

Althougii these Kaths, as they are called locally, are comparatively 
modern, and belong to a diiferent faith, they certainly constitute the 
best representutions now known of the forms of the Buddhist buildings 
described in Chapter II., and make their external forms more intelligible 
to us than they could otherwise be made from the more internal copies 
of them which alone we possess in the rock-cut exami)les. There are 
no essential differences which cannot be accounted for by the con- 
sideration that the sacred caves of the Buddhists Avcre designed for a 
well-Tuiderstood pui-pose — the Chnityas as tem])lcs, the Viharas as re- 
sidences — which was the invariable nile in Buddhist times. \\ hen 
their successors, the Hindus, began to follow their example, they 
copied blindly and unmeaningly. AVhen we come to speak of the 
architecture of the south of India, it will be seen how completely this 
view of the matter explains many points in the architecture which 
witlKuit this would be perfectly unintelligible. The Raths are tran- 
sition specimens in fiict, and, as such, link the two styles together, the 
one serving to explain the peculiarities of the other. 

In the preceding pages all the principal examples of the Biuldhist 
style of architecture which are at present known to us have been 
noticed, and the style traced, as far as possilile, from its origin to the 
present day. The examples at the time of its greatest brilliancy are 
too few and too imperfect to enable us to pass a distinct judgment on 
its merits as a style of art; but, even if ciiticised accordmg to the 
most rigid ndes, it will not be found deficient m beauties, though 
these are of an order peculiarly its own. The gi'cat halls, when per- 
fect, must have possessed all the beauties of the choirs of (christian 
ba.silicas, which they so much resemble, and besides had the merit of a 
far more perfect mode of lighting, by the one great opening over the 
entrance, placed exactly where it should be, instead of a number of 
small windows scattered over the building wherever the constructive 
necessities of the design would admit of their being inserted. 

The great domical topes also, 200 or 300 ft. in diameter, when 
perfect and enriched with all the ornaments we know they possessed, 
doul)tless displayed that beauty of outline Avhich we admire ^o much 
in the Pantheon and some of our modern churches. Their imjxising 
size and general effect may be judged of from obsei'A'ing that the ex- 
ternal diameters of the great topes at Anuradhapuora were 3(30 ft., while 
that of St. Peter's at Rome is only half as great. 

Of the monasteries and residences of the kings and people we have 
even less means of judging, but it is not easy to speak too highly of 


some of the details iiiid of the general effect of the architectural 
arrangements. They are hold and elegant, and singularly well adapted 
to the purpose for which they were designed. 

AVhatevor douht there may be of the merit of IJuddhist monuments 
as works of art, there can be none of their great historical value ; 
for of the styles still practised it is the oldest, having been constantly 
in use for more than 2000 years; and it is the style of a religion 
which cYon at the present hour, when its greatest gloiy has passed 
away, still i-eckons among its votari(is, if not a gi'eater, at least as great 
a number of followers as any religion now existing on the face of the 




Definition of Jainism -- Temples ou Mount Abu — Origin of Domes — Domes of 
Jain.i and Buddhists — Temples of Somnatb — Cliandravati and Sadree — 
Towers at Chittore. 



I'arswiuiaih, JSrd Tiilhaiikar aliout . . n.c. 800 INIunja of Ougein a.d. 933 

Jlali;iviru, Tirlluinkar^toU'm- ] Blioja of Ougein, abovit 1000 

porary and precoptor of GauLama liiul- ; Kuniara I'ala of fiuzerat tonvcrti'd . . 1174 

dlia), died about 600 

Amogavcrslia, King of Conjevernm : re- 
vival of Jaina religion by Jiiia Sena 
Acbarya . . . . . . . 9th century a.i>. 

Temples on Mount Abu .... 1032 to 1231 
IChonibo Hana of Slerwar, built temple 

at Sadree, and pillar at Chittore . . 1418 

Udaya Sinh, third sack of Chittore by Akbar 1580 

If there be difficulty in explaining the peculiarities of Buddliist ai-chi- 
tecture, from the ignorance that necessarily exists regarding tlie form 
of a leligion of which so little has hitlierto been jtublishcd in this 
country, there is even more when we come to speak of the Jaina reli- 
gion. For this we have no materials except occasional jjapers in the 
Transactions of learned societies; and even that information is so 
scanty, and the results so inconclusive, that it is almost impossible to 
make out eitlier the nature or origin of the religion. It is certain tliat 
it rose to importance only on the decline of Buddhism ; and that it in 
many respects resembles that religion. Still the Jains entirely reject 
and ignore the prophet who gave his name to Buddhism, and who 
impressed on that religion its present form and character a« distinctly 
as Mahomet gave its character to the religion that bears his name. 

llie Jains reject entirely Sakya Sinha and his* doctrines, but wor- 
ship 24 saints, or Tirthaiikars as they are called, who are said to have 
lived in India, succeeding to (me another at considci'able and almost 
fabulous intervals. The list closes with I'arswanath and ]\Iahavira : 
the last of whom is admitted by both sects to have been the preceptor 
and friend of liuddha, dying about <iOO years before Christ; the former 
2r)() years earlier. These two are the saints now ]n-inciiially worship- 
ped, and indeed the only ones that can be considered as really hi.sto- 
rical jiersonages. 

The most jirobable hypothesis seems to be that a foiTn of BudtUiism 
did exist in India from the earliest ages, that Sakya Sinha wjis a 
reformer, not f>f the I'lahniinii-al religi<in, or of anything connected 

Chap. VITT, 'PEMrLES. Hit 

with it, but of this old tintecetlcnt Buddhism. In process of time his 
religion i)ovished of innate decay, sinking under the burthen of ils own 
immense and overgi-own priesthood. An attempt was then made to 
restore the old faitli, by reviving the pre-existing worthies, and totally 
iffnorina' the reform and its consequent monasticism, and the result of 
this revival was Jainism. The reform was attempted, however, at an 
age wdien the purer traditions of the old faith nniist have been citlier 
wholly lost or very much obscuied, and when Hinduism was com- 
peting for the favour of the vulgar to an extent it was impossible to 
overlook. It became in consequence not a purer and more exalted 
faith, but a mixture of superstition and idolatry, such as Buddhism 
had never sunk into in its most degraded days. Still it got rid of the 
priesthood, and of the unintelligible mass of metaphysical and other 
treatises which crushed that religion ; and, in consequence, it still 
flourishes side by side with Hinduism in most parts of India, while 
Buddhism is wholly extinct in the land where it first w^as propagated. 

The principal seats of the Jains at the present time are either in 
Guzerat or in the Mysore, where it is said libraries exist, which if 
explored would throw much light on the subject. This is mere specu- 
lation, and till the books are seen must remain so ; but there does 
exist, in both these and the surrounding countries, a numerous class of 
Jaina temples, and other buildings, which, if properly examined, 
would settle all the disputed points of their history, as far as they 
belons: to historical times. So little, however, is knovvoi of these 
buildings, that no historical deductions can be obtained from them, 
and, so far from their lending any light to the subject, we do not even 
know the history of the style itself, but must be content with 
describing the architecture as we find it at the culminating point of its 
perfection, and the most brilliant period of Jaina history, about the 
1 1th or 1 2th century of our era. 

It seems at this period to have stood between declining Buddhism 
on the one hand, and rising Hinduism on the other, the temporary 
mistress of the continent of India, extending its influence from Guze- 
rat, its principal seat, to Delhi on the one hand, and to Cape Comorin 
on the other. Thus it remained till the Indians were robbed of their 
independence by their Mahometan invaders, when they lost even this 
purer faith, and sank by degrees into the depth of that monstrous 
superstition known at present as the Hindu religion. 

The oldest Jaina monuments now known to exist are probably 
those about Janaghur in Guzerat. The temple at Somnath and some 
of those about Ahmedabad appear to be of considerable antiquity; 
none of these, however, have yet been visited by any one who knew 
how to distinguish between what is old and what is new, or who could 
even ascribe to each religion what faii-l}" belonged to it. Sucli classifi- 
cation must therefore be reserved for future explorers. The oldest 
temples I myself have seen are those on Moiuit Abu in Guzerat, a 
noble moTuitain of granite between 5000 and 6000 feet in height, and 
rising as abruptly from the sandy desert in wliich if stands as ;in 
island from the ocean. 



Book I. 

On this liill aru several Jaiiia temples of considerable beauty and 
extent, but two pieoininently so, being bnilt of white marble, and 
ornamented with all the resources of Indian art of the age in winch 
they were erected. Tlie more modern of the two was bnilt by two 
brothers, rich merchants, between the years 1197 and 1247, and for 
delicacy of carving and minute beauty of detail stands almost unrival- 
led even in this land of patient and lavish labour.' 

The other, built by another merchant i)rince, Yimala Sah, appa- 
rently about the year a.d. 1032,* is simpler and bolder, though still as 
elaborate as good taste would allow in any purely architectural object. 

A plan of it is annexed 
(double the nstial scale), 
which will suffice to ex- 
plain the general arrange- 
ments of this class of 
buildings, Avhich are all 
tulerablv similar, though 
of course varving con- 
siderably in extent. 

The princijial object 
licre, as elsewhere, is a 
cell lighted only from the 
door, containing a cross- 
legged seated figuro of 
the saint to whom the 
temple is dedicated, in 
tliis instance Parswanath. 
The cell is always termi- 
nated upwards by a py- 
lamiilal spire-like roof, 
somewhat similar to those 
of the numerous little 
temples of Brambanam in 
Java,* but more like the 
Hindu temples of the 

/a>/'/ '^'^'i^^' ''^gc> to be described 
""" hereafter. To this is al- 
ways attached a portico, 
generally of considerable 
extent, and in most instances surmounted by a dome resting on 
eight pillars, which forms indeed the distinguishing characteristic of 
the style, as well as it« most beautifid feature. In this example the 
portico is composed of 48 pillars, which is by no means an miusual 
number ; and the whole is enclosed in an oblong court-yard, about 
140 ft. by 90 ft., surrounded by a double colonnade of smaller pillars, 



Temple of Viniala Sub, Muuiit Abu. 

' A view of this temple, not very correct, by the autlior, p. 39, from which work the 

forms the title-iKigc to Col. Tod's Travels in plan and view are taken. 
Western India. 3 See p. 59. 

* Se<' Illmtrations of Indian Architecture, 

(JlIAP. VUi. 


forming porticos to a range of cells, 55 in number, which enclose it on 
all sides, exactly as they do in a Buddhist vihara. In this case, how- 
ever, each cell, instead of being the residence of a monk, is occupied 
by one of those cross-legged images which belong alike to Buddhism 
and Jainism, between which many find it so difficult to distingiiish. 
Here they are, according to the Jaina practice, all of Barswanath, and 
over the door of each cell, or on its jambs, are sculptured scenes from 
his life. 

Externally the temple is perfectly plain, and there is nothing to 
indicate the magnificence within, except the spire of the cell*peepiug 
over the plain wall, though even this is the most insignificant part of 
the erection. 

The woodcut No. 44 will give some idea of the aiTangement of the 


I'orch of Vimala Sah's Templo. 

porch, but it woidd require a far more extensive and elaborate drawing 
to convey a correct impression of its extreme beauty of detail and 
diversity of design. The great pillars, as will be seen, are of tlie same 
height as those of the smaller external porticos ; and like them they 
finish with the universal bracket-capital of the East; upon this an 


upper dwarf colninii or attic, if I may so call it, is placed to give 
them additional lieiglit, and on these Tij)per columns rest the great 
beams or architraves which supjxirt the dome ; as, h(»wcver, the bear- 
ing is long, at least in appearance, the weight is relieved by a curious 
angular strut or truss of white marble, like all the rest of the building, 
which, s])ringing fi'oni the lower capital, seems to support the middle 
of the beam. 

That this last feature is derived from some wooden or cai-pentry 
original, can, I think, scarcely be doubted ; but in what manner it was 
iirst introduced into masonry constnicticm is ^mknow^l : probably it 
niiglit easily be discovered by a more careful examination of the 
Imildings in this neighbourhood. It continues as an architectural 
feature down almost to the present day, but gradually becoming more 
and more attenuated, till at last it loses all its constmctive significance 
iis a supporting member, and dwindles into a mere ornament. 

On the octagon so formed rests the dome ; but as this is the prin- 
cipal feature of the architecture, and in fact the one which renders it 
a matter of interest, it may be as well, before proceeding fui-ther, to 
say a few woids regarding the invention of domes in general, and 
of the particular mode of using them adopted by the Jains, without 
which I fear any description of their architecture will be barely 


It is to be regi-etted that, while so much has been -oTitten on the 
history of the pointed arch, so little should have been said regarding 
the histoiy of domes : the one being a mere constructive peculiarity 
tliat might very well have been dispensed with ; the other being the 
noblest feature in the styles in which it prevails, and ])e)ha]is the 
most impoi-tant acquisition with which science has euriclied the art 
of architecture. 

The socalled Treasuries of Mycenae and Orchomenos, as well as 
the chambei-s in Etruscan tombs, prove that as early as ten or twelve 
centuries before Christ the Pelasgic races had learned the art of roofing 
circular chambers with stone vaults, not constnicted, it is tnie, as we 
constnict them, with radiating vaults, on the principle of the common 
arch, liut by successive layers of stones converging to a point, and 
closed by one large stone at the apex. 

Whoever invented the tnie or radiating arch, the Eomans were 
the first who a]iplied it as a regular and essential architectural feature, 
and who at the same time introduced its complement, the radiating 
dome, into architectural constniction ; at what period it is not now 
kno^^'n. The earliest example, the Tantheon, is also the finest and 
largest; Init we have lost entirely the innimierablc steps by which 
the architects must have slowly progressed to so daring an exi)eriment. 

There is. liowevcr, a vast diftcrence between these two classes of 
domes, which it Ls neces.sary to bear in mind in ordei- to understand 
what follows. 

riie Honian nvvh and Roman dome are always constructed (woodcut 

(liiAi-. VIII. POMES. 73 

45) on the princii>le of voussoiis, or truncated wedges, radiating tVum 
a centre. Tliis enabled the Eonians to cover nnich hirger .spaces witli 
their domes than perha])s was possible on the horizontal principle ; 
but it involved the inconvenience of great lateral thrusts, continnally 
tending to split the dome and tear the building m pieces, recpuring , 
consequently immense and massive abntments to counteract their 
destructive energy. This class of dome was entirely overlooked oi- 
rejected by the Gothic architects, but was taken up by the contem- 
porary Byzantines, and made by them the princij)al feature of their 
architecture, and from them passed to the Saracenic architects, who 
also adopted it as their most important mode of architectural expression. 
To this we shall return hereafter, as the other is the foini with which 
we are now princi])ally concerned. 

45. Kadiating Arch. 46. Horizontal Arch 

The Indian or horizontal dome never can be made circular in 
section, except when used on the smallest scale, but almost always 
takes a form more or less pointed (woodcut No. 46). From the time 
of the building of the Treasury of Mycenae to the birth of Christ we 
have a tolerably complete series of arches and vaults constructed on 
this principle, but few domes properly so called. After the Christian 
era the first example is foinid in a singular tomb at Mylassa near 
llaliearnassus,' where it exhibits all the peculiarities of construction 
found in the Jaina temples of India. After this we lose the thread t>f 
its history till the form reappears in porches like that of the temple 
of Vimala Sah, where it is a perfectly established architectural feature 
that must have been practised long before being used as we find it 
employed in that building. Whether we shall ever bo able to recover 
the lost links in this chain is more than doubtful, but it would be 
deeply interesting to the history of art if it coidd be done. In the 
mean time, there is no difficulty in explaining the constructive steps 
by which the object is now attained in India, which most probably 
explain also its histoiy, though this is not, of course, capable of direct 

The simplest mode of roofing a small square space supported by 
four pillars is nierel}^ to iim an architrave or stone beam from each 
pillar, and cover the intermediate opening l)y a ])lain stone slab. Unless, 
however, stones of gi-eat dimensions are available, this mode of con- 
struction has a limit very soon arrived at. The next step therefore is 
to reduce the extent of the central space to be covered by cutting ofi' 

' Fully illnstratetl in vol. ii. of tho Dilettanti .Society's Anti(|uities of Ionia. A wtuKkut 
of it will be given further on. 


Book I. 

its coniera ; this is done by trianp^ilar stones placed in each angle 
of t lie scuiarc, as in woodcut 47, thus eni])l()ying five stones instead of 


Diagrams nf Unofing 


one. By this means, tlie size of the central stone remaining the same, 
tlie side of the square space roofed is increased in the ratio of 7 to 10, 
the actual space being doubled. The next step in the process (woodcut 
48) is by employing M tiers and stones instead of 2 tiers and .5 stones, 
which (piadniples tlie area roofed. Thus, if the central stone is 4 ft., 
by the second process the space roofed will be about o ft. 8 in., by the 
thinl 8 ft. square ; by a fourth process (woodcut 49), 4 tiers and 13 


'-IT ^^ 


Diiigranis of Routing. 


stones arc used, and llie extent rotjfcd may l)e !i nr 10 ft., always 
a.ssuming the central stone to remain 4 ft. square, ^^'ith 4 pillars tlic 
process is seldom carried further than this, but with another tier and 
H |)illars, as shown in woodcut 50, it may lie can-ied on a stc]) further, 
and this is exactly the extent t(» which it is can-ied in the tomb at 
Myla.ssa above referred to ; but in this, as in all instances of octagonal 
domes in this style, instead of the octagonal form being left as such, 

OlIAl'. Vill. 



tlioro arc .ilway.s 4 external pillars at the an<>;los, so that the square 
shape is retained, with 12 pillars, of whii-h the 8 iutenial ])ilhirs may 
be taken as mere insertions to support the long arehitrave between 
the 4 angular j)il]ars. 

It is evident that here again wo come to a limit beyond whieh wo 
cannot progress without using large and long stones. Tliis was some- 
times met by making the lower course of 16 sides, by cutting off the 
angles of the octagon. When this lias been done an awkwardness 
arises in getting back to the square form. This was escaped in all the 
instances I am accpxainted with, by adopting circular courses for all 
above that with 16 sides. Tn many instances the lower course with 16 
sides is altogethei' omitted, and the circles phiced immediately on the 
octagon. It is difticult to say how far this system might be carried 
constructively without danger of weakness. The Indian domes seldom 
exceed 30 ft, in diameter, but this may have arisen more from the 
difficulty of getting architraves above 12 or 13 ft. in length to su]i]iort 
the sides, than from any inability to constriict domes of larger diameter 
in themselves. This last difficulty was to some extent got over by a 
system of bracketing, by which more than half the bearing of the 
architrave was thrown on the capital of the column, as shown in 
woodcut 51. Of course this method might have been carried to any 


Diagram of Indian construction. 
B. Form of bracket capital in the angle of an octagonal dome. 

extent, so that a very short architrave would stiffice for a large dome ; 
but whether this could be done with elegance or not is another mattei'. 
The Indians seem to have thought not ; at least, so far as I know, 
they never eaiTied it to any extent. Instead of bracketing, however, 
they sometimes used struts, as in the instance midcr consideration, 
the temple of Vimala 8ali, but it is questionable whether that could 


ever bo made a really sei-viceable constructive expedient in stone 

The great advantage to be derived from this mode of conKtnicting 
domes was the power it gave the architect of placing them on ]iillars 
without having anything to fear from the lateral thnist of the vault. 
Tlie lutiiians never even attempted this, but always, so to speak, 
brought their vaults do\\^l to the ground, or at least could only erect 
them on great cylinders, which confined the space on every' side. The 
Byzantine architects, it is tnie, cut away a great deal of this sub- 
structure, but neveiiheless they never could get rid of the great heavy 
piers they were forced to employ to supi)ort their domes, and in all 
ages were forced to use either heavy abutiuents externally, or to crowd 
theii' interiors with masses of masonry, so as in a great measure to 
sacrifice either the external eifect or internal convenience of their 
buildings to the constructive exigencies of their domes. This in India 
never was the case ; all the pressure was vertical, and it only re- 
(piired sufllicient strength in the suppoj-t to bear the doA\niward pressure 
of the mass, and stability was insured — an advantage the impoi-tance 
of whicli is not easily over-estimated. 

One of the consequences of this mode of constniction was, that all 
the decoration of the Indian domes was horizontal, or, in other words, 
the ornaments were ranged in concentric rings, one above the other, 
iiLstead of being disposed in vertical ribs, as in Roman or Gothic 
vaidts. This arrangement allows of far more varietv being introduced, 
without any oflence to good taste, and piactically has rendered some 
of these Jaina domes the most exquisite specimens of elaborate roofing 
that can anywhere be seen. Another consequence deduced from this 
mode of construction was the employment of pendants from the centres 
of the domes, which are used to an extent that would have surprised 
even tlie Tudor architects of oiu- own countiy. \\ ith them, however, 
the pendant was an architectural "tour de force," requiring gieat 
constructive ingenuity and large masses to counterbalance, and is 
;dways tending to destroy the building it ornaments ; while the Indian 
pendant, on the contrary, only adds its own weight to that of the dome, 
and has no other prejudicial tendency. Its fomis, too, generally have a 
lightness and elegance never even imagined in Gothic art ; it hangs 
from the centie of a dome more like a lustre of crystal drops than a 
solid nuxss of marble or of stone. 

As before remarked, the 8 pillars that support the dome are 
never left alone, the base being always made square by the addition 
of 4 others at the angles. Tliere are many small buildings so con- 
stnu-ted with 12, but oftener 2 more are added on each face, making 
20, ius shown in the upi)er side of the diiigram (52); or 4 on each 
fiicc, making 28 ; or again, 2 in front of these 4, or 6 on each face, so 
as to make 36 ; and the same system of aggregation is carried on till 
the number reaches 56 (woodcut 53), which is the largest number 
I ever kjiw surnjunding one dome ; but any number of these domes 
may suiTound one temph-, or central dome, and the number of pillars 
consequently be multiplied ad injimfum. NN'lien so great a number of 

CiiAi'. YIII. 


pillars iiS introdncod as in \]\v liist instanco, it is usual t(i make the 
outmost couipavtmont on each face square, and siirnionnt it with a 
smaller dom(\ This is sometimes done even with the smallest mmiher. 
but not so Irequeutly. 

4 lU'K/'n'yg 

yi. Diagram Plan of Jaiua Teniplo. 


Diagram of Jaiua Temple. 

It Avill be observed that this arrangement makes the principal aisles 
wider than the side ones, in the ratio of 10 : 7 (or rather 1000 : 707), 
which for aisles of the same height is perhaps the most pleasing pro- 
portion that can be imagined. In Gothic churches the principal aisles 
are generally twice as wide as the side ones, but the}^ are also twice as 
high, which restores the proportion. Here, where the height of all is 
the same, or nearly so, this gradation just suffices for variety, and to 
mark the I'elative importance of the parts, without the one overpower- 
ing the other : and neither has the appeai'ance of being too broad or 
too narrow. 

It is of course difficult for those who have never seen a building of 
the class just described to judge of the effi^ct of these arrangements ; 
and they have seldom been practised in Europe. There is, hoAvever, 
one building in which they have accidentally been employed to a con- 
siderable extent, and which owes its whole beauty to the manner in 
Avhich it follows the arrangement above described. The building is 
Sir Christopher Wren's church of St. Stephen's, VValbrook. Jntcrnally 
its principal feature is a dome suppoi'ted on 8 pillars, with 4 more 
in the angles, and 2 ])rincipal aisles crossing the building at right 
angles, with smaller square compartments on each side. This chui'ch 
is the great architect's masteiiiiece, but it would have been greatly 
improved had its resemblance to a Jaina porch been more conqilete. 
The necessity of confining the dome and aisles within 4 walls greatly 
injures the effect as compared with the Indian examples. Even the 
Indian plan of roofing, explained above, might be used in such a 
building with much less expense and less constructive danger than a 
Gothic vault of the same extent. 


It would be a curious subject of speculation to find out whether the 
Buddliists ever built domes. At first si«5ht, almost every one would bo 
inclined to aiuswer that they did, so universally do domical forms 
appear in all their topes ; and it is very diflicult to believe that they 
should have adopted such a form so generally, without attaching to it 
some m(ji-e meaning than we can trace in it ; for it is neither the usual 
form (.)f a tumulus, nor of any sort of roof or covering, except that of 
a dome of construction. Kotwithstanding, however, this prima facie 
evidence, added to our knowledge that the Jains adopted the dome at 
a veiy early period, and made it the principal feature in their archi- 
tecture, it still appears probable that the Buddhists never constnicted, 
or knew of, a true dome of any sort. 

In the first place, no tope shows internally the smallest trace of a 
chamber so constructed, nor do any of the adjacent buildings incline to 
such a mode of construction, which must ere now have been detected 
had it ever existed. 

In the next place, no one of the caves or rock-cut temples of any 
sort shows any tendency even to this architectural fonu. In them 
everything is a direct imitation of some wooden constiiiction, and in no 
one instance, that I am aware of, is there a semblance of a stone roof of 
any kind, nor even of an arch, either horizontally constructed or on 
the radiating principle ; much less of a dome, wliich is a far more com- 
plicated and difficult thing to construct than a mere arch. 1 think, 
therefore, it must be admitted that they were ignorant of the form, or 
if they knew it that they still adhered, as many races and nations 
have done before and since their time, to peculiar and characteristic 
styles of their own. 

After this digression, little remains to be said of Jaina architecture, 
excei)t to point out the principal Iniildings in this style so far as they 
are known. The oldest are those at Jonaghur, in Guzerat ; but they 
have never been either described or drawn in such a manner as to 
render them intelligible. The same may almost bo said of the famous 
temi)le of Somnath, against which Mahmoud, the Gaznavide, directed 
his famous canijiaigTi in the year 1025. A short accoimt of it is given 
by Colonel Tod, in his Travels in \Vesteni India ; and a view pub- 
lished by Captain Postaus enables us to ascertain that it is a oO-pillared 
portico, like the one represented in woodcut No, 53, with a central 
and 4 angular domes, but not remarkable either for its size or its 
beauty. It is now converted into a moscpie, and considerably si)oilt in 
the i)rocess. 

The other Jama temples of Guzerat are almost wholly unknown to 
us ; so arc those of the I^Iysorc, though there is eveiy reason to believe 
that some of them are of gieat beauty and magniificenee. 

At Chaiidravati, a few miles to the south of Mount Altu, there are 
many remains of Jaina temjdes of great beauty. The place, however, is 
now whnlly deserted, and has in consequence been used as a quarry by 
the neighbouring towns and villages, so that little remains in a perfect 
state. To the northward of this there are many tenqiles, but none 
api)arently of great anticpiity. The most liourishing period of the style 

ciiAi'. viir. 



ui)pears to liavo been that of Khninbo Rana, of Oudcypore, a.d. 1418 to 
14()8, who, during his long and. prospcryus reign, filled his coinitry 
with hoautifiil buildings, both civil and ecclesiastical. Amongst otlicj-s 
he built the Temple of Sadree, situated in a deserted glen, running 
into the western slope of the Aravulli, below his favourite foit of 
Ivomulmeer. Notwithstanding long neglect, it still is nearly perfect, 
and is the most complicated and extensive Jaina temple I have ever 
myself seen. 

From the annexed plan it \\ill be perceived that it is nearly a 
square, 200 ft. by 225 ft., ex- 
clusive of the jirojection on 
each face. In the centre of 
this stands the great shrine, 




5 — I ®Sl ^"' 


not, however, occupied, as 
usual, by one cell, but by four ; 
or rather four great niches, 
in each of which is placed a 
statue of Adinath, or Eishab- 
deva, the first and greatest 
of the Jaina saints. Above pi. 
this are four other niches, simi- [ 
larly occupied, opening on the 
terraced roofs of the building. 
Near the four angles of the 
court are four other smaller 
shrines, and aroimd them, or 
on each side of them, are 20 
domes, supported by about 420 
columns ; four of these domes, 

the central ones of each group, 54. vim uf Temple at Sailrce. From a plan by the 
.1, , • • 1-1. 1 AutlKir. Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 

are tm-ee stories m height, and 

tower over the others ; and 

one, that facing the principal entrance, is supported by the very unusual 

number of K) columns, and is 3(5 ft. in diameter, the others being only 

24 ft. Light is admitted to the building by 4 uncovered courts, and 

the whole is surrounded by a range of cells, most of them unoccupied, 

eacli of which has a pj-ramidal roof of its own. 

The general external effect of the Sadree Temple may be judged of 
by woodcut No. 55 ; owing to its lofty basement, and the greater ele- 
vation of the principal domes, it gives a more favourable impression of 
a Jaina temple than is usually the case ; the defect of these buildings 
generally being their want of architectural design on their exterior 

The immense numbt'r of parts in the building, and their general 
smallness, prevents its laying claim to anything like avchitectura] 
grandeur; but their variety, their beauty of detail — no two pillars in 

' A view of ilic iuleriur is jiiveu in tiic author's li lustrations of Indian Architecture, 
plate X. 



15u(tK I. 

the whole hniltliiip; bcinj^ exactly alike — and the gi-ace \v\i\\ whieli 
tliL-v are arrati,<;vil, the tasteful admixture of domes of diifereut heights 
with flat eeiliu«:;.s, ami the mode in which the light i.s intioduied. 
condjine t(» i)roduce an excellent eflFcct. Indeed I know of no other 
building in India of the same class that leaves so pleasing an impres- 
sion, or affords so many hints for the graceful aiTangcment of c(diimns 
in an interior. 


K.xtcrnal View of the Temple at tjadree. 

Besides its merits of design, its dimensions are by no means to be 
despised ; it covers altogether about 48,000 square feet, or nearly as 
much as one of our ordinary media?val cathedrals, and, taking the 
basement into account, is nearly of equal bulk ; while in amount of 
labour and of sculptural decorations it far suiiiasses any. 

The other Jaina temples with which 1 am acquainted are gene- 
rally less extensive and less interesting than the two above described ; 
fre(piently they consist onl}- of a square cell, covered with a pyramidal 
spire, and a porch of greater or less extent, without the enclosing 
court and its accompaniment of cells, &c. ; although it probably was 
always intended that they slumld have this if completed. 

Jn the Uengal provinces several of these Jaina temples have been 
converted into moscpies, constituting some of the few remains of mt»re 
ancient times that the bigotry of the Moslems has spared to us. One 
still exists at Canouge, on the Ganges, the oidy really ancient building 
remaining of that great city. Another, though of more modern date, 
is found at Dhar, near JNIandoo, in Malwa. But by far the most 
remarkable is the collection of Jaina remains around the Kootnb 
Minar, at (dd Delhi, where they form the most picturesque and inte- 
resting grou]! of niins now found in Northern India, and for elaborate 
exubeianee of detail are almost unrivalled even in India. 

The process by which this conversion of a Jaina temple to a jMos- 

OiiAi'. VIII. .lAlXA TOWKKS. 81 

h'lu luosquo was effected will be easily understood by referring tti the 
plan of tluit of Viniala Sail, on IMount Abu (woodcut 4:>, ]>. 70). By 
removini;- the principal cell and its porch from the centre of the court, 
and building np the entrances of the cells that surround it, a court- 
yard was at once obtained, surrounded by a doidilc colonnade, which 
always was the typical form of a mosque. Still one essential feature 
was wanting -a more important side towards Mecca; this they easily 
obtained by removing the smaller pilhirs from that side, and re-erecting 
in their place the larger pillars of the porch, with their doiiic in the 
centre, and, if there were two smaller domes, by placing them at each 
end. Thus, without a single new ccdumu or carved stone being- 
required, they obtained a mosque which, for convenience and beauty, 
was inisui'passed by anything they afterwards erected from their own 
c)riginal designs. All .this, however, will l)e more fully illustrated in 
a subsequent chapter of this W(n-lv, when describing the Mahometan 
ai-chitecture of India, of which this transformation was the commence- 
ment, as it was the end of the style which has just lieen described. 


The Jains, like their predccesse)rs the Buddhists, are great tower- 
builders ; but towers are, in themselves, frailer structures than tem- 
ples, besides which there is less zeal in preserving them, so that few 
remain perfect to our day. Two of these are still standing in the fort 
of Chittore. The older and smaller of the two, belonging apparently 
to the tenth century, is the most elegant in form and detail. It is not 
known for what purpose it was erected.' The other was raised by the 
same Khumbo Rana who built the temple at Sadree, to eonnnemorate 
his victory over IMahmoud of Malwa. in the year 1 4:59. Tt therefore is 
in Buddhist language a Jaya Sthamha, or pillar of victory, like that of 
Trajan at Rome, but in infinitely better taste as an architectural 
object than the Roman example, though in scidptui-e it may be inferior. 
As Avill be seen from the woodcut (No. 56) it is 9 stories in height, 
each of which is distinctly marked on the exterior, A stair in the 
centre communicates with each, and leads to tlie tw(^ upper stories, 
which are open, and more ornamental than those below. It is 80 ft. 
wide at the base, and more than 1 20 ft. in height ; the whole being 
covered with architectural ornaments and sculptures to such an extent 
as to leave no plain parts, while at the same time this mass of decora- 
tion is so kept under, that it in no way interferes either with the out- 
line or the general effect of the pillar. 

The Mahometans, as we shall afterwards see, adopted the plan of 
erecting towt>rs of victory to commemorate their exploits, but the most 
direct imitation was by the Chinese, whose 9-storied pagodas are 
almost literal copies of these Jaina towers, translated into their own 
pecidiar mode of expression, 

' Sep lllustr.-itidiis ol' Imliim ArchitiH tiiM', liy tlio .lutlior, \AMc ix, 







Tower at Chittore. 


Of tlio civil arcliitcctiire of the Jains we know little. In the few 
bnildiiiii's roinaining there is nothinc; to distinguish them from those of 
tlie lliiuliis, ami nothing that can at all vie either in interest or beauty 
with the temples we have just been describing. These temples, 
though smaller than those of the SoutheiTi Hindus, and less grand than 
some of the Buddhist remains, are still, I must think, the most pleasing 
and elegant sjiecimens. of internal architecture at least, that are now 
to be found in India.. Could they be traced to their source, they 
would probably aftbrd as pleasing a chapter of architectural history as 
any of the second-class styles we are acquainted with. At present the 
stvle is less known than any of the others found in India, and its 
history can scarcely be said to have been even broached, much less 
written by any of those who have hitherto given their attention to the 

' In the above account of .laina nrchitec- would throw more light on the subject than 
ture 1 have omitted all allusion to the India has been done by the examples above quoted. 
Subba group of caves at Kllora, which are They look much more like Buddhist caves 
generally, and, I believe, correctly, ascribed without cells than anytliing the Jains ever 
to tbe Jains. 1 have done this because struc- built, so far at least as we know, and, though 
tural examjiles are so much more easily un- interesting as specimens of cave architecture, 
derstood, that they are always preferable have not the same merit as structural build- 
when they exist, and there is nothing in these ings. Illustrations of them will be found in 
caves remarkable in itself, nor anything that Daniell's Views in the East. 

a 2 









Historical notioos — Form of Temples — Porebes of Temples — Gateways — Pillared 
ilalls — Temples at Seringham, Trivahir, Tinuevolly, Sec. — Kylas at Ellora — 
Construction of Rock-cut Temples — Modern Hindu style in the South. 



Kiilii Sccluini founds Hhuliiia ;il).iiii ilic 

Cliristian Kra. 
Viimsji Sccheni rebuilds it, ninth ccnlury ; 

founds llie collcgp of Madura. 
Vikrama Clioln— rise of Cliolan supremacy, 

laiiital Tanjorc A.D. 827 


ViraChola Iniilds trniple at Chillumliruin ; 
Ari Vari l>fva, his grandson, comiilcles 
temple at Chilhunhruin a.i>. 

KylasatKllora, excavated by Cholan princes 

Rise of Chalukya power 

Trimul Naik rebuilds Madura .... 



Thk architoetnrc of the TTindns may 1)0 divided into three perfectly 
distinct, tlumgh eonteniporary, tstyle.s. The first being the Sontheni 
Hindu— that practised by the Tamul races of the south— and wholly 
confined to the countiies lying between Cape Comorin and the 
Xerbuddha or Yind^'a range. 

Tlie second, the Northern or Arian Hindu, ftmnd only between the 
Himalaya and the nortlumi boinulary of the last-mentioned style, in 
the countries into which the Arian or Sanscrit-speaking races i)ene- 
tratcd, and where they settled, which are now known as the Bengal 

Thi^ third style is found tinly in Cashmere and the Punjab; it 
(lifters considerably from tlie other two, though possessing more simi- 
larity to the southern style than to that which intervenes between 

Of the Northern Hindu style we have very few remains, and we 
shall hereafter see reason to believe that the art of temple-building 
never was practised in the North nearly to the extent which we find 
to have ]irovailed in the South. 

There is perha]is n.. country in the world where temide-building 
has receivetl so extraordinary a development tis in the south of India, 


takino; the aiuuiuit and tho cirfiiiiistaiices of tlie poidilatiun into 
account. At Jio ])cviod of their liistoiv did the Tainul races rise to 
anythiuii; like importance politically, nor have we any reason for 
Itelieving that these countries were ever more populous than they are 
at present. In literature they have done nothing original, all that 
they possess being borrowed directly from the Sanscrit of the Arian 
races of the noith. In science, it need scarcely be added, they have 
made no advance whatever. Yet this country is covered with temples 
which, for extent and amount of labour bestowed on them, may rival 
Karnac; and the most extensive temples of Egyjit, and surpass even the 
cathedi-als of the middle ages in complexity of design and variety of 
detail. Their relative merit as works of art is another question, which 
must I fear be decided against them ; but, as specimens of patient 
ilevotional labour, they, so far as I know, stand as yet unrivalled in 
the architectural history of the world. 

Historical Notick. 

if a line be drawn east and west from Madras to Maiigalore, it will 
cut off a portion of India forming nearly an equilateral triangle of 400 
miles a side, within which are situated almost all tho great temples 
of Soiitheni India. 

To the north of this line the country seems never to have been 
sufficiently thickly peopled, at least in ancient times, for any rich or 
powerful states to have been established within its boundaries. Con- 
sequently, we do not find many temples there, and those that are known 
to exist have been so imperfectly drawn or described that they cannot 
at present be rendered available for elucidating the history of the 

The country to the south of this line has from the earliest times 
been inhabited (above the Ghcits at least) by people of the pui'e Tamul 
race, who, so far as we know, are aboriginal in the country. As far 
as theii" traditions rciicli they have been divided into three kingdoms 
or states, the Pandyas, the Cholas, and the Cheras, forming a little 
triarchy of powers, neither interfered with by the other nations of the 
earth, nor interfering with those bej'ond their limits. During the 
greater part of theii- existence all their relations of war and peace 
have been among themselves, and they have grown up a separate 
people, as unlike the rest of the world as can well be conceived. 

Of the three, the most southern was called the randyan kingdom, 
and was the earliest civilized, and seems to have attained sufficient 
iuq)ortauce about the time of the Christian era to ha^'c attracted the 
special attention of the Greek and Roman geographers. How nuicli 
earlier it became a state, or had a regular succession of rulers, we 
know nt)t,' but it seems ceitainlv to have attained to some consistency 
as early as five or six centuries before the Christian era, and maintained 

' The best account of this stato is tiiat are found in Taylor's Analysis of the Mack- 
given by Professor Wilson in vol. iii. of the enzie MSS. anil elsewhere, 
.lournal K. A. S., but many scattered notices 


itself witliiu its original l);)undancs, till in the middle of the last 
centiirv it was swallowed up in our all-devouring aggression. 

During this long period the I'audyans had several epuehs of great 
brillianey and power, followed by long intervening periods of dejjres- 
sion and obscurit}'. The first and fifth or sixth eenturies seem to have 
been those when they espeeiall}' distinguished themselves. If liuild- 
ings of these epochs still exist in the country, of wliieh 1 see no 
imju-obability, they are utterly unknown as yet, as well as all those 
of the intervening periods down to the reign of Trimul Naik, A.u. 1(524. 
This prince adorned the cai)ital city of jMadura with many splendid 
buildings, some of whic;h have been drawn by ]Janiell and others. 
What more ancient remains there may be will not be known till the 
place has been carefully and scientifically explored. 

The Chola kingdom extends from the valley of the Cauvery and 
Coleroon rivei-s, which seems always to have been their 2)i'iiu'ipal seat, 
nearly to Madras, all along the eastern coast, called after them ("holo- 
mandalam or Coromandel. The date of the origin of their kingdom is 
not known, but their political lelations with Cashmere can be traced 
as early as the fifth century, and piobably earliei". Their epoch of 
greatest gh)ry, however, was between the tenth and twelfth centuries, 
when they seem to liaA'e concpiered not only their neighbours the 
Tandyas and Cheras, but even to have surpassed the bounds of the 
triarchy, and carried their arms into Ceylon, and even as far north as 
Ellora, where the groat Kylas cave was excavated, either by them or 
under their influence. After this period they had no great levival 
like the Pandyas under Trimul Xaik, but sank step by step under the 
Mahometans, Maharattas, and English, to their jjresent state of utter 

The Cheras occupied the country above the Ghats between Mysore 
and Madura, and to the west of the Chola country. They seem never 
to have been so important as either of their neighbours, and cei-tainly 
never were such temple-builders, their country being singularly bare 
of important monuments of this class. They were concjueied by the 
Cholas in the tenth century, and never afterwards legained their formei' 
power or position— having only shortly recovered their indei)endence 
to sink again under the rising power of the rajahs of Mysore and 

Although, politically, these three states always remained distinct, 
and generally antagonistic, the people belonged to the same race. 
Their architecture is different from an}^ other, but united ixi itself, and 
has gone through a process of gradual change from the earliest times 
at which we become ai(piainted with it, until we lose sight of it 
altogether in the last century. This change is invariably for the 
worse, the earlier sjjeeimens being in all instances the most perfect, 
and the degree of degradation forming an exact chronometric scale, 
by which we may measure the age of the luiildings. Ascendiiifr 

' I'or all account of the Chera kingdom sue a jiaper by Mr. Dowsoii in vol. viii. ol' 
tile Journal K. A. S. 

CiiAi-. I. SOUTHERN HINDU. . 1^7 

upvvurds, wu Idsu the thread ui' uiir aichitectiind histuiy just when 
we come to something so elegant and pure as almost to admit a 
eomparison with some of the better specimens of classic art iu more 
western lauds. 

The JSontluTU part oi India was the scene of protracted disputes 
between the Budelhist religion and that of the Hindus' from the fifth 
to the seventh, century. These contests ended in the persecution and 
expulsion of the former, though their successors the Jains still flourished 
at Conjeveram, formerly one of the principal scats of the Duddhists, 
and in the Mysore. So completely was Buddhism extirjiated, that no 
monument of that religion exists, so far as I know, to the south of the 
tope of Amravati described above.* 

The Hindu religion, which thus l)ecamc supreme, is commonly 
known by the name of Brahmanical, from the Brahmins or priests 
belonging to its two great sects. These two sects consist of the wor- 
shijjpers of Siva and of Vishnu, and are quite distinct fioju one 
another, and almost antagonistic. Both are now oveiloaded with a 
mass of the most mouotrous and degrading superstition. The origin 
of the Sivite and Vishnave sects is unknown to us. We can con- 
fidently assert that neither of them was derived from the Indo- 
Germanic or Sanscrit-speaking races, whose simple monotheism was 
a pure fire-worship, similar to that of the Persians, and consequently 
as far removed from the absurdities of the Hindus as can well be 

There are several very remarkable coincidences between the tenets 
of the Vishnaves and the recent discoveries in Assyria. Garuda, the 
eagle-headed Vahana, and companion of Vishnu, seems identical with 
the figure now so familiar to us in Assyrian sculpture, probably repre- 
senting Onuazd. The fish-god of the Assyrians, Dagon, prefigures the 
fish Avatar, or incarnation of Vishnu. The man-lion is not more 
familiar to us in Assyria than in India, and tradition generally points 
to the ^Vest for the other figures scarcely so easily recognised — more 
especially Bali, whose name alone is an index to his origin ; and Maha 
Assura, who, by a singular inversion, is a man with a bull's head,^ 
instead of a bull with a man's head, as he is always figured in his 
native land. It is worthy of notice, however, tliat the ninth Avatar of 
Vishnu is always Buddha himself, and that in the fourteenth century 
there appears to have been no appreciable difference between the Jains 
and the Vishiuxves ;* wbich, with many other facts which it is needh'ss 
to refer to here, point I think indubitably to a common origin for these 
three forms of faith — Budelhism being, so far as we know, the oldest 
derivative trom that common source ; Jainaism, a less pure modifica- 
tion ; and Vishuaism, one suited to the capacities of the present 
inhabitants of India. 

' Many passages in the Mackenzie I\ISS., Trans. R. A. S., for the scnipture at Maii.i 

ilepusited at the I'^ast India Houoe, refer to Bali]iurani. 
these disputes. ■* Asiatic ilesearches, vol. i\. p. "Jlti, ami 

^ See p. 14 and woodeiit Nu. 9. vol. xvii. p. 'J85. 

•' See Dr. Babington, plate 4, vul. ii., 


The Sivitf .superstition cannot but be regardod as an indigenous 
form of woi>>liip belonging to some of the aboriginal tribes of India, 
modiiied no doubt to an immense extent by contact with the foreign 
forms of faith just alltuled to ; the whole being now so completely 
jumbled together as to a])pear parts of one great system, instead of 
merely being amalgamations of a vast number of lieterogeneous 
elements, which iiave been floating about in the unfathomable sea of 
misguided imaginings of the Hindus during the long dark ages of their ^ 
intellectual and ])olitical degradation. 

There does not seem to be any es.sential difference either in the 
plans or foiTns of the Sivite or Vishnave temples in the south of India. 
It is only by obser\'^ing the images or emblems worshipped, or by 
reading the stories represented in the numerous seuli)tures Avith which 
a temple is adorned, that we tind out the god to whom it is dedicated. 
Whoever he may be, the temples consist almost invariably of the four 
following [)arts, arranged in various manners, as afterwards to be 
exph\ined, but diifering in themselves only according to the age in 
v.diich they were executed : — 

1. The principal part, the actual temple itself, is called the Vimana. 
It is always square in plan, and surmounted by a pyramidal roof of one 
or more stories ; it contains the cell in which the image of the god or 
his emblem is placed. 

2. The porches or Mantajjus, which always cover and i)recede the 
door leading to the cell. 

3. Gate pyramids, Gopuras, leading into the quadrangular enclo- 
sures which always surround the I imanas. 

4. Pillared halls or ('honUrii't^, used for various piu-poses, and which 
are the invariable accompaniments of these temples. 

Besides these, a temple always contains tanks or wells for water — 
to be used either for sacred purjioses or the convenience of the priests 
— dwellings for all the various gi'adcs of the priesthood attached to it, 
and mniierous other buildings designed for state or convenience. 


The ViiiiiiiKU though fieijuently not the largest, is always the most 
important i)art of a Hindu temple, being in fact the sanctuary or temjile 
itself. As before stated, it is always square in plan. In snuiller 
temples the perpendicular part is generally equal in height to its 
breadth, or, in other words, it forms a cube. In the larger temples its 
height is very much less than its breadth; but, nevertheless. I believe 
that the cell which it contains (the garbhu (/riha, or womb of the house) 
is always a cube, or intended to be so ; but it is so difficult to gain 
access to it, that I am by no means certain this is alwavs the case. 

The )ier]tendicular part is always of stone, generally of granite, 
decorated with jjilasters, niches, and other ornaments conuuon to this 
style. The jtyramidal roof is generally of brickwoik covered with 
stucco. This in the smallest temples is only one story high, but in 

(,'11 AT. I. 



liirger ones, siu-li ;us that at Taiijon' (woudciit No. 00), it rises throu<ih 
I 4 stories to a height of neariy 200 ft. 

The annexed woodcut (No. 57) represents one 3 stories in height 

57. I'erunial Pagoda, Madura. Xo scale. 

From a MS. drawing in tlie possession of General Mouteith, Madras Engineers. 

at jNladnra, belonging probably to the age of Trimul Naik, and shows 
all the more intercepting peculiarities of the more modern style. There 
is a complete resemblance between this building and one of the veiy 
curious rock-cut temples described above at Mahavellipore.' Every 
part of the one is represented in the other, with such ditt'erences only 
as the difference of ago (ab(uit 300 years) wouhl lead us to exi^ect. 
Thus the little cells, which are the principal ornaments of the j\laha- 
vellipore temple, have here become niches. It is evident that both ar'e 
derived from some common source, the later example receding ftirther 
from the original. 

Both, it will be seen, are covered with a small elumelike tenuiua- 
tion, which is common to all tem]iles in the south, without exception. 

' S^ee p. Gj, woodcut 42. 



Book II. 

HO far as 1 know ; still in no instance can it bo traced to a dome of 
construction. That it is borrowed from the Buddhist toi»e will be 
tolerably evident by referring to woodcut No. 41, where a similar ter- 
mination covers a Nepalese kosthakar ; but jn that instance it un- 
doubtedly is meant to represent the sacred emblem of the Buddhists. 
In the older exam])lo at Mahavellipore it lo(jks more like the umbrella 
that crowns the liuddhist relic-shrLue (see woodcut No. 14) than the 
relic-shrine itself; but in either case its origin can hardly be con- 
sidered as doubtful. 


Temple at Tanjore. 
From the ' British Museum- Egyptian Antiquities,' vol. i. p. 188. 

I'.y far the most splendid temple in India is the great pagoda at 
Tanjore ; it.s base measures 82 ft. each way, it is two stories in height, 
and its pyramidal roof rises through 14 stories to a height of 
ISO ,.!• 2t^<» ft. Its aire has not vet been satisfaetorilv ascertained, 
though its base is coviivd with inscriptions that would reveal its 

CiiAi'. I. roilCUKS AND GATE rYl^UjlDS. '.U 

history if any «'iie would take tliu trouble to read them. As far as 
can he aseertaiued, it l)eU)iigs to the great age of the Chohi dynasty, 
prohahly the tenth or eleventh centuiy ; but if so, its upper pax't must 
have undergone a A-ery thoroiigh repair at some later date, possibly 
on its appropriation to Sivaism ; for, as its gateways are decidedly 
Vishnave, the temjile was probably so also when first built, but like 
many otlu^rs in India given over to the more popular faith at some 
subsequent period. At all events it is the finest temple in the south, 
being almost the only one in which the mmatia or temple is the prin- 
eijial object, round whicli the subuj'dinate ones are grouped in such a 
manner as to make a great and consistent whole. Generally speaking, 
they have been aggregated together as if by accident, and the princi}>al 
ol)ject is so overpowered by the secondary ones as utterly to destroy 
all appearance of design. 

In most instances the light is admitted to the cell only by its door- 
way ; but as if this were not sufficient to ensure the obscurity which 
they covet so much, as enhancing the mystery of the sanctuary, it is 
generally covered by an ante-temple, or pronaos — here called Aidercthi 
— generally about half as deep as it is broad, its breadth being the 
same as that of the cell. 

Porches, ok Mantapas. 

Beyond this is a porch, or Manfapa, which is usually a square 
building, in jjlan nearly identical with the temple itself, and having 
a door on each of its four sides, one leading to the cell of the tem})le, 
the other three admitting light and access to its interior. Its roof is 
generally pyramidal, but very much lower than that of the temple 
itself; but often it is flat, and devoid of any crowning ornament. 

To this another porch sometimes succeeds ; and wlien this is the 
case, the inner one is distinguished as the Ardha Mantapa, the outer 
as the Maha Mantapa. When joined together the outer, is generallv 
o])en in front and closed only on the sides, so that it does not materially 
obstruct the passage of light to the interior. Sometimes it is detached, 
and then takes any form that fancy may dictate. 

The roof of these porches, when large, is siq)ported with pillars ; 
but the Hindu architects never willingly resort to this expedient, 
ger.erally reducing the bearing as far as possible by bracketing and 
projecting cornices, and then aiding the long stones that form the 
ceiling by beams of wood, (jr even of iron, laid under them, so as to 
gain the re(piisite strength by any contrivance rather than by ])illars. 
Many of the finest tenqdes of India owe their ruin to this strange 
peculiarity in a people who in other instances were lavish of columnar 
arrangements to an extent unknown in any other part of the world. 

Gate Pyramids, or Gopuras. 

The cell and its porch together form the temple, properly so called : 
but in all instances they were enclosed — or at least it was iiitcudrd 
they should be so —in a rectangular court. The walls of this couit 


iiio liji;!!. iiiul plain L-xtoiiially, but intonially oniaiiioiitcd by culoii- 
iiades aiitl cloisters, or buildings of various sorts ada}»tcd to the service 
ol" the tenqtle. This gave rise to the Gate Pyrauiids, which tbnoi the 
entrances to these eourt*i. 

\\ hen only one Avail surroinidcd the temple, only one gateway wah 
used, directly facing the porch. W here a second enclosure surrounded 
the hist, the outer A\all had usually two gateways, ojie in front of that 
of the inner wall, the other exactly opposite behind the temple ; with 
'A enclosures, 4 gojiuras were required for the outer enclosure, one in 
the centio of each face. So that a temple, such as that at Seringham. 
with 7 enclosures, ought to have 28 gopuras ; the number however is 
seldom complete, Seringham having, 1 believe, only 17, and no other 
that I am acquainted with so many. 

Another curious practice is, that the gateway is made to bear some 
projionion to the length of the wall in which it is ]ilaccd. I'hus at 
Seriughaui, the inner enclosure being 200 or 800 ft. s([uare. the gate 
l)yramid is only 40 or 50 ft. broad, and the passage thiough it 10 or 
12 ft. wide, and 18 or 20 ft. high; while the outer ones, standing in 
walls 2475 and 2880 ft. in extent, are loO ft. wide by 100 ft. deep, the 
opening 21 ft. G in. wide by twice that in height. The jambs are 
fonned of single blocks of granite at least 40 ft. in length, and the 
whole is roofed by slabs of gTanite not less than 23 or 24 ft. long. 
These gateways, though not older than the beginning of the last cen- 
tury, arc among the most stupendous buildings of the south of India. 
This arrangement gives rise to a singular piece of architectural bathos. 
The original sinall cell in this, as in many other instances, has become 
sacred from some mvstical cause or other ; and instead of either re- 
building it on a larger scale, or building over it, as the Buddhists 
would have done, the Hindu architect has merely regilt and re-orna- 
mented it. Next another and another enclosure with its gate-towers 
has been added, so that there is no central object of attraction. 
N'iewed externally, the tcnqile is a congeries of gate pyramids without 
object, and on entering you i»ass from the most magnificent stnictures 
to those which are less and less so, till at last you arrive at the meanest 
thing of all, the sanctum sanctonim of the whole temple. To a Hindu 
its sanctity may hide all its defects ; but the architect has certainly 
failed to work up to the greatness of his subject. Tanjore is one of 
the few temples in the south which escape this faidt, so destructive of 
architectural grandeiu'. 

The form of the Gopura*> is easily understood, as it is identical 
with that of the Vimanas, except that, instead of being always square, 
they are always larger in one direction than. the other, and their 
longer side is pierced with an opening occui)ying from one-fouilh to 
one-seventh of the whole width. This oblong shape also necessitates 
the abandonment of the circular croAvniing ornament, which is length- 
ened out to correspond with the general section of the building. 

Ihis, like the form of the tenqdes, is explicable by a reference to 
Ituddhist l»uildings. The large long building, for instance, in wood- 
eut No. 42. which almost imdouliledly represents the exterior of a 

CllAl>. 1. 


9; 5 

Entrance to a Hindu Tomple, Colombo. From Sir J. E. Tennent's ' Ceylon.' 

60. Gopura, Combaconum. From a Sketch by Uie Autlior. 


nnddhist C/tai'h/a hall, if pierced with an opening in the side instead of 
at tilt' end. would fonu a (lopura : and the Ilindns, w^lien byilding in a 
Biuldliist country, still adhere to ihi.s fonu more closely than in their 
own tcn-itories, as may be seen by the woodcnt No. 59, representing 
the gateway' of a temple in Ceylon, still retaining the simple fonn 
almost lost in the complication to wliich their gateways have been 
sulijected in modem times. 

One of the tallest gate pyramids I know of is that belonging to the 
principal temple at Combacouum (woodcut No. GO), which became the 
capital of the Chola after the temporary abandonnient of Tanjore. It 
rises to 12 stories, including the basement, which is of granite and 
plain, while the Avhole of the pyiamid is of brick stuccoed, and covered 
with sculpture and architectural ornaments to an extent undreamt 
of by European imagination. Its want of proportion, and the endless 
repetition of small parts, prevent its being so pleasing an architectural 
object as the smaller gate jiyramids genei'ally are, though it is 
certainly imposing from its mass. 

Pillared Halls. 

By far the most extraordinary buildings connected with these fanes 
are the pillared colonnades or choultries which occupy the spaces 
between the various enclosures of the temples. They are of all shapes 
and sizes, from the little pavilion supported on 4 pillars up to the 
magnificent liaM numbering a thoiisand. 

Their uses too are most various : in ancient times they served as 
porches to temples ; sometimes as halls of ceremony, where the 
dancing-girls attached to tlic temples dance and sing ; sometimes they 
are cloisters suiTOimding the whole area of the temple, at others 
swinging porches, where the gods enjoy at stated seasons that intel- 
lectual amusement. But by far their most impoi'tant application is 
when used as nuptial halls,' in which the mystic union of the male 
and female divinities is celebrated once a year. Those dedicated to 
these festivals sometimes attain an extent of 1000 cfdnmns, and are 
called in consequence halls of 1000 columns, though they do not in all 
instances make up this complement. 

At Tinnevelly the great pillared hall has 100 columns in its 
length, by 10 in width, so that it would have exactly that number 
were not 24 omitted to make way for a small temple. At ( 'hilluni- 
bnmi the hall is 24 pillars wide by 41 in length, which, adding the 10 
of the porch, would make up the number ; but some are omitted in the 
centre to admit of space for ceremonies, so that the actual number is 
only 030. At Tiruvalur* the gieat liall is IH pillars wide by 43 in 
dcjith, or 688 ; one-half of them, however, support no roof, so that it 
is probably unfinished. At Scringham the hall is of about the same 
extent; and several other temples have halls, the nmnber of whose 

' In this r.ise they arc ciUed chriort, the « Ham Raz, Essay on Hin«hi Architertiire, 

same word, I believe, radically, as c/ioultn/. plate xlviii. 




]iill;trs vuries from (>0() tu 1000; in filmufst every instanoc coinposcfl of 
.•I Inird el ose-i;T; lined f2;ranite. eovcred witli s(!iil])tiue from the base to 
tlie ea])ital, and in most instanees no two jiillars are exactly alike. 
'I'lien^ is tlms an endless and bewildering variety in the detail, though 
fli(» general dimensions and eifect are the same. 

The eonstrnt'tion of these choultries will be l)est understood from 
tlie annexed section of one used as a porch to a small temple at Chil- 
lumbruni; as will be seen, it is a five-aisled porch, supported by six 

Section of rorcU of Tomplc at Cliillnmbnmi. From a Sketch by the Author. No scale. 

square columns, about 18 in. each way and 20 ft. in height. The 
outer aisles are only (3 ft. in width, the inner 8 ft., and they are roofed 
simply by flat stones laid side by side. The whole energ}- of the 
architect, however, has been reserved for the central aisle, which has a 
clear width of 21 ft. 6 in. ; a space so wide that it would be difficult to 
span it without using stones so heavy as to crush the substructure. 
To avoid this a bracketing shaft of singular elegance is attached to the 
front of the square pillar, and a system of bracketing carried up till 
the space to be spanned by flat stones is about equal to that of the side 
aisles, or in other words the space between the pillars is divided into 
three equal portions of about 8 ft. each, the side portion borne on the 
brackets, and the central space only remaining to be roofed. Lest, 
however, there should be a tendency to lateral weakness in so exten- 
sive a bracket, about half-way up it a stay ' is introduced, in the form 
of a slight stone beam extending from one to the other, Avhich cer- 
tainly adds extremely to tlic elegance, and alst) ]-)robably to the 
strength of the structure. 

The general effect of the arrangements of this porch will be seen from 
the woodcut No. 62, though it cannot do justice to its singular elegance 
and grace. This is the oldest example I have seen of the arrange- 
ment, dating probably from the tenth century, and therefore the most 
elegant. The more modem examples, though richer, have lost much 

' Sliown more clonrlv in tlio woodcut No. G2. 



IIOOK il. 


View ot I'orcb at Cliilluuibruiu. Fruui ilrtiwuigs by Uie Author. 

(if the beaiity, and nearly all the cun.stnictive propriety and o'race. 
Avhieh we find in this. One cif the most remarkable of these is the 
hall built l)y Trimnl Naik at Madura, and tolerably well known to the 
English public from Daniell's illustration of it. It was commenced in 
in2;j, is said to have cost nearly a million sterling, and occupied 
twenty-two years in its erection.' As will l)e seen by the annexed 
jilan (woodcut No. 63), the building is ;53i{ ft. long by 81 ft. 10 in. 
wide, and is supported by 128 pillars or ]>icrs, all of which difter, and 
all are covered with the most elaborate and minute architectural onia- 
mojits — manv bavin"; fiiiures attached to tbc fronts of them, as w(>n as 
groups ou their sides. In this instance the brmkiting sliait lias 

' .J. K. A. S., vol. iii. p. 2ri2. 

Chap. I. 

1'1I,LA1!EI) I1AI,I,S. 


luei-ged into tlio pilluv ; the whole becomes a pier from 5 ft. to 6 ft. in 
width, with .scarcely a remiiiisceiice of the original arrangement from 
which it sprang. The accompanying elevation of one of these (wood- 
cut No. 64) wll show the form which the piers took about this time, 
and which is common to them all, after this date, though not foimd 
before. The object in building this magnificent choultry was to pro- 
vide a suitable abode for the god, who consented to leave his temple 
for ten days everj' year, and visit the king, on condition of his pro- 
viding a suitable building for his reception. 


NCH <'A 

10 'li 

M wn 

H &1l>r<E 


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ij. ''"' 


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j.J I'lan of Trimul Naik's Choultry. 

64. Pillar in Triimil Naik's Chouliry. 

From drawings in the possesslou of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

Between these two arrangements — the more modern, where the 
square pillars merge into flat piers, and the older one, in which 
the square shape is never lost sight of — come the pillared halls of the 
celebrated temple of Eamisseram on an island between Ceylon and the 
mainland. These arc 5-aisled choidtries, and encircle the temple 
twice, and with their various junctidns extend to near 4000 ft, in 
length, with every variety of light and shade and complexity of form 


and effect, lUiikiug up one of the most va«t uml elaborate of all the 
U-iii|(lc.s in the smith ot" India.' 

NVheiv the subordination of parts is preserved, the general effect of 
these clionltries is pleasing, and, from their vastness, sometimes 
almost reaches to sublimity. But in the more modern times this 
(pijilitv is neglected, and, as at TinnevcUy and Chillundjrum, both of 
which were erected during the last century, the choultries are mere 
collections each of 1000 colunnis, placed at equal distances, generally 
no more than 6 ft. apart, without any variety or liarmony of arrange- 
ment whatever. Such a foiest of pillars, carved and elaboiatctl as 
these arc, cannot fail to produce some effect, but it wM)uld bii difticult 
to conceive any design on which so much labdiir could be bestowed 
productive of so little of either beauty or gi-andeur. 

Ill other instances, a« at Seringham, Conjeveram, and elsewhere, a 
middle coiu'se is followed between these tw^o extremes, the great hall 
being tiaversed by one wide aisle in the centre for the whole of its 
greater length, and inteisected by transepts of like dimension running 
across at right angles. There still remain seven side-aisles on each 
side, in which all the pillars are eciually spaced out. In those, look- 
ing outwards from the centre aisle, the arrangement is not without a 
certain magnificence of effect, but it neither has the sublimity of the 
long-drawn vistas of liamisseram, nor the spacious exuberance of Tri- 
iiiul Xaik's choultry at Madura. 

The mode in which those various ])arts arc generally grouped 
together will be undeistood by the Iavo following illustrations, one a 
plan of the temple at TinnevcUy, the other an isometric view of that 
at Tiruvalur, both comparatively modem examples, but sufficiently 
characteristic to ex])lain all that has been said above of the style. 

'i'lie temple at Tiruvalur measures externally 9-15 ft. by 701 ft., and 
has b gate pyramids in its outer enclosure, 2 in the second, and 
one in the inner. The sanctuary is double, and surrounded by a 
cloister. The next enclosure is crowded by temples and buildings of 
eveiy slnqjc and size, placed without the least reference to sym- 
metrical arrangement, in the outer court are several larger temples, 
some placed at diifeient angles from the rest ; and towards the j)riiici- 
pal entrance is the great choultry, intended aj>parently to have had 
1000 ciilumns, but evidently unfinished, one-half of those already 
erected having no roof to support. As before mentioned, the number 
now standing is »)88. These are all ecpially s}>aced, except that tlieie 
is a broad aisle down the centre, and a narrower transverse avenue in 
the direction of the entrance. Hence it will easily be understood how 
inferior, as an architectural design, this is to such an arrangement as 
that of the 420 columns of the temple at .Sadiee,'' t)r indeed of any 
•laina building, however small. Their uniformly flat roofs jnevcut 
r-ven the older chotdtries from reaching the beauty of these domical 

' .\ |ilaii 111 tins tt-inpic i> givoii in tlif uopiiia, and in the India House are .MS 
.louriial of the (!eiv^va|ihical Societv of Unni- views nt' its interior. 
Iiay, vol. vii. ."^alt j)iiblishe<l a view o{ its '^ Sec ]>. 79, wooiUnits bi and 55. 

CHAl'. 1. 



I'xaniples ; wliilc the modern ones are certainly ininieasurably in 


05. Temple at Tinivaliir. Fruiu a tUawiiig in Ram Raz's Hindu Architecture. 

Though neither among the largest nor the most splendid temples 
of Southern India, that at Tinnevelly will serve to give a good 
general idea of the arrangement of these edifices, and has the advan- 
tage of having been built on one plan, and at one time, without subse- 
quent alteration or change. It is also a double temple, the great 
square being divided into two equal halves, one of which is dedicated 
to the god Siva, the other to his consort Parvati. The next wood- 
cut, No. G6, represents one of the halves, Avhich, though differing in 
arrangement from the other, is still so like it as to render the descrip- 
tion of the other superfliious. 

The general dimensions of the whole enclosure are 580 ft. by 
75()ft., the larger dimension being divided into two equal portions of 
378 ft. each. Thei'c are tlu'ee gateways to each half, and one in the 
wall that divides the two ; the principal gateway faces the entiance to 
the temple, and the lateral ones are opposite each other. An outei* 
portico precedes the great gateway, leading internally to a very 
splendid porch, which, before reaching the gateway of the inner 
enclosure, branches on the right to the intermediate gateway, and on 
the left to the great hall cif 1000 columns — 10 pillars in width by 100 
in length. 

The iimer enclosure is not concentric with the outer, and, as usual, 
has only one gateway. The temple itself consists of a cubical cell, 
surmounted by a vimana or spire, preceded by two porches, and is sur- 

H 2 



I500K H. 

III * fc wi I — «l . ^-v ^ ; «"a . v'^r, 

Half Plan of Tunple at Tlniievelly. From a jilaii in the pos!>ession of the Koyal Asiatic Society. 

Scale lUU ft. to 1 in. 

(^HAi'. I. ELLORA. 101 

rounded by triple colonnades. In other parts of the enclosure are 
smaller temples, tanks of water, gardens, cohmuades, &c., but neither 
so numerous nor so various as are generally found in Indian temples 
of the class. 

These temples have often been compared with those of Eg}'pt, 
particularly that of Caniac. Undoubtedly there are many very striking 
points of resemblance. The gopura both in form and purpose is by no 
means inilike the great propylon of Egyptian temples : the mantapa is 
analogous to the hypostijle hall : and the inner enclosures, small cells, 
and insignificant central objects correspond very closely. We know 
also that there was considerable commercial intercourse between the 
two countries at a very ancient time. But on the other hand the two 
styles differ so widely in details and in purpose that we cannot posi- 
tively assert the actual connection between them, which at first sight 
seems unquestionable. 

A far more striking similarity exists between such a temple as this 
and that at Jerusalem ; and if Josephus's description of that temple as 
rebuilt by Herod be read with such a plan as this of Tinnevelly before 
us, it is difficult to escape the conviction that the coincidences are not 
wholly accidental. That temple must, of covirse, be squared as these 
usually are, and the dimensions then become nearly the same. The 
great choultry is then the Stoa Basilica, the outer court that of the 
Gentiles. No separation of the sexes being known in the Eastern 
temples, the women's court is omitted ; but the inner enclosure, the 
form of the temple, its gateway, its pillars, and other peculiarities 
are so like in both that we can scarcely doubt their being derived from 
some common origin. We probably have no means of tracing what 
that common origin may have been. 

Kylas at Ellora. 

One of the most interesting monuments of Hindu architecture is 
the rock-cut temple at Ellora, genei'ally known as the Kylas. From 
its beaiity it always excited the astonishment of travellers, and in 
consequence is better known than almost any other structure in that 
coimtry, from the numerous views and sketches that have been pub- 
lished of it. Unlike the Buddhist excavations we have hitherto been 
describing, it is not a mere interior chamber cut in the rock, but is 
a model of a complete temple, such as might have been erected on the 
plain. In other words, the rock has been cut away, externally as 
well as internally. The older caves are of a much more natural and 
rational design than this temple, because, in cutting away the rock 
around it to provide an exterior, the whole has necessarily been placed 
in a pit. In the cognate temples at Mahavellipore (illustrated woodcut 
No. 42) this dilemma has been escajicd by their carvers having found 
the boulders of granite out of which they are hewn lying fiec on 
the shore ; but at ICllora, no insulated rock being available, a pit was 
dug in the sloping side of a hill, about 100 ft. deep at its inmost side, 
and half that height at the entrance or gopura, the floor of the pit being 



Book I' 

1 50 ft. wide and 270 ft. in length. In the centre of this rectangular 
Court stands tln' temple, as sliown in the annexed plan (woodcut 07), 

drawn to the usual scale, 
consisting of a vimana, be- 
tween 80 ft. and 90 ft. in 
height, preceded by a large 
square porch, supported by 
IG columns (owing probably 
to the immense weight to be 
borne) ; before this stands a 
detached porch, reached by a 
bridge ; and in front of all 
stands the gateway, which is 
in like manner connected with 
the last porch by a bridge, 
the whole being cut out of the 
native rock. Besides these 
there are two pillars or stham- 
bas also left standing on each 
side of the detached iiorch, 
and two elephants about the 
size of life. All round the 
court there is a peristylar 
cloister with cells, and some 
halls not .shown in the plan, 
which give to the whole a 
cojuplexit}', and at the same 
time a completeness, which 
never fail to strike the be- 
holder with astonishment and 


Kylas at Ellora. Corrected from a plan in Daniell's 
Views in Hindostan. 


As will be seen by the annexed view, its general form is extremel}' 
similar to that of the principal temple at Mahavcllipore (woodcut 42), 
and also to tliat atTanjftre (woodcut .^S) ; and although it is not easy 
to make this apparent on the small scale of the woodcuts, 1 can assert, 
from personal inspection of the three examples, that they are identical 
iis far as style is concerned. Some allowance, of course, must be made 
{'ov the difference of age, the Kylns belonging to the ninth or tenth, 
the Maliavellipore Kaths to either the twelfth or thii-t«>enth centuries, 
and the Tanjore temple, though probably intenuediate between the 
two, having, aa before stated, been altered at some subsequent period 
to its present form. That they belong to the same race and the same 
religion seems undoubted ; and they are. as will presently be showni. 
Ko unlike anytliing further north, that tliere can be little doubt that it 
is to an ovei-flowing of the Tamul races that we owe the Kylas, and 
probably also the introduction of the Sivite religion into the countries 
occu]ued by the Arian races. 

As the oldest of the tlu'ee buildings, the Kylas presents an inter- 
esting peculiarity which we might expect, but do not find elsewhere. 

("1IAI>. I. 




Kylas, Kllora. From a sketch by the Author. 

which is, that the cells surroinuling tlic viniana are detached, five of 
them opening in a little conrt-yard in whicli the vimana stands, each 
with a separate entrance of its own, and destined for its own peculiai" 
image or object of Avorship. The fourth side of this court is occupied 
by the })orch. At Mahavellipore the cells may be called semi-detached, 
each being distinct, though in reality they ai-e only false cells. In the 
l^eiinnal pagoda (woodcut 57) they have grown to be actually parts of 
the vimana, and so they are always treated at \\w present day. it is 
interesting to trace the process from the detached cell of the Buddhists 
as foimd in Java to their present descendants, which, without tlie 
intermediate steps, we could scarcely recognise. 

Considerable misconception exists on the subject of cutting temples 
in the rock. Almost every one who sees these temples is struck with 
the apparently prodigious amouni of Libour bestowed on their exca- 
vation, and there is no doubt that their monolithic character is the 
principal source of the awe and wonder with which they have been 
regarded, and that, had the Kylas been an edifice of masonry situated 
on the plain, it would scarcely have attracted the attention of European 
travellers at all. In reality, hoAvcvcr, it is considerably easier and 
less expensive to excavate a temple than to build one. Take, for 
instance, the Kylas, the most wonderful of all this class. To excavate 
the area on which it stands would require the removal of about 100.000 


cubic yards of rock, hni, a.s the base of the teini)le is solid and the 
siiperstrnctuio niansive, it occiipies iu round numbers about one half 
of the excavated area, so that the question is simply this--— whether it 
is easier to chip away 60,000 yards of rock, and shoot it to spoil (to 
boiTDW a riiihvay term) doA\ni a hill-side, or to quarry 50,000 cubic 
yards of stone, remove it, probably, a mile at least to the place where 
the temple is to be built, and then to raise and set it. The excavating 
process would probably cost about one-tenth of the other. The 
sculpture and ornament would be the same in both instances, more 
especially in India, where buildings are always set up in block, and 
the carving executed in sitTi. Neveilheless the impression produced 
on all spectators by these monolithic masses, their unalterable character, 
and appearance of eternal durability, point to the process as one merit- 
ing more attention than it has hitherto received in modem times; and 
if any rock were found as unifurm and as easily worked as the Indian 
amygdaloidal traps, we might hand down to posterity some more 
durable monument than many we are now erecting at far gi-eater cost. 
Before leaving the STibject of southern temples, I must alhide to 
another at Tanjore, which, at a distance, almost rivals in dimensions 
and outline the great pagoda (woodcut 58), of which it is evidently a 
copy. On a nearer inspection, however, it is found to be made up 
wholly of Italian details of the very worst class. The external cells 
are oniauiented with Corinthian and Ionic pilasters, as badly designed 
as they are executed, alternating with ranges of balusters of the 
dumpiest and clumsiest fonns. The whole is painted with a vulgarity 
which it is difficult to miderstand in a people who have shown such 
taste in earlier times, and so exquisite an eye for colour and detail. 
Such, however, are the effects of the miserable state of dependence to 
which they have been rediiced, and such the results of an attempt to 
copy servilely a style utterly unsuited to their wants, and which they 
can neither understand nor appreciate. It is amusing to see another 
])("0]de trying this copying system. We see with half a glance how 
ludicrous the failuie is with them ; but while we so easily detect their 
speck, we utterly foi'get the beam that closes our own eyes. 

Nevertheless, before the Hindus fell so low as this, their art went 
through another stage, not iniproductive of beauty and elegance, and 
which might eventually have been elaborated into a style even sur- 
passing their own more ancient forms. This new style is found iu 
the buildings erected under the influence of the ]\Iahometans, and 
adopts, to a certain extent, some of the more prominent forms of their 

When the Mahometans first conquered India they imitated in llieir 
earlier mosques not only the details, but even the fonns, of the Hindu 
architects, and their style in that country always bore strongly the 
impress of the land in which it was elaborated, still retaining its arched 
form, and a more daring construction than the Hindus had ever 
attempteil. In process of time a complete reaction took place, and in 
their secular buildings at least, though scarcely ever in their temples, 
the Hindus began to adopt the arcades and vaults of their antagonists. 


ClIAl'. I. 

lat]<:h style. 


using tluMii. liowevor, in tlieir own ]>ecnliiu- fiisliiun. and making what 
may be callcul an amalgamation of two styles, latliei- than a mere copy 
of the other. Even if they had copied from the Mahometans, it would 
have been a very ditterent thing from borrowing from another age or 
another clime that which had become antiquated, oi- was unsuitable. 
It was merelvtho adoption by one part of the inhabitants of a country 
of those tVirnis which another and more energetic })ortion of its inha- 
bitants had foimd best suited for their purposes. 

In the south of India one of the most pleasing specimens of this 
style is a portion of the palace of jMadura, commenced by Trimul Naik, 
and completed by his successors, now utterly fallen to ruin and decay. 
The part most illustrative of the new style is the great Hall of Au- 
dience, shown in the annexed Avoodcut ; but other parts and other 

_ miw'-'' 


Hall in Palace, Madura. From Daniell's Views in Hindostan. 

halls show the same characteristics with more or less distinctness. It 
is not known by whom this hall was erected ; at first sight it might be 
supposed improbable that the builder t)f the choultry illustrated above 
(woodcuts 63, 64) could adopt so diiTerent a style in his palace. 
Innovation, however, in secular affairs, is a totally different thing 
from novelty in things sacred, in India, as well as clsewh(?re ; and the 
consequence is, that the change never reached the temples, though it 
was common in palaces in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuiies. 


I should be iiicliiied to date tlit' hall rtith(!r from the hc«;inning of tlio 
fightuuiilli than in the sevonteonth eentnry; hut without seeing it, 
it is hazarthtus to ventni'e even a coniecturo on such a subject. 

To these points I shnll have occasion to revert hereafter, when 
speaking of the styles of the north. In the meanwhile our limits wani 
us to take leave of a style well deserving of more attention than has 
hitherto been bestowed upon it. Its historic inteiest is veiy great : 
the buildings to which it gave rise are remarkable for their extent and 
number. It exhibits also great beauty of detail, especially in the 
older instances. The gTandeur of some of its forms, and the general 
pui-pose-like attainment of the ends aimed at, give rise to eft'ects as 
pleasing as they are startling, and afford hints well worthy of the 
study of any of those who wish to master the theory or practice of 
the art of architecture. For when a nation labours perhaps through 
thousands of years to attain a given object, small and moan as the 
individual ctibrts may be, the accumulated results attain im})ortauce 
such as no individual capacity ever could realize, and such as can only 
be reached b}' the united eff"orts of millions exerted through a long 
series of ages. 




t'littack Temples — Temples in Upper India — Modern Temples at Bindrabini 
and Benares — Mixed Hindu style — Tombs — Palaces — GMts — Bunds — 
Wells, &c. 



Iiuasiuii of Cuttack by strangers coming by 
sea A.D. 218 

Lelat Indra Kesari builds temple at Boban- 
eswar 657 

Atianga Uhim Deo builds temple at Jugger- 
nath 1174 

Iiidra-dyimma cuts caves at EUora . . . 1176 

Raja Nursing Deo builds Ulack Pagoda at 

Kanaruc a.d. 1236 

Maun .Sing builds temple at Bindrabun . 1592 

Amera .Sing rebuilds Oudipore .... 1596 

Jaya Sing builds Jeypore 1698 

Sooraj Mull liiiilds palace at Deeg . . . 1750 

From the earliest age at which traditiun first .sheds even the dimmest 
light on Indian history to the present hour, the valley of the Ganges 
has always been the richest and most populous part of the countr}-. 
Here the first .strangers settled, bringing with them the civilization of 
the ^^' ; here that civilization was elaborated into those peculiar 
institutions that still so strongly subsist after the lapse of tlioiusands 
of years. It was in this valley that those heroes lived whose exploits 
are celebrated by the Indian epic and dramatic poets, whose works 
are now becoming familiar to us : and here it was that the religions of 
Buddha and Brahma arose, which still influence at least a fourth of the 
whole human race. Here, therefore, we naturally look for monuments 
to ilhistrate the manners and customs of those bygone ages; but we 
look in vain. It has been already said ' that there are no certain 
traces of ancient Hindu architecture, that is to say, of anything i)re- 
vious to the spread of Buddhism. In Northern India, with the few 
exceptions to be shortly noticed, there are no genuine Hindu buildings 
at all earlier than the time of the IMahometan conquest. 

Wo might be inclined to attribute this to the idol fanes of the 
vanquished race having been destroyed by tiie religious zeal of the 
conquerors. But this explanation is inconsistent with the fact that 
several Buddhist monuments remain in this very district, and many of 
the Jains, converted for the most part into mosques, though pertectly 
easy to be recognised. The phenomenon, therefore, can only be 

' See p. 5. 


accounted for by the assumption, confinned as it is by other evidence, 
that the Arian lacc. which ]»ro vailed in this part of India from a very 
early period, was not in the habit of building temples or durable 
edifices of any kind. 

It is only in the remote province of Orissa, or in the jungles of 
Rajpootana, that any exara])les are found of early Hindu buildings. 
Orissa, being on the boundaiy of the Tamul races, and as little in- 
fluenced by Arian prejudices as can well be conceived, is covered with 
temples, some of which are of great magnificence ; and though the 
province is remote, .and always was comparatively poor, it possesses 
now more temples than the whole of the rest of liengal. Tn Raj- 
pootana, which, if tradition may be trusted, was far more influenced 
by the Huns — within at least the temple-building age — than by the 
Arian race, we find the same phenomenon. The little hill-fort, for 
instance, of Chittore has its brow garnished A^th more temples, and 
more architcctuio.l magnificence, than any of the great capital cities 
that once adorned the fertile plains watered by the sacred stream of 
the Ganges. 

Orissan Tkmples. 

So remote is the province of Orissa, that it is Avith the greatest 
diificulty we can glean CA^en such scanty notices of its histor}^ as are 
usually available in Eastern countries. We knoAV, how^ever, from the 
inscription at Dauli, that Asoka sent hither his missionaries and pub- 
lished his edicts here ; and it is CA'ident from the caves on the Udyagiri 
that Buddhism did exist here from that period till some time after the 
Christian era. We knoAV also that the famous Tooth-relic was preserved 
in this province up to the beginning of the fourth century, in a temple 
which stood Avhere the far-famed temple of Juggeniath now stands,' 
whose Avorship seems to be only a cornipt Buddhism, so oA-erlaid Avith 
local Fetichism as scarcely to be recognisable. 

It seems very doubtful whether, in the beginning of the fourth 
century, the kings of Orissa Avcro Buddhist or lirahmanical — they 
wavered apparently bctAveen the tA\^o.* Aljout that time the succession 
Avas distiirbed by an invasion ^ of barbarians, Avho retained the country 
for 146 years. After this the original family, or at least the original 
race, regained power, and it is Avith them that our architectural histoiy 

The earliest authentic building that avc have of this race, or indeed 
of the Hindu religion in Ilindostan, is the great temple of Bobaneswar, 
built by Lelat Tndra Kesari. A.n. 657 ; and from this time to the present 
day the series is tolerably complete, showing a gradual progress of style 

' The curious accounts given by Fa Ilian doubt but that the latter is merely a copy, 

in the beginning of the 5th century of the a purely Buddhist peculiarity, and not at all 

procession of the Tooth from its chapel at belonging to Hinduism. See Foe Koui Ki, 

Anumdhapoora to ^lehentele, and its return jip. 17 and 335. 

after a certain sojourn there, are so exactly * J. A. S. B., vol. vi. p. 856 ct scq. 

transcrijits of the annual festival of the Hath •'' Asiatic Researches, vol. xv. p. 263 etneq. 

.Fattra <>f .luggertiath, that there can he no 

Chap. II. 



fr(tin the oldest to the most modern — slow it must be confessed, but 
still sufficient to eiiuble a practised eye always to detect at least the cen- 
tury iu which any monument was raised. 

The annexed elevation (No. 70) will explain the peculiarities of 

to. Restored elevation of the Black Pagoda at Kanaruc. From a drawing by the Author. No scale. 

these temples, which are all built nearly on the same plan. They 
consist in the first place of a great tower or vimana, in the centre of 
which, as in those of southern India, is the cell, a cubical apartment 
containing; tlic image. No light is admitted to this except by the door, 
and this is, in all great temples at least, preceded by a stpiare porch 
or mantapa, with a door on each face ; three opening towards the court, 
one to the cell. Other porches sometimes precede this one, but they 
are always detached buildings, or, if connected, it is only in a slight or 
temporary manner. 

11 will be obsei'ved tliat the vimana is a very dilferently foinu'd 
])uildin<>; fmin those we liave l)een describing as existing in the soutli. 

no NOKTIIKKX lIIXDr AiaiUTKCTrin:. Book ll. 

If is luj lunj^er a pyramid in outline, and consisting of a dcfinilt.' 
niunbor of stories, crowned by a dome or dagoba ; the outline here is 
always curvilinear, the divisions vortical, and no trace of stories exists 
in any exanq)lc 1 am ac({uaintcd with, much less of the cells which 
give so distinct a peculiarity to the southern temples. The mode, too, 
of crowning the summit, though slightly domical in appearance, can 
never have been by a dome of construction, nor derived from the same 
original as those that crown the temples in the south. Possibly it is 
taken from- the IJuddhist umbrella ornament, the original, as we have 
seen, of the spire or tee. Possibly it c-ame in the first instance from 
some projecting fomi of wooden or metallic roofing. Nor can the 
other characteristics of tliis stylo of architecture be traced with any 
certainty to their origin. Whatever it was, all the translbnuations 
were gone through, and the style was as comjilete as it now^ is, when 
the great temple of Bobaneswar was built, no change having taken 
place since then, except in detail ; and we must, therefore, look either 
for some earlier example, or some cognate style, if we Avould attempt 
to tj'ace it to its souice. 

Some of these towers — such for instance Jis the great one at 
Bobaneswar ; that of the Temple of Juggeniath, built 1 1 98, and the 
now ruined one of the Black Pagoda, erected in 1241 — reached the 
height of 170 to 180 ft. At Bobaneswar alone more than 100 of these 
temples still exist, ranging from 50 or 60 ft. to 150 ft.-- their propor- 
tions being very similar to those of the temple repiesented in the last 
woodcut (No. 70). 

The porches of the gieat tenii)les are nearly all similar to that of 
the Black Pagoda, at once the richest and the only one easily accessible 
to Europeans. It is a square building, about 60 ft. from angle to 
angle, and the pei-pendicuJar part about the same in height. On each 
tace is a projecting doonvay very richly ornnnu-nted. and the whole 
walls are covered with scul])ture of an elaborate minuteness, only 
rivalled by that of Boro Buddor, though singularly different in 
character; this being, as far as the human figures are concejued. 
obscene in the extreme— while not the remotest trace of arivthin<»- of 
the sort can be detected in any Buddhist or .laina sculpture. Above 
the perjtendieular part rises a roof in three stages, I'cnisisting of five or 
six projecting lodges of stone, the facets of which are all most elabo- 
rately cai'ved with processions, or scenes from the chace or agricultural 
life. Piotween each series is a range of caryatides, but not a trace of 
cells, nor of the peculiar ornaments of the south. The whole is 
cro\\Tied by an inverted lotn.s-like dome-formed tennination of sin<ni];n- 
grace and beauty. Internally it is a plain square ajiartment, me{isurin<r 
rather more than 40 ft. each way ; the roof boiiig fonued of projecting 
stones to about the height of the first series of ledges; here WTouu;ht- 
iron V)eams about 8 in. square were placed across. On tliem a 
false ceiling of immense stones laid from side to side, and above this 
another similar ceiling exists at the next level. It seems also that a 
lower our once existed, at the floor is encumbered by a mass of 
ruins that eoidd not have come from the lower ceiling, which has 

Chap. II. 



only partially falleu, tlioiigli it. is difficult to guess how stones of tlie 
ri'cpiired k'ugtli could have been either raised or Kup])orted. 

fSonietimcs the porch consists of a small portico of two or more 
pillars ; but this arrangement is only found in the smallest and most 
modern temples, the style being essentially astylar, or devoid of pillars 
of any sort. 

The great tem]iles are all surroiuided by square courts, enclosed by 
high walls, perfectly plain externally, but internally oiTiamented no 
doubt by cloisters or colonnades, the precise character of which it is 
difficult to determine, as the Orissans are singularly jealous of admitting 
I'iuropeans to their sacred precincts, and at the Black Pagoda and other 
desecrated shrines the enclosure has geneially disappeared. 

Temples in Upper India. 

The temples found in the up])er provinces of India are all smaller 
than the great temples of Orissa, and utterly insignificant in size as 
compared with those of southern India; still they are elegant in 
dfsigi), and. though few in number, they aie almost the only land- 
marks Ave have to guide ns through the dark labyrinth of Indian history 
in the middle ages. 

" '^'l^^^^fc^.^^.-^i^^ . -i 

I cniplo at BaiTolli. From a <lr:i«iiig hv thi Author. 



Book JI. 

One of the most elegant of these is the now desecrated temple of 
BaiTolli, situated in a wild and romantic spot, near the falls of the 
Chunibul, whose distant roar in the still night is the only sonnd that 
breaks the silence vl' the solitude that sniTonnds them. The jirincipal 
temjde, represented in the woodcut No. 71, was erected probably in 
the eighth or ninth centur3% and is one of the few of that age now 
kno'VATi which were originall}' dedicated to Siva. Its general outline is 
identical with that of the Orissan temples. But instead of the enclosed 
j)oreh, or mantajxi, it has here a pillared portico of great elegance, 
whose roof reaches half way up the temple, and is sculptured with a 
richness and complexity of design that is almost unrivalled even in 
those days of patient prodigality of Libour. It will be obsei-vcd in the 
])lan that the dimensions are lemaikably small, and the temple is barely 
()(i ft. high, so that its merit consists entii-ely in its sliajie and propor- 
tions, and in the elegance and profusion of the ornament that covere it. 








/M ^Oft 


rianof 'remi)le lU liarroUi. From drawings by the Aullior. 

In front of the temple is a detached porch, here called a Chaori, or 
nuptial hall (the same word I believe as Choultry in the south), in 
which tradition records the marriage of a Hoon (Hun) prince to a 
liajjjoot 11 i bride, for which puipose it is said to have been erected;' 
but whether this is su or not, it is one of the finest examples of those 
detached halls kno^\^l in the north. We miss here the octagonal dome 
of the Jains, which would have given elegance and relief to its ceiling 
as well as variety to the sjjacing of the columns, and to the width of 
the aisles. These peculiarities were seldom if ever copied by the 
Hindus, Init they seem to have attempted to gain sufficient relief to 
their othenvise monotonous arrangement of columns by breaking up 
the external outline of the plan of the mantapa, and by ranging the 
ai.sles diagonally across the building, instead of placing them parallel 
to the sides. In cme instance, as Chandravati, not far from the 
described, something more artistic has been attempted, as may be seen 
by the annexed plan, No. 73. It is older probably by some centuries 
than that at BaiTolli, and, though sadly ruined, is the most elegant 

' Toil's Aniial.s of li^ijastaii, vol. ii. y. 71-. 

Chap. II. 



specimen of columnar architecture (so far as I know) in TTpper hulia. 
The most clog-ant ])art of it is the 
roof, the central square having be(;n 
covered with a (piasi dome, on the 
principle shown in p. 74, the side 
compartments by large slabs deeply 
recessed, and covered with sculp- 
ture of the most singular elegance. 
The whole arrangement, how- 

ever, of this portico may be said to 
be exceptional — the Barrolli one 
being by far the most usual — and is 
carried to even greater extent in 
some of the caves ; that at Ele- 
phanta, for instance, is only an am- 
plification of it. The Dhumnar cave 
at Ellora (woodcut No. 74) closely 
resembles that at Elephanta in most 
respects, but is older and finer. It 
is 150 ft. in width, and its plan is 
that of a portico of 52 pillars ; but 
being cut in the rock, four are 
omitted to make way for a vimana, 
which should have been placed ex- 
ternally, as at Barrolli ; for the 
same reason also 12 of the out- 
side pillars here become pilasters 
from' the nature of the situation in 






Temple at Chaiidravati. 

which the building is placed. It is nevertheless the largest portico of 
its class I know of, no built example reaching anything like its size. 

In more modern times, 
though the temples gene- 
rally retain something of 
the same form, yet the 
tendency is always to 
make the upper jiart 
more slender, and more 
in the form of a spire 
than of a tower, and to 
ornament it by grouping 
around it smaller models 
of spires, as we before 
noticed in speaking of 
the Pegue Pagoda. This 
is sometimes carried to 
such an extent, and with such a minute elaboration of detail, as is 

(4. Dhumnar Lena Cave at EUoia. From Daiiiells Views in 
Hiiulostan. Scale lOo ft. to 1 in. 

' See Illustrations of Ancient Architecture vol. ii. The plates are not numbered; the 
in Hindostan, pi. 6, from which the woodcut best, however, is the one reprcsenfinc; two 
is taken. See also Tod's Annals of Rajastlian, slabs of the roof of tiiis porch. 




Rook TT. 

almost inconceivable by those who have not seen it. Generally 
speakinpj, this profuse ornamentation is so managed, that the details 
do not interfere with the outline ; still their complexity takes away 
from anything like grandeur or greatness in design ; and though 
some of these temples may deserve to be called the prettiest edifices 
possible, they can claim no higlier merit. Another peculiarity is, 
that they sometimes bon-ow features from ]\fahomctan architectnro, 
imitating the domes and arcades of that style ; but even these very 
parts are assimilated so completely to their o^^^l style, that the amal- 
gamation is almost always pleasing. Both these peculiarities are well 
illustrated in the Vishvesher temple at Benares — the principal one of 

<•'>• 'rcinple of VUlivesher, Bcniircs. I'roiu TriiiM-p s \'iL'.\a in Hcnares. No scale. 

that famous city, and said to bo the oldest, though the present edifice 
can scarcely number 100 years. Like the temple at Tinnevelly, and 
many others dedicated to Siva, it is a double temple ; the woodcut 
(No. 75) represents the plainest side, and omits one-half of the details, 

Chap. TT. 


I I 

wliich it was impossible tv express to sncli a scale ; indeed, it is almost 
inconceivable liow mnch labour has been expended on a temple Avhose 
greatest leno-tb is only 47 ft., and greatest height 51 ft. : but such is 
the charaL'teristic of Indian art at the present day, which does not 
reach beyond the rank of exquisitely elegant littleness. In fomier 
times they went to work in a bolder and manlier style, and with an 
admirable perception of the proper adaptation of the means to the end, 
as is observable more especially in some of the rock-cut examples. At 
I^^llora, for instance, in one of the caves cut on the scarp of the Kylas, 
iho pillars are more massive than in our heaviest Norman examples, 
and are designed with a boldness unmatched in any columnar archi- 
tecture I am acquainted with, as may be seen from the annexed repre- 
sentation (woodcut No. 76). In built temiiles and p(U-tieos there was 

I'iUai' ill Kylus, KMora. From u drawing by the 


Pillar in HarroUi. From a plat'' in 
Toil's Annals of rSajaslhan. 

no need for such massive pillars as in the rock-cut examples. Still, .al. 
Chandravati, and in the earliest buildings generall}', the pillars seldom 
exceed four or five diameters in height. They gradually become more 
and more attenuated as the style becomes more modern, taking veiy 
much the same form as those of the Buddhists and Jains, except that 
the Hindus use figure sculpture to a greater extent than was usual 
with their predecessors, as in the annexed example from Barrolli 
(woodcut No. 77), where 4 elegant female figures surrounding the 
base form the principal ornament of the shaft. This ]ullar has lost its 
bracket capital, Avhich is the invariable accompaniment of Indian 
pillars of every age and style, and is, after all, perhaps, the most 

I 2 



Rook II. 

elegant and appropriate mode of supporting an architrave that has yel 
been invented by the ingenuity of man. 

Mixed Hindu Style. 

During the existence of the earlier Patan dynasties of India, thf 
bigotry of the Mahometans did not admit of the Hindus erecting tem- 
ples of any pretension in the great cities over whieli tlicy had obtained 
the dominion, and it is only in remote comers of the coimtiy that we 
detect here and there isolated examples of the style. \Vith the bene- 
ficent and tolerant reign of the Great Akbar (1556 to 1605), a new era 
dawne<l ioi- liis o|)prossed subjects : not only were the Hindus tolerated 
and employed by him, but some of his most intimate friends and asso- 
ciates were of that race. Hence, while his own buildings show a 
strong tendency to the Hindu style, the Hindus, under his encourage- 
ment, erected edifices which display an even gi-eater admixture of the 
Mahometan forais of architecture. These it is tnie were not retained, 
at least to any great extent, in sacred edifices, but in palaces and civil 
Imildings their adoption was general, and remained permanent, giving 
rise to a style of perhaps even greater beauty than either had sepa- 
rately displayed. 

One of the first and most striking examples of this new state of 
things was the erection by Maun Sing of Jeypore, 
the friend and prime minister of Akbar, of a temple 
at Bindrabun, the porch of which is unique in 
India, not only on account of the elegance of its 
outline and details, but from its having a vaulted 
roof, not constructed by projecting stones, but of 
true radiating arches like our Gothic vaults. 

As will be seen from, the plan, it is in the fonn 
of a cross, 100 ft. north and scmth by 120 ft. east 
and west, and almost identical in arrangement 
with such churches as St. Front Perigueux or the 
Pantheon at Paris, as we shall see hereafter. The 
78. iMnnofT.n.pipatRiii- ccutral compartuicnt (37 ft. square) is covered by 
s[»ic"ioo ft^ toT it?'"^'''''^' ^ combination (.f ribbed and domical architecture, 
producing an eifect not inferior to that of any Gothic 
vaulting I am acquainted with. The nave, to the east and west of the 
dome, is roofed by a waggon vault of pointed foim, richly sculi)tured 
all over. The interior is complete and in i)erfcct ])resei-Aation, but 
externally the building either was never finished, or has been allowed 
to go to premature decay. 

A number of similar temples were erected in this neighbourhood 
under the same influence, though none so magnificent nor so sjilendid 
as this. Afterwards the direct influence of Mah(jmetanism gradually 
died out, and sacred buildings resumed nearly the same form as before, 
except only with such modifications as those shown in the temple of 
Vishvesher (woodeut 75). which may be considered as a typical 
oxam]d«' '.r t1>.- modern temple foin of the Hindus. The change, how- 

CiiAi-. II. CENOTAPHS. i 17 

c'\f]-, was punuiuiL'Ut iu the <j,enerul st} If, and aiiiHiii;' dllier thiug.s 
iutrudiiced some entirely new forms of edifices utterly unknown 
among the Hindus before this time. Amongst these the most remark- 
able are the cenotaphs to the dead, or Chuttrles as they are called by 
the Hindus. 

To a peo[)le who believe in the transmigration of souls, as the Buddh- 
ists always did, and the Hindus very generally do, it is of little 
importance what becomes of its corporeal encasement after the soul 
has taken up its new abode ; in all ages, thei'efore, we find the fol- 
lowers of these religions either burning the bodies of the dead, or 
throwing them into the rivers, or merely exposing tiiem to be devoured 
by beasts or birds of prey. The Mahometans on the contrar}^ or at 
least that section of them Avho invaded India, the Moguls and Tartars, 
were in all ages jjre-eminently a tomb-building race, and by far the 
most magnificent edifices they have erected in India are the sepulchres 
of their kings. The Hindus also adopted this practice after the 
reign of Akbar, at first in their own peculiar fashion, erecting domes 
like those of the Jains, on 4 or 8 or 12 pillars, with porticos ad 
libitum, on the spot where the bodies were reduced to ashes. There 
was this difference between the Hindu and Mahometan practice, that 
the former were generally content to leaA^e the erection of these monu- 
ments to the filial piety of their successors, a practice which has been 
found singularly inimical to architectural magnificence of this class in 
most coimtries, while the great tomb-building nations, such as the 
Egyptians and Moguls, took care to provide against this, by always 
erecting their own tombs during their lifetime. One of the most 
extensive and beautiful collections of these cenotaphs is that of Oudey- 
pore, near the sacred fountains, where the Kajas of that race and their 
wives have been buried from time immemoiial.' They are not con- 
fined however to that locality, but almost every little capital of liaj- 
pootaua can point to some monument of the same class, all modern of 
course, but some of them of great elegance. 

Most of these retain their pure Hindu, or rather Jaina forms of 
columnar architecture. The most modern, however, and those nearest 
the influence of the great Mahometan capitals of Agra and Delhi, adopt 
almost exclusively the arcaded forms of that style of architecture, but, 
singularly enough, Avithout intiodiicing the time arch, every apparent 
arch, in fact, l)eing composed of two stones or great brackets meeting 
one another from tlie opposite sides, and carved in the form of a foiled 

The annexed woodcut, taken from one erected lo the memory of the 
late Eaja of Alwar, will explain the general form and appearance of 
these monuments. The central part is of white marble streaked with 
black ; the terrace and surroimding pavilions of red sandstone. Those 
of the Bhurtpore Eajas in this neighbourhood are more extensive and 

' A view of one of these chuttrios is given in uiy lUustiatioiis uf Indian AiLliiteetuic, 
pi. xiv. 



Book II. 


Chuttrie at Ahvar. From a sketch by the Authur. 

more elegant than this, and are built wholly of the fine yellow sand- 
Htone of the district in wliich they stand. But this instance appears 
most characteristic uf the modem form of ;irt, and the Bhnrlpore style 
is best exemplified in their palaces, of which moie hereafter, ^^'e find 
in tliis example a new and remarkable form, which the Hindus intro- 
duced, and the Mahometans aftei-wards adopted, which is the curious 
curvilinear roof of the central compartment. This is peculiar to India, 
and is copied from the bamboo-roofed huts of the lower provinces, 
whose elasticity recpiires them to be bent, that they may have the 
requisite firmness. In them it is singidarly graceful, but it requires 
long habit to accustom the eye to it in stone. In small examples it is 
extremely pleasing, but on a large scale it has a quaint appearance that 
it is almost impossiltle to get over. 


It is not 80 much in their tcmp]es or tombs as in their palaces that 
the modern Hindus have displayed their architectural magnificence. 
Every little cajiital jiossesses a regal residence of more or less ])re- 
tcnsion, and every hill-top, in some of the native states, is crowned 
AN-ith hunting-seats or sunnner-j)alaces. Some of these, such as those 
of .Icypore and Oudeypore, are of great extent and magnificence ; but, 

CllAl\ il. 



hirgu or small, all are designed with that exquisite feeling fur grace tjf 
outline whieh eharaeterises the Hindus in all ages, and all are unia- 
mented with that profusion of elaborate detail which extreme cheap- 
ness of labour enables them to bestoAv on their largest as on their 
smallest Avorks. Among these, by far the most beautiful as an archi- 
tectural object is the garden-palace of Dceg, erected by Sooraj jMuII, 
the virtual founder of the Bhurtporc dynasty in the middle of the last 
century. It wants, it is true, the massive character of the fortified 
palaces of other Kajpoot states, but for gi-andeur of conception and 
beauty of detail it surpasses them all. 

The whole palace was to have consisted of a rectangular enclosure, 
twice the length of its breadth, surroimded with buildings, with a 
garden in the centre. Only half of this has been completed, the 
square being 170 by 120 paces, crossed in the centre by ranges of the 
most beautiful fountains and parterres laid out in the formal style of 
the East, interspersed with architectural ornaments of the most 
elaborate finish. 

The pavilion on the north side contains the great audience-hall, 
76ft. Sin. by 54 ft. 7 in., divided in the centre by a noble range of 
arcades, behind which are the principal dwelling apartments, two, and 
in some parts thi-ee, stories in height. Opposite this is a pavilion 
occupied principally by fountains. On one side stands a marble hall 
attached to an older palace facing the principal pavilion, which was 
meant to occupy the centre of the garden. As will be seen by the 
plan (woodcut No. 80) it is a parallelogram of 1 52 ft. by 87 ft., each end 
occupied by a small liut very elegant range 
of apartments, in two stories ; the central 
hall (108 ft. by 87 ft.) is supported by 4 
rows of columns, and open at both sides ; at 
each end is a marble reservoir for fountains, 
and a similar one exists externally on each 
side. The whole is roofed with stone, except 
the central part, whieh, after being contracted 
by a bold cove, is roofed with a tlat ceiling of 
timber exquisitely carved. This wooden ceil- 
ing seems to have been considered a defect, 
nothing but stone being used in any other 
part of the palace. The architect therefore 
attempted to roof the corresponding pavilion 
of the unfinished court with slabs of stone 34 ft. 

in length, and 18 in. square. Some of these still exist in their places, but 
the weight was too great for the arcades, only 18 in. thick, and even that 
not of solid stone, but of two facings 4 or 5 in. thick, and the intermediate 
spaces filled in with rubble. ■ Besides this, though the form of the arch 
is literally copied from the Mahometan style, neither here, nor else- 
where throughout the palace, is there a single tnie arch, the ojienings 
being virtually covered by two brackets meeting in the centre. 

The general aj)pearance of the arcades of these buildings may be 
characterised as more elegant than rich. The glory of Deeg, however. 

80. Hall at Dcesr. From a plan 
by lUe Aulhur. 



Book II. 

consists in the coniices. wliicli here are generally double, a peculiarity 
nut seen elsewhere, and for extent of shadow and richness of detail 
surptuis any similar ornaments in India, either in ancient or mcdem 
buildings. The lower cornice is the usual sloping entablatm-e, almost 
universal in such buildings. This was adopted apparently because it 
took the sk»])e of the curtains, which almost invariably hang beneath 

its projecting shade, and 
_=^: - which when dra^^^l out 

seem almost a continuation 
of it. The upper comice, 
which was horizontal, is 
peculiar to Deeg, and 
seems designed to furnish 
an extension of the flat 
rt)of. which in Eastern pa- 
laces is usually considered 
the best apait)ueut uf the 
house : biit whether de- 
signed for this or any other 
|iur|)ose, it adds singularly 
to the richness of the 
effect, and by the double 
shadow affords a relief and 
character seldom exceeded 
even in the East. 

Generally speaking, 
the arcades of Deeg are 
neither so rich nor so ap- 
propriate as the bold 
bracket capitals of their 
older styles. That the 
liracket is almost exclu- 
sively an original Indian 
form of capital can, I think, 
scarcely be doubted ; but 
the svstem was carried 
much further by the Mo- 
guls, especially din-ing the 
reign of Akbar, than it had 
ever been carried by its 
original inventore, at least 
in the North. The Hindus, 
(tn receiving it back, luxu- 
riated in its picturesque richness with a boldness that astonishes every 
beholder ; and half the effect of most of the modem buildings of India 
is owing to the bold projecting balconies and fanciful kiosks that diver- 
sify the otherAvisc plain walls. The accompanying example (woodcut 
•No. 81), from the obsei-A-atoiy erected by .ley Sing (a. r«. I(;ii8-1742) 
at Benares, is a rich and elegant specimen of the style, though hardly 

Kl. Rulcuny «t the (^ibscrvatury, I5^■llill.^^. 
the late .James I'rinsep. 

• liawiiip l)y 

c;iiAi'. II. 



so elegant as some of the Moslem examples which are found at Agia, 
Delhi, and in the nt'iij;]d)()nih(>od of tliese two capitals. I'lit wlu-ther 
used by Moslems or Hindus, these balconies have a very pleasing eft'cct. 
They relieve the monotony of the plain fece of a building, without 
interfering with its main lines, or requiring any great constructive 
skill t'nr its introduction. 

Landing-places or Ghats. 

Another object of architectural magTiificence peculiar to northern 
Hindostan, is the construction of the ghats that everywheie line the 
river-banks in most of the great cities, more especially those which are 
situated on the Ganges. Benares possesses perhaps tlu; greatest number 
of edifices of this class ; but from Calcutta to Hurdwar no city is 
witlu)ut some specimens of this species of architectural display. The 
Ghoosla Ghat at Benares (woodcut No. 82), though one of the most 


Ghoosla Gh&t, Benares. From Prinsep's Views. 

modern, may be taken as a fair specimen of the class, though many are 
richer and much more elaborately adorned. Their olijc^ct being to 
aftbrd easy access to bathers, the tiiglit of steps in front is in reality 
the ghat and main building itself. These are generally broken, as in 
this instance, by small projections, often crowned by kiosks, which 
take oflf the monotony inherent in long lines of narrow steps. This 
tlight of stairs is always backed by a building, which in most instances 

1J2 NuirrilKlJX ULNDL: AllCHlTECTUKE. Book II. 

is uicrcly an object of arehitoctiiiiil (Usi)Uiy, wnthont any particnlar 
(k'stinatiun, except to alfonl slielter froiu tlie rays of the sun to sneli 
of the idle as choose to avail theiuselves <jf it. W hen the bank is high, 
the lower ^tart of these IniiMings is solid, and when, as in this instance, 
it is uearlv iilaiii, aftV)rds a noble basement to an ornamental upper 
story with which they are generally adorned, or to the temple which 
frequently crowns them. 

Though the Gauges is, par excellence, the river of ghats, one of the 
most beautiful in India is that erected by Alaya Baiee (Holkar's widow) 
at Maheswar on the Xerbudda : and Ougein and other ancient cities 
almost rival Benares in this respect. Indeed, tlieve is scarcely a tank 
or stream in all India that is without its tlight of steps, and it is 
seldom indeed that these are left without some adornment or some 
attempt at architectural display, the proximity of water being always 
grateful in so hot a climate, and an especial jilace of favourite resort 
with a people so fond of washing and so cleanly in their habits as the 


The same fondness for water has given rise to another species of 
architectural display peculiar to India, in the great resei-^'oirs or hxrlees, 
which are found wherever the \\'ells are deep and water far from the 
surface. In design they are exactly the reverse of the ghats above 
described, as the steps are wholly below the ground, descending to 
the water often at a dejith of 80 or 100 ft. Externally they of course 
niiiko no dis]day, the only object seen above gi'ound being 2 pavilions 
which generally mark tlie entrance, between which a bold liight of 
steps, from 20 to 40 ft. in width, leads down to the water. Facing the 
entrance is a great screen, rising pei-peudicularly from the water to the 
surface of the ground, and dividing the stairs from a circular sinking 
ftr well, up which water is drawn by pulleys by those who prefer that 
mode of obtaining it to that of descending the steps to seek it. The 
walls between which the flight of steps descends axe ornamented by 
niches, or covered with galleries leading to the great screen. \\\wyv 
the depth is great there is often a screen across the stairs about half 
way down. 

To persons not familiar with the East such an architectural object 
a^ a bov'Aee may seem a strange perversion of ingenuity, but the grateful 
coolness of all subteminean ajtartments, especially Avhcn accompanied 
by water, ami the (|uiet gloom of these recesses, fully com])ensatc, in 
the eyes of the Hindu, for the more attractive magnificence of the ghats. 
Conse(piently the descending flights of which we are now speaking 
have often been made more elaborate and expensive pieces of archi- 
tecture than any of the buildings above ground found in their vicinity.' 

' For a view of one at lioonJce see Picturesque Illustrations of Ancient Architecture 
in Hindostan, plate xvii. 

Chap. II. DAMS. 12:5 


In the same manner the buntls or dams of the artitieial lakes, or 
great tiinks, whieh are so necessary for irrigation, are often made works 
of groat architectural magnificence, first by covering them with flights 
of steps, like those of the ghats, and then erecting, in the breaks 
between these flights, temples or pavilions, and ki(jsks, interspersed 
with fountains and statues. AVhere all these are of marble, as is some- 
times the case in Kajpootana,' the whole makes up as perfect a piece 
of architectural combination as any the Hindus can boast of. 

It would be tedious, however, to enumerate, without illustrating 
rhem — Avhich the limits of this work will not admit of — all the modes 
(if architectural magnificence of the Hindus. Like all people untram- 
melled by rules and gifted with a feeling for the beaiitiful, they adom 
whatever they requiie, and convert every object, however utilitarian 
in its purposes, into an object of beauty, knowing well that it is not 
temples and palaces alone that are capable of such display, but that 
ever_)i;liing which man makes may become beautiful, provided the 
hand of taste be guided by sovmd judgment that never forgets what the 
object is, and never conceals the constructive exigencies of the 
building itself. It is sunply this inherent taste and love of beauty, 
which the Indians seem always to have possessed, directed by unaf- 
fected honesty of purpose, which enables those who are now without 
independence, or knowledge, or power, to erect, even at the present 
day, buildings that will bear comparison with the best of those erected 
in Europe during the middle ages. It must bo confessed that it would 
require far more comprehensive illustration than the preceding slight 
sketch of so extensive a subject can pretend to, to make this as appa- 
rent to others as it is to any one who has personally visited the objects 
of interest with which India abounds. 

' Two specimens of Bunds of this sort are given in the Pictui'esque Illustrations of Indian 
Architecture, plates xii. and xiii. 


iiiM>r A];(iii'i'i:("rrj!K. 

Book II 

(^ H A P T E R r T r. 

Style of Architecture — Temples at Martuud — Pandrethan — Payech, &c. 



Asuku i-stublislius BuUdliUni : iiiscriptiuii 

at Kapiir tli Giri u.c. 250 

Mibiriiula invades Ceylon 105 

Migaliavahana iiiviU'S Ijauddhas, and iii- 

vjules Ceylon a.i>. 434 

lliruiiya contemporary Baliaram Caur Vi- 

iranaditya, &c 440 

Ilaiiaditya married daughter of Chola Kiya ; 

Imilds Maniind alMRit BOO 

Tratapulilya foiuids liralapapar alwut . 650 


Salitaditya builds enclosure at .Mariund . \.i>. Ibi 
Jayapira man-ies daughter of Jayauta of 

Ganr hl4 

Avanti Verma builds Temple at Avaiitiixjre H90 
I'artha, his minister, Iniill Temple at I'an- 

drethan about 1000 

Xemagupta destroyed \'iharas of Buddbist-s 1030 
Alia Uddceii : Moslem conquest of Cash- 

meer 1300 

'I'liK liiist division of Intliau arcliitecturc whicli remains to be oxauiined 
is that of I'aslimeer, which, though scarcely of much importance in 
itself, still posaesses some peculiarities well worthy of attention, and 
eonsequently some account of it is necessary in a work professing to 
treat of all styles. 

Our knowledge both of the inhabitants and of tlie aichitecture of 
Cashmeer is very limited. The people seem to be quite distinct from 
the Hindus on one side and from the Persians on the other. There is 
reason to believe that they are nearly connected by race Avith tlie 
inhabitants of the Tinijab, and traces of their architecture are found 
tliioughout that important district.' 

The authentic histoiy of Ca«hmeer, as of almost every other countiy 
of India, begins with Asoka, though its annals stretch back, with 
.something like authenticity, to a ( Jonerda, who was contemporary with 
the Mahabarat or great war in the twelfth or (hiiteenth century B.C. 
Their principal historical volume, however, the Raja Tarangini, first 

' Our infonnation with regard to the 
an-hitecture of Cashmeer is derived princi- 
pally from (1) the enj^ravings in Vigne's Tra- 
vels ill Cashnieer, and which, iinfortnnately, 
arc veiy inferior to hisoriginal drawings, which 
;ire bt'autiful and accurate; (2) a memoir l>y 
Major A. Cunningham, of the Bengal Kn- 
gincers, pulilished in the .lournal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, .Sept. 1848. The 

drawings accompanying this memoir are hy 
far our principal guide on this subject. (3) 
A paper by l'n\>i. Abbot, in a sub.'^eqiient 
nunrber of the same journal. He gives draw- 
ings of examples which he found in the Pun- 
jab, which are our i)nncipal ;iulhoiity for the 
belief tliat the style of t'ashmeer and that of 
the Punjab are identical. 

C'liAP. Til. 



begins ti) detail events when it speaks of the introduction of Biiddliisiu 
into the valley by Asoka. This has been remarkably confirmed by the 
discovery of a copy of his edicts at Kapur di (Jiri in rcshawnr, showing 
that his power extended even beyond the Indus in this diiection. To 
what extent the new doctrine was embraced by the inhabitants of the 
valley- we do not know, nor how long it remained the state religion ; 
nor need we stop here to inquii-e, for not one vestige of their monu- 
ments has yet been brought to light. They can scart'cly have erected 
topes of any imp(.)rtance, or something of them would remain ; ' but 
then, they may have possessed no relics, and, if Buddha did not visit 
their valley, no sacred s])ot to commemorate, while it is more than 
l)rol table that their halls and temples were constructed of Deodar pine, 
which still is the principal material used in the erection of mosques 
and public buildings throughout Cashmeer, and these of course have 
pei'ished. There are no remains now existing in the countiy which 
can with any certainty be ascribed to an earlier 
date than the middle of the eighth century. 

The annexed woodcut, (No. 83) will explain 
most of the peculiarities of the style. It is taken 
from Major Cunningham's memoir, and represents 
a small model of a Cashmeer temple placed on a 
pillar, an object common in Bengal, as well as in 
this country. 

The temi)]c in this instance is surmounted by 
four roofs, though in all the built examples known 
there are only two, and it is obvious that they are 
copied from the usual wooden roofs commcm to 
most buildings in Casluncer, where the upper 
pyramid covers the central part of the building, 
the lower a verandah, separated from the centi-e 
either by walls or merel}^ l)y a range of pillars.^ 
In the wooden examples the interval between the 
two roofs seems to have been left open for light 
and air ; in the stone buildings it is closed with 
ornaments. Jjesides this, however, all these roofs 
are relieved b}' dormer windows, of a pattern very 
similar to those found in mediaeval buildings in 
Europe, and the same steep, sloping lines are used 
also to cover doorways and porches, being vir- 
tually a section of the main roof itself, and evi- 
dently a copy of the same wooden construction. 

The pillars which sup])ori tlie portico and the 
one on which the model stands are by far the most striking peculiarit\- 
of this style, their shafts being almost identical with those of tlie Grecian 



1.6:!" > 

Model of Temple in 

' When Huiang Sung visited Cashmeer 
about 6.30 .v.n. BudcUiism still tlourish- 
ing iu the valley. lie mention.'; tour Tojies, 
but not apparently of great ini])ortanco. 

'■' .See drawing of nio.^que bv Vi'jne, vol. 

i. p. 2fi9 ; and also J. A. S. B., 1848, p. 2r,:\, 
containing Major A. Cunnhighanrs ]);iper on 
the .subject, from which this ami the tliree 
following woodcuts are taken. 



Book TI. 

Doric, ami wliolly unlike anything found in any other ]i!irt uf India. 
Generally they are from 3 to 4 diameters in height, diminishing slightly 
towards tlie capital, and adonied with lO Antes, rather shallower than 
those of the ( irecian order, lioth these bases and capitals are, it is tnie, 
far more complicated than would have been tolerated in Greece, but at 
Paestum and in Eome we find with the Doric order a complexity of 
mouldings by no means unlike that found here. At all events we find 
in ('ashuK>cr no trace of the bracket ca])ital of the Hindus, nor of the 
changes from square to octagon, or to the i)<dyg(m of 10 sides, and so 
on. Indeed, whether the afiinity to the Greek be or be not conceded, 
it is quite certain that no trace of such an order is found in India 
proper. May it not be regarded as a remnant of the Greek kingdom 
of Bactria, altered, it is true, in the lapse of centuries, but still 
retaining unmistakeable marks of its origin ? 

Thei'e is still one other peculiarity of this style which it is by no 
means easy to account for. This is the trefoiled arch, which is eveiy- 
where prevalent, but which in our present state of knowledge cannot 
be accounted for by any constnictive nec^essity, nor traced to any 
foreign style from which it could have been copied. My own impres- 
sion is that it is derived from the fa9ades of the Chaitya halls of the 
Buddhists. Refen-ing, for instance, to woodcut No. 19, it will be per- 
ceived that the outline of the section of that cave at Ajunta is just such 
a trefoil as is everj-where prevalent in Cashmeer, and, as both there 
and everywhere else in India, architectural decoration is made up of 

small models of large Iniildings ap- 
jilied as decorative features wher- 
ever required, it is by no means 
improbable that the trefoiled facj-ade 
may have been adopted in Cashmeer 
as currently as the simple horse-shoe 
form was throughout the Buddhist 
buildings of India Proper. All these 
features however mark a local style 
differing from anything else in India, 
pctinting certainly to another race 
and another religion, which we are 
not now able to trace to its source. 

The architectural history of Cash- 
meer commences with the Gonerdya 
line, who were restored to power 
about the middle of the r)th cen- 
tury ; one of these, Ranaditj^a, built 
or commenced the temple at Mar- 
tund. which was completed by Tiali- 
taditya, a king of another dynast_y, 
who in the middle of the 8th century 
avowedly added the enclosure. A\'e 
have no mr-ans of knowing whether the ruin which now remains 
includes any part of the older erection. It is the finest building in the 

P4. Temple of Martiiml. Krom a drawing by 
M.-ijor A. Cunnitigham. 

Chap. TTI. 



valley, and is at least as old as the last-named date, and possibly, in 
pait at least, three centuries earlier. 

As will be seen by the annexed ])lan, it is of the nsnal form of 
Hindu temples ; a vimana with its cell, an antarala or pronaos, and 
mantapa or porch. It has two wings, which are peculiar, but seem to 
have been joined to the main facade, so as to give it breadth, and pos- 
sibly also height ; for they are solid in their constniction, and both 
now incline outwards, as if their superincumbent mass had been too 
heavy for their foundations. 

No trace of the roof remains, which led the Baron Hugel to con- 
jecture that it never had one. This Major Cunningham disputes ; and 
the most probable supposition seems to be that it was of wood, and has 
perished, or, like some of those in the south, it may have been con- 
structed of badly burnt bricks, which have decayed. The lower part 
which exists is similar in all respects to the other temples of the same 
class fomid aroinid it. 

The enclosure that surrounds the temple is very remarkable. 
Tliough in ruins, we can make out its original design. 

The internal dimensions of the court were 220 ft. by 142 ; the num- 
ber of pillars 84 — a sacred number with the Hindus. Between each 


m )Uli|ili:i|ll il 

85. Central Cell ulCiurt nt i\Iai(uii(I. From a drawing by Major A. Cunninphani. No swIp. 



Rook II. 

pair was a cell, more like those of the Jaina temples than anything 
])nroly Hindu ; indeoil. if we may trust such drawings as we have, the 
friezes are onianiont(Ml with cross-legged figures, which could only have 
belonged to that sect ; but 1 fear the drawings are hardly to be trusted. 
In front of the temple was the great gateway, of which onlj- the 
fonndation remains ; but in the centre of each side of the conrt was a 
cell more im]iortant than the rest, probably resembling the gTcat gate- 
way. One of these with the niche on its side is showii in the annexed 
woodcut (85), and shows of the peculiarities of the style — the 
straight p_>Tamidal roof, the Doric-like shafts, here loaded with 
enormous capitals, but still with ornaments familiar to the student of 

Greek art ; the straight- 
lined pedimented door- 
way ; and more especially 
the trefoiled arch, which 
is so constant a charac- 
teristic : — all features un- 
like anything else in 
India, and pointing to a 
foreign style mixed np 
with local constrnctive 

There are, besides this 
temple, at least 10 or 12 
others in the valley, all 
rrocted before its con- 
(piest by Alla-u-deen (a.p. 
1 300), some of which are 
nearly as extensive, but 
none either so old or so 
perfect, nor arc their his- 
tori(^s t'ven so well known 
as the history of this ; 
and as they do not illus- 
tiatc any new points, it 
would be tedious to enu- 
merate them here. One only seems to have remained quite perfect, 
and to retain all its peculiarities — that of Payech. A still older 
temple, and one which more perfectly illustrates the peculiarities 
of the style, is that of Pandrethan, erected in the 10th century, and 

86. Temple at randrethan. From a drawing by Miijur 
A. CuiiniDgliani. 

' It is not a little singular, however, that 
tlie only tpmple I know of in India re- 
sembles tills one either in plan or arrange- 
ment is the smaller temple of Conjeveram in 
the Chola country near Madras ; and it is 
curious that both tlie Raja T.arinifani, the 
Ca-shmeer histoiy, and that of the Ciiola 
country mention that l.'anaditya married a 
tlauv'hter of the C'liola king, and assisted in 
forminc an acjucduct from the Caiivery — 
showing at least an mtimacv which may have 

arisen from that affinity of race and religion, 
which, overleaping the intruded Ariaiis, united 
the two extiemitics of India in one common 
bond. The style of the two tem]ilps is, it is 
true, ditl'erent ; but when I saw the one I did 
not know of the existence of the other, and 
did not, as I now would do, examine the de- 
tails with that care which alone would enable 
anv one to j>ronounce definitely regarding 
their atlinities. 

Chai'. in. KRCAriTULATION. 129 

which, though niined, still preserves the characteristics of the Cash- 
lueeriau style with singular distinctness. 

(Captain Abbot's examples from MuUote in Potowar between the 
Indus and the Jelum are only interesting as showing the same style 
existing on the plains, instead of being confined wholly to the secluded 
valley of Cashmeer. No doubt many other examples will soon be 
brought to light, now that the coimtry is in our hands, and some pro- 
bably which may enable us to trace nearer to its origin a style of so 
much interest. 

The architecture of Cashmeer was quite mdcnown till about the }ear 
1830. Notwithstanding this it. has attracted a great deal of attention. 
Its close resemblance' in many points to the Grecian style, its striking 
difference from the buildings of all neighbouring nations, fully account 
for this. We must remember that the inhabitants of this remote valley 
were an Indian people protected by their situation from the violent 
changes to which the inhabitants of the plains were exposed. We are 
therefore prepared to expect that the history of this district will illus- 
trate that of the great Indian people in manj^ important respects ; and 
such we find to be the case. 

The Eaja Tarangini has been pronounced by the best authorities to 
be the best, if not the only, true history of an Indian race that has 
reached our time. But, if I mistake not, the architecture of this land 
may even now throw more light on the subject than even that famed 
chronicle of her earlier kines. 



Having now gone through all the different phases which Indian 
architecture has assumed from the earliest period at which we become 
acquainted with it till the present time, it only remains, in conclusion, 
to recapitulate, in a few words, the more salient points to which atten- 
tion has been directed. 

It has been sho^^Ti that the history of Indian architecture commences 
not earlier than the middle of the third century before Christ, when 
Asoka made Buddhism the state religion of India, and sought to com- 
memorate the fact, not only by inscriptions, but by monumental columns 
and other lasting memorials, some of which remain to oin- da}'. It then 
begins with a strong admixture of Grecian, or at least of Western art, 
as if the Indians were then first learning from foreigners an art they 
had not pvm'iously practised ; but this extraneous element soon died 
out, and is not again to be traced, except perhaps in Cashmeer, where 
it seems to have long remained in force. 

From the time of Asoka till nearly that of the Mahometan conquest 
there exists no difficulty in tracing the whole histor}^ of Buddhist art — 
a complete series of examples existing in the caves and topes : Avhich, 
taken in connexion with those of Afghanistan and Ceylon, and other 
buildings, amply suffice to elucidate the subject. From that time to the 
present day we find abundance of examples in Buimah, Thibet, and 
Nepal, which, with collateral illustrations fi'om Java and elsewhere. 


eimljle lis fo tiiice tlie history ul" the Buddhist styk; thvuiigh more tliau 
2000 years. There is every reason to believe that from the bnihliugs 
themselves, and from the paintings and scnlptnres with which they are 
adorned, the whole histoiy of this impoilant sect may be restored with 
the utmost distinctness and certainty. 

In India tliis style was succeeded by that of the Jains, though this 
latter seems scarcely to have arisen out of the former, but to be the 
lineal descendant oi some older style whose traces have not yet been 
detected farther back than the 9th or 10th centnrv, though some 
may ])r(ibably still exist between India and the western jtarts of 
Asia. If tlie Jaina Imildings want the manly vigour and boldness of 
the Bud<lhist style, they far sui-jiass it in the elegance both of their 
condiiuations and of their details. In these respects the Jaina style 
suii"»asses any other style in India, and has had in consequence more 
iiitluence on the Mahometan art, and, through it, on the modern Hindu, 
than any other — circumstances which would render its study singularly 
interesting, had Ave the means available for its prosecution. At pre- 
sent, however, they do not exist ; and from the circumstance of none 
of the gi'eat kingdoms of India having ever adopted the Jaina as a 
state religion, its traces are only discovered in the more remote comers 
of the country, where they have hitherto generally escaped the notice 
of travellers.' 

The principal Hindu style arose in the south among the aboriginal 
Tamid races, and extends north as far as EUora. We do not know 
at Avhat age it first was practised, no example having yet been traced 
to so early a date even as the 4th or 5th centuries after Christ. ^\ hen 
it first appears, it seems to have adopted l»uddhist forms, or at all 
events to have arisen out of the same forms from which the Buddhi.sts 
elaborated their style. Hindu architecture continues almost unchanged 
to the present day, except that the Mahometan influence is sometimes 
strong in civil buildings ; and cases occur in which a strange mania fin- 
copying debased European art has crept even into the sanctmns of 
their temples. This, however, is a rare occuiTcnce; and generally 
speaking it is only in the inferiority of workmanship and design that 
we trace the influence of age in this class of art. 

In the north another stylo of art arose, and difterent forms were 
adoj)ted. though from what original it is difficult to gness : the earliest 
example is in the 7th century, and then the style was perfectly ma- 
tured. It mnst be jiursucd much further back before we can hope 
to detect, in ill-concealed traces of structural exigencies, those fonns 
which were aftei-A\'ards elabcnated into the orders we now find. 

During H» or 11 centuries, through which we can trace its histoiy, 
tlie changes it underwent were slight, until after the reign of Akbar. 
when the introduction of Saracenic fomis gave it a freedom and grace 
it had Tint kno^^^l bcfnrc: and thougli its details became less pure, its 

' I cannot help suspecting that it will l>c homctan conquest, .ind that consequently the 
■liscovered eventually that C'ashmeer and the ('ashmeerian style should virtually be elassed 
Punjaub were .laina at the time of the Ma- under this head. 


forms were iiiijuovrd by tho addition. It is now sinking nndor our 
intluenco, till it is little better lliau a caricature of its former self. 

In Caslunecr there still exists another style, differing from all these, 
showing, in the first place, a people secluded from the rest, perhaps 
retaining its earliest forms unchanged, or at all evenls owning different 
influences and practising a different art from any of the people around. 
When properly investigated, it may throw new and unexpected light 
on this hitherto obscure subject. Much, however, very much, still 
remains to be done, before the subject of Indian art can either be 
luiderstood or be placed on a satisfactory footing of scientific induction. 
No works have yet been published exclusively devoted to the subject, 
except, I am sorry to say, my own ; and mine is imperfect not only 
from tho impossibility of one situated as I was effecting more without 
aid, but also from the great difficulty of publishing such works in 
this coiuitry, where the subject interests so few. Were the above 
sketch doubled or trebled in length, and the illustrations increased 
tenfold — for which materials exist— Indian architecture might rank 
Math the known styles of the rest of the world. As it is, it is almost 
impossible to find any one either capable of giving an opinion on this 
class of art, or even of explaining the ground on which an opinion of 
its merits or defects should rest. It stands so completely alone, so 
entirely separate from the other forms of architecture of the world, 
that it cannot well be compared with any of them, without the risk 
of false and erroneous impressions being conveyed, more likely to 
mislead than to instruct. It does not, however, possess either the solid 
gTandeur and simple magnificence of the Egyptian style, or any of 
that sublime aspiration after eternity that strikes with awe every 
visitor to the valley of the Nile. 

It would be as reasonable to compare the Indian epics aiid dramas 
Avith those of Homer and Sophocles as to compare tho Indian style of 
architecture with the refined elegance and intellectual sui)criority of 
the Parthenon and other great works of Greece. Probably a nearer 
comparison might be instituted with the Gothic styles of the middle 
ages ; yet, while possessing the same rich irregularity and defiance of 
all rule, it wants that bold manliness of style and loftiness of as]-»ira- 
tion which dignifies even the rudest attempts of those enthusiastic 
religionists. Though deficient in these respects, the Indian styles are 
unrivalled for patient elaboration of the details, Avhich are always 
designed with elegance, and always executed with care. The very 
extent of ornamentation produces feelings of astonishment, and the 
smaller examples are always pleasing from the elegance of the jiarts 
and the appropriateness of the whole. In no styles is the last charac- 
teristic more nrarked than in those of India ; for whether the archi- 
tects had to uphold a mountain of rock or the airiest donio, or merely 
an ornamental screen work, hi all instances the pillars arc exactly 
proportioned to the work they have to do, and the oniiinicnts are 
equally suited to the apparent strength o)- lightness of effect wliich the 
positiim of the mass seems to require. No affectation, and no imitntion 
of other styles, ever interfere to prevent the purpose-like cxpi-ession 


of every part, and the effect consequently is alwaj'^s satisfactory and 
pleasing, and, when the extent is sufficient, produces many of tlie best 
and hii^hest laodes of expression of which the art of architectiu'c is 
anywhere eai>able. 

It may be that persons who have not had an opportunity of studying 
the buildings on the spot may not be inclined to fonn so favourable an 
estimate of the Indian styles as that here expressed ; and, indeed, 
without actual inspection, no sufficient means exist for fonning a cor- 
rect judgment on the subject at all. But whether the architecture be 
really good or onlj'- passable, it is interesting as the art of a large 
portion of the human family. It affords the only means of judging cor- 
rectly of the state of civilization and power of a jieople whose history 
is lost, or is so obscixre as to be almost illegiljle. It shoidd also 
interest the student, as showing Ikjw numerous and various the fonus 
are which may be used for architectural purposes, and each as appro- 
priate as any of those he is already familiar with : for, though men do 
not now believe, as they did a few years ago, that there are only five 
different forms of a pillar admissible, they do not yet know how nume- 
rous are the ways in which pillars may bo employed. The adaptation 
of every part to the thousand different pui-poses to which it maj^ be 
applied necessarily causes an infinite variety. This in fact is the great 
secret of architectural propriety, but which the Indian and Gothic 
architects seem alone fully to have appieciated. 

To these points we shall have frequent occasion to return hereafter. 
In the mean while we must pass on to other styles, created to suit the 
exigencies of other climates, and to express the feelings of other races 
of mankind. 

Chap. 1. CHINA. 133 




General Remarks — Pagodas — Pailoos — Tombs — Domestic Architecture 


The Chinese differ from all European nations, not only in the objects 
they propose to attain by their arts, and in the forms in which they 
seek to embody their conceptions, but also in the processes by which 
they carry them out. Hence, to write generally on their arts and 
sciences, in a manner to be intelligible, would require us to go into 
great detail, and to employ illustration to a very great extent. But 
the particular art with which our subject is concerned reqiiires, and 
indeed admits, but very little to be said of it. The simple fact is, that 
China possesses scarcely anything worthy of the name of architecture. 
This is of importance as enabling us to understand how, in other 
countries, as in ancient India, a high degree of civilization may have 
been attained without producing anj^ coeval monuments of durable 

A priori, it certainly may seem strange that the Chinese should not 
have excelled in this art, for they are and always were most extensive 
builders, as may be seen by the massive walls that surround all their 
cities, and the great one that half surrounds their country. Their 
land is full of bridges and embankments, and engineering works of all 
sorts, showing a power of cutting stone and granite, and a science of 
building, hardly surpassed by even the Egyptians themselves. All 
these great works are wholly devoid of either architectural design or 
ornament. In India such works would liave been rendered ten times 
more admirable for their art than for their mass or extent. Here, 
however they may subserve to their utilitarian pui-pose — this aim 
gained, no aesthetic beauty is eitlier sought for or attained. 

This certainly does not arise from inability, for no people on earth 
carve granite with such facility and precision as the Chinese, not even 
excepting the inhabitants of southern India ; and nowhere is skilled 
labour so cheap, and time so little tliought of, as in China. Hence the 
absence of art must arise from want of taste, not want of power. The 


truth seems to be, that they are a people naturally excelling in con- 
structive talent, and in all technic arts, but wholly devoid of either 
{esthetic feeling or desire to share in that higher class of Inunaii 

This natit>nal idiosyncracy is no doubt the real fiuidauicntal cause 
(if this absence of architectural, remains. Otlier causes may be 
assigned which contributed to the same result. In the first place, the 
Cliincse never had either a dominant priesthood or a hereditary 
nobility. Tlie absence of the former class is a veiy important cou- 
sider;ition, because, in all countries where architecture has been car- 
ried to anything like perfection, it is to sacred art that it owes its 
liighest inspiration, and sacred art is never so strongly developed as 
un<ler the influence of a powerful and s]ilendid liierarchy. Again, 
religious and sectarian zeal is often a strung stimulus to sacred archi- 
tecture, and this is entirely wanting in this remarkable people. 
Though the Chinese are bigoted to a greater extent than we can well 
conceive in all political matters, they are more tolerant than any 
other nation we know of in all matters concern in^ religion. At the 
present moment three great religious sects divide the em] tire nearly 
oipially between them. For though Buddhism is the religion of the 
reigning family, and perhaps numbers more followers than either of 
the other tAvo, still the followers of the doctrines of Confucius, the 
contempoi-ary and rival of Sakya Sinha, are a more puix-ly Chinese 
sect tlian the other, and hold an eqiial jilaco in public estimation ; 
while, at the present time, the sect of Laou Tse, or the Doctors of 
Heason, is more fashionable, and certainly more progressive, th.ui 
the others. Christianity, too, might at one time have encroached 
largely on either of these, and been a very prevalent religion in this 
tolerant empire, had the Jesuits and Dominicans understood that the 
condition of religious tolerance hero is a total abstinence from inter- 
ference in political matters. This, however, the Itoman Catholic 
priestliood never c(mld be brought to understand ; hence their expul- 
sion from the realm, and the proscription of their faith, which other- 
wise would not only have been tolerated like all others, but have bid 
fair to find more extensive favour than any. This toleration is highlv 
laudable in one point of view; but the want of fei-\-our and ener«'v 
from which it arises is fatal to any great exertions for the honour of 

In the same manner the want of an hereditary nobilitj', and indeed 
of any strong family i)ridc, is equally unfavourable to domestic 
architecture of a durable descri^jtion. At a man's death liis projterty 
Ls generally divided equally among his children. Consequently the 
Wealthiest men do not build jnilaces calculated to last longer than for 
their own lives. The royal ]ialaces are merely somewhat larger and 
more splendid than those of the mandarins, but the same in character 
and erected for the same purposes. 

There is no country where property is so secure as it is in China. 
Private feuds and private wars are unknown : foreign invasion has been 
piiictically impo.ssiblf and little dreaded. Hence tliev have none of 

C'liAr. I. TAGUDAS. i;j5 

tlioso foitalices, or furtifiod mansions, wliich by their mass and solidity 
give such a marked character to a certain chiss of domestic edifices in 
our own country. Equality, peace, and toleration, aio blessings 
whoso value it would be difficidt to over-estimate ; but on the dead 
though pleasing level where they exist, it is in vain we look for the 
rugged sublimity of the mountain, or the terrific gi-andeur of the 
storm. The Chinese have chosen the humbler path of life, and Avith 
singular success. Considering their number, there is not perhaps a 
more industrious or happier people on the face of the globe ; but they 
are at the same time singularly deficient in every element of great- 
ness, either political or ai"tistic. 

Notwithslauding all this, it certainly is curious to find the oldest 
civilized people now existing on the face of the globe wholly without 
any monuments to record the past, or any desire to convey to posterity 
a worthy idea of their present greatness. It is no less remarkable to 
find the most populous of nations, and a nation in which millions 
are always seeking employment, never thinking of any of those higher 
mt)des of expression which Avould serve as a means of multiplying 
occupation, and of elevating while it is feeding the masses ; and still 
more startling to find wealth, such as the Chinese ])0SRess, never 
invested in self-glorification, by individuals erecting for themselves 
monuments which shall astonish their contemporaries, and hand down 
their names to posterity. 

It has been said that Chinese architecture is a very barren subject. 
In one respect, however, it is instructive, as the Chinese are the only 
people who now employ polychromy as an essential part of their archi- 
tecture ; so much so, that colour is with them far more essential than 
fonn ; and certainly the result is so singularl}' pleasing and satisfac- 
tory, that for the lower grades of art it can hardly be doubted but that 
it should always be so. It is almost as certain that, for the higher 
grades of art, colour, though most valuable as an accessory, is inca- 
pable of the same lofty power of expression which form conveys to the 
human mind. 


The only buildings in China that really desei've to be classed as 
architectuial objects are the 9-storied pagodas, or Taos as they aie 
more properly called, which form such conspicuous and characteristic 
objects in every view of Chinese scenery. It has been before stated' 
that these taas are in fact on\j exaggerated tees or spires ; and, without 
going further, tlu> illustrations of this work alone are nearly sufiicient 
to trace them back to their origin. In woodcut Ko. 14, for instance, 
we have a 3-storied tee, not very dissimilar from a Chinese example. 
Woodcut No. 15 shows one with 7 such rims, and the 9-storied tower 
at Chittore (Avoodcut Ko. 56) brings us so near the Chinese pagodas 
that further proof seems almost superfluous. 

Of those now known to exist in China, by fai- the iinest. as well as 

' Sec IP. -'1. 



Book III. 

the best known, is the celebrated porcehiin tower at Nankin. Com- 
menced in the year 1412, and finished in 1431, it was erected as a 

monument of gratitude 
to an empress of the 
Ming family, and is now 
in conse(]neuce gene- 
rally tailed the Temple 
of Gratitude. It is octa- 
gonal in f(jrm, 236 ft. in 
height, of which, liow- 
ever, about 30 ft. must 
be deducted for the iron 
spire which siinuounts 
it, leaving little more 
than 200 ft for the ele- 
vation of the building, 
or about the height of 
the jMonmnent of Lon- 
don. From the summit 
of the spire 8 chains de- 
pend, to each of which 
are attached 9 bells, and 
a bell is also attached to 
each angle of the lower 
roofs, making 144 bells 
in all, which, when tink- 
ling m hannony to the 
evening breeze, must 
produce an effect as sin- 

S7. Porcelain Tower, Nankin. gular aS pleasing. It 

is not, however, either 
to its dimensions or its bells that the tower owes its celebrity, but to the 
coating of porcelain which covers its brick walls, as well as the upper 
and Tuider sides of the i)rojecting roofs, which mark the division of 
each storj'. This produces a brilliancy of effect which is tt>tally lost 
in all the representations of it yet published, but which is in fact the 
class of ornament on which the architect almost Avholly relied for 
])roducing the effect he desired, and without which it is a mere ske- 
leton of a design. 

Ancilher celebrated pagoda is that known as 'Second Bai' Pagoda,' 
on the Canton river. It is a pillar of victory, erected to commemorate 
a naval victoiy which the Chinese claim to have gained near the spot. 
It is in design nearly identical with that last described, but of smaller 
dimensions, and now fast falling to niin. Besides these, almost every 
town of importance in China possesses one or more such structures, 
differing in dimensions and in the greater or less richness of their 
ornaments, but so like one another in design that it is impossible 
Ironi such drawings as have been published to make out anything 
like a sef^uence or even a difference; thcv must ihcroforo. with 

Porcelain Tower, Nankin. 




Dili- present knowledge, l>e regarded as exaetly similar to one 

Besides these great towers, however, there are many ot only 3 or 
7 stories, and of very small dimensions, but, whatever their height or 
size, the same design runs through them all. 

It is extremely difficult to form a coiTect estimate of the artistic 
merits of these towers. Anything so original and so national must be 
interesting from that circumstance alone, and it seems almost impos- 
sible to build anything in a tower-like fonn of great height, whether as 
a steeple, a minar, or a pagoda, which shall not form a pleasing object 
even from its salience and aspiring character alone, without any I'eal 
artistic mei'it in itself. Besides these qualifications, I cannot but think 
that the taiiering octagonal form, the boldly-marked divisions, the 
domical roof, and general consistence in design and ornament, of these 
towers, entitle them to rank tolerably high among the tower-like 

buildings of the world. 


The Pailoos, or, as they are commonly but erroneously called, tri- 
umphal arches, form another object of Chinese architecture, which, from 
its constant recurrence in views of Chinese scenery, is almost as familiar 
to us as the pagoda. These are. in fact, monuments to deceased persons 
of distinction, generally of 
widows who have not mar- 
ried a second time, or of 
virgins who have died un- 
married. The smaller and 
less important ones consist 
merely of two upright posts 
of wood or granite, support- 
ing a flat board with an 
inscription,' like, both in 
purpose and design, to the 
wooden rails which are 
used as substitutes for 
tombstones in some dis- 
tricts of England. 

The more important 
Pailoos have three open- 
ings, surmounted by seve- 
ral boards with more or 
less ornament and carving. 
Sometimes they are wholly 
of wood : in others no 

material is used but stone, generally granite ; and these two materials 
are combined in various proportions in other examples. Sometimes 
they are raised on platforms, as in the annexed example, from a 



8S. Pailoo near Canton. From .1 sketcli by the Author. 

' GutzlalT, 'China Opened,' vol. ii. 



r.00K III. 

j)oculiaily gTiieet'iil uiie near Canton ; at other times they are jdaced on 
the ground, and even across roads, so as to form archways, it" so they 
may be called, though certainly not triumphal ones. Oni; of the most 
solid examples yet published is one forming the gate, or at least span- 
ning the entrance, of the city of Amoy. 


Gateway at Amoy. From Fisher's China Illustrated, vol. ii. p. 69. 

Like the; towers, they trace their origin back to India, the gateways 
of the Sanchi tope' (Avoodcut 5) being the finest exami)les of a juuhjo in 
existence ; though whether used for the same pur|)ose as that to which 
they are ai»i>li<Ml by the Chinese is not quite clear. 


Like all people of Tartar origin, one of the most remarkable 
characteristics of the Chinese is their reverence for the dead, or, lis 
it is usually called, their ancestral worship. In consequence of this, 
their tombs are not only objects of care, but have frcrpu-ntly more 
oruament bestowed upon them than graces the dwellings of the living. 

Their tombs are of diH'ei-ent kinds ; frequently they are merely 
conical mounds of earth, with a cii'cle of stones round their base, like 
those of the Etruscans or ancient Greeks, as may be seen from the 
annexed woodcut (No, 00), borrowed from Fortune's ' China' — which 
would serve as well for a restoratitm of those of Tarquinia or Vulei. 
More generally they are of a hemispherical sha]te, surmounted with a 

|ir;i\vn in dtLiil on tlit title-iKijre of the author'.-> lllustration.> oC Indian Aiihitectinc. 

Chap. I. 


1 :]0 

•JO. Chinese Grave. From Kortime's Waiiilcriiigs in China. 

s[>ire, not unlike the Indian and Ceylonese examples, Init still with a 
]tliysiognoniy peculiarly Chinese. The most common arrangement is 
that of a horseshoe-shaped platform, cut out of the side of a hill. It 
consequently has a high back, in which is the entrance to the tomb, 
and slopes off to nothing at the entrance to the horseshoe, where the 
wall generally t(^rminaies with two lions or dragons, en- some fantastic? 
ornament common to Chinese architecture. ^Vhen the tomb is situated, 
as is generally the case, on a hill-side, this arrangement is not only 


Chinese Tonilj. brum Fortune's Wanderings in Cliina. 

a[)propriate, but elegant. When the same thing is imitated on a plaui, 
it is singular, misplaced, and unintelligible. Many of the tombs are 
built of granite, finely pt)lished, and carved with a profusion of labour 
that makes us regret that the i)eo})le who can do such things slR)uld 
have so great a predilection for ephemeral wooden structures, when 
capable of employing the most durable materials with such facility. 
When the rock is suitable foi' the whii-h. luiwevei". seems 


CH 1 N ESE A 1 ; CI 1 1 T i:c'r r I ; E. 


to be rarely the case in (vhina, their tunibs are cut in the rock, as in 
Etruria and elsewhere ; and the tunib.s of the class jnst described seem 
a device for cinvertinjj; an ordinary hill-side into a substitute ft)r the 
more ai)j)roi)riate situatit)n. 

Domestic Architkctukk. 

It is in their domestic architectinx', if in any. that the ( 'hinese excel ; 
there we do not look either for monumental gi'andeur or for dura- 
bility, and it is almost impossible to resist being captivated by the 
gaiety and brilliancy of a Chinese dwelling of the first class, and the 
exuberant richness and beauty of the carvings and ornaments that are 
heaped on every part of it. 

One of the most remarkable i)eculiarities of their houses is the con- 
cave form of roof which is almost universal, and which writers on the 
subject have generally referred to as a reminiscence of the tent of the 
Tai-tars, who arc sujiposed to have introduced it. They, however, who 
proposed this theory, forgot that the Chinese have been longer out of 
tents, and know less of them, than any other people now on the face of 
the globe. The Tartar conquest, like our Nonnan one, has long been 
a fusion rather than a subjection, and in China at least does not seem 
to have produced the .smallest visible effect on the manners or customs 
of the original inhabitants. Be this as it may, the form in question 
arose from a constructive exigence, which others would do well to 
imitate, and in this manner. In a country like China, where very 
heavy rains fall at one season of the year, tiled roofs, such as they 
almost universally use, reqiiire a high pitch to carry off the water ; but 
so bright a sunshine as at another season of the year glares down upon 
them, requires shade to their walls and windows. If, however, as on 

the left of the annexed 
diagi-am (woodcut 92), 
the slope of the roof is 
continued so far out as 
to be effective for the 
last pui-]iose, the up]ier 
windows are too much 
darkened, and it is im- 
possible to see oiit of 
them. To remedy this 
defect, the Chinese carrj' 
out their eaves almost 
horizontally from the 
face of the walls, where 
a leak becomes of slight 
importance ; and then, to break the awkward angle caused by the 
meeting of these two slopes, they ease it off with a hollow cur\'e, 
which not only answers the double puri^ose of the roof more effectually, 
but ]»n)dtici's what the Chinese think — and rightly— the mi>st pleasing 
fonii of roof. 


Diagram of Chinese construction. 


The only jmits of hik-Ii a roof that admit of decoration by cai-A'ing 
are evidently either the central or angular ridges ; and here they 
exaggerate their favom-ite hollow curve to an extent unpleasing to a 
European eye — the angles being vii-tnally tnnied back, in some in- 
stances, and the ridge being also oniaiuented by upturned ornaments 
at its ends, to an extent we cannot reconcile with our notions ; nor 
indeed is it possible we should, when they arc overloaded with gro- 
tesque ornaments to the extent too often found. 

Another peculiarity that gives so local a character to their architec- 
tin-e is their mode of framing a roof, so unlike that used by any other 
people. This arises from the timber they possess most easily available 
for such a purpose being a small pine, found everywhere, in the south 
at least, which has the peculiarity of being soft and spongy in the 
inside ; but the outer rims of wood, just imder the bark, retain theii' 
hardness and strength; so that practically it is a hollow wooden 
cylinder ; and if the carpenter were to attempt to square it, so as to 
form a framing as we do, it would fall to pieces ; but merely cleaned 
and used whole, it is a very strong and durable building material, 
though one which it requires all a Chinaman's ingenuity and neatness 
to frame together with sufficient rigidity for the purposes of a roof. 

The uprights which support these roofs are generally formed of the 
same wood, though not unfi-equently they are granite posts — they cannot 
be called pillars — of the same dimensions, and streng-thened, or rather 
steadied, by transverse pieces of wood, the space between which and 
the roof is generally filled Avith open-work carving, so as to form a 
species of fiieze. 

The roof is usually constructed, as shown in diagram No. 92, by 
using 3 or 4 transverse pieces or tie-beams, one over the other, and 
supporting the ends of each beam on that below it by means of a 
framed piece of a different class of wood. By this method, though it 
may look unscientific to OTir eyes, they make up a framing that resists 
the strongest winds uninjiu-ed. Sometimes, as shown in the dotted 
lines of the same woodcut, they carry the cui-ve across the top of the 
rt)of ; but when this is done they are obliged to have recourse to metal 
roofing, or to tiles of a greater length than are usually found or easily 

As before remarked, however, it is not so much on its forms that 
Chinese architecture depends as on its colours — the pillars being gene- 
rally painted red, the friezes and open work green ; blue marks the 
floors and stronger lines, and gilding is used profusely everywhere. 
Whether this would or would not improve a fijier or more solid stj'le 
of art may admit of doubt ; but it is certainly remarkably- pleasing in 
China, and singularly appropriate to the architecture we have been 
describing ; and grouped as these buildings usually are around garden 
courts, filled with the gaj'cst flowers, and adorned Avith rock-work and 
fountains more fantastic than the buildings themselves, the fancy 
may easily be charmed with the result, though taste forbids us to 
approve of the details. 



Hook ill. 


I have put off to tlio last sjieaking of the temples of tlie Chinese, 
because they partake far more of domestic architecture than in almost 
any other coiuitry. They possess no sacred forms which distin_<>;nish 
them at first si^-ht from i)rivate edifices, and scarcely rise in dignity 
beyond the mansions of the gi'cat. 

One of the largest temples to which Europeans have had access is 
that of ITonan, opposite Canton. It consists of an oblong enclosure of 
some extent, both sides of which are occnjned Ity the dwellings and 
gardens of the priests, which have nothing to distinguish them from the 
houses outside. In the centre, however, of the end lacing the river, 
is a gateway of some pretension, which leads to a hall of moderate 
dimensions, and tlu'ough this to a second and a third, the last beino- 
larger and more richly ornamented than either of the other two. This 
inner hall contains images of the thi'ee precious Buddhas in white 
marble, and also a small model of a dagobah of the same material, 
and with a number of offerings and images strewed about; and the 
painting and carving with which it is adorned make up a tolerably 
rich effect, but iixr more resembling and more appropriate for a hall in 
a mansion ' than a temple dedicated to worship. The small temple at 
Macao, represented in the annexed woodcTit, has more pretension to 
architectural beauty, though its dimensions are very inferior ; but no 
Chinese temple, so far as is kno\\Ti, is either larger than this of Ilonan, 
or possesses anyi;hing of that monumental character which we usually 


' X 


Temple at Mucao. From a sketch by tbe Author. 

i> • V"^" ''"'"'^ Amlicist letiirneil from moved for the occnsion, and the room wa.s 
I ekin he was lodged in ihh buildinsr. Tlie u.sed as the dining-room of the Embassy, 
image.s ami all tho sacred ves.<els were re- 

C'liAP. 1. TEMPLES. 14;'. 

tiiiil ill all those edifices which other nations liave (ledicated to the 
honour of the Supreme Being. 

^Vheu we come to know more of China than at present, it is possihlc^ 
that this opinion may to some extent be modified; but certainly no 
views pulilisluHl by any of those who have traversed the countiy, 
nothing that has been AVTitten, and no Chinese drawings, of which 
abundance exist, lead lis to suppose that anything except the pagodas, 
|):uloos, and tombs, have ever been erected by them at all worthy of 
notice as architectural subjects. 

Indeed, the two purely Chinese sects seem to be wholly Avithout 
temples of any sort, and theii" example seems to have influenced the 
r>udd]iists to such an extent as to prevent their attempting anything at 
all monumental ; and there seems no reason for believing that anything 
better than these domestic-looking vihams — half temple, half monas- 
tery — exists in any part of the country. 

The same remarks apply to Japan and the other large and populous 
islands around China. Domestic architectixre is brilliant and cheerful 
in them all, but ephemeral ; and none of them possess any monuments 
designed to last beyond the generation that ei'ected them. 

Their engineering works have been much extolled by some wi-iters, 
but they have no more claim to praise as works of science than these 
buildino's have as works of art-. Theii" canals, it is true, are exten- 
sive ; but with 300 millions of inhabitants this is small praise, and 
their construction is most unscientific. Their bridges, too, are some- 
times of great length, but generally made up of a series of small arches 
constructed on the horizontal principle, as nine-tenths of the bridges in 
China are, and consequently narrow and unstable. When they do use 
the true arch, it is timidly, and without much knowledge of its tme 

However admirable and ingenious therefore the (^hinese may be, 
and seem always to have been, in the minor arts — such as carving in 
wood and ivory, the manufacture of vessels of porcelain and bronze, 
and in all that relates to silk and cotton manufactures — it still must 
be admitted that they never rose above the rank of manufacturers, and 
that poetry of any grade is wholly luifamiliar to them ; indeed, that 
they seem incapalile of it in any form, either written or structural. 




Historical Notice — Central American style — Temples — Palaces — Palenque 




Toltecs arrived in Anahuac a.d. 648 

Abaniluned the countrj- 1051 

Chichemecas arrived 1170 

Acolliuans arrived, about 1200 

Mexicans reached Tula 1196 


Founded Mexico a.d. 1 125 

Almitzotl conquered Guatemala 

beginning of 16th century. 
Spaniards arrived 1519 

Were it possible to wi-ite the History of Ai'cliitecture iii Mexico with 
the same certainty that we can now write that of every other 
country in the workl, it would be instructive from the unity and (!om- 
pleteness of the subject. It would be a history of an art wholly indi- 
genous and original, uninfluenced by any foreign style, and conse- 
quently illustrating, in a close and compact space, the whole of those 
])ro('esses by which mankind are enabled to elaborate an art out of the 
simplest elements. 

This is hardly the case with any of the styles of the old world, at 
least after we leave the Egyptian, whose origin is lost in the mists of 
antiquity. All other styles were influenced, more or less directly, by 
its forms, so that we can easily trace the influence of the Hall at Kaniac 
in all subsequent buildings. The Indian styles, it is true, form a gi'oup 
apart, but not so completely distinct as the Mexican ; and the variety of 
their fonns, and the want of unison in the pails, prevent their aifording 
com])lete illustration of an art invented and com])leted wholly without 
the introduction of any foreign element. 

Out whole knowledge of the early history of the inhabitants of 
Central America is derived from the annals of two tribes which, by 
their own account, in which there is nothing improbable, occupied 
]\luxieo about the 12th century of our era. Tliese tribes, the Chiche- 
mecas and i\jstecs, came from the north, and were ]uobably of the same 
race with the red Indians. The coimtry which they took possession of 
was previously inhabited by the Toltecs, belonging to a race who had 
in all ]>rol)ability occu])ied the provinces of Central America from time 
imiiit'inorial. and who had certainly attained at the time we are speaking 

CiiAi'. II. MEXICO. 14.5 

of to a considerable degree of civilization, and made no mean progretss 
in many of the useful arts. 

It is recorded that tlie Toltecs abandoned the valley about the 10th 
century, in consecpience of their numbers being greatly reduced by a 
severe famine and by disease. Nothing further is related of this tribe, 
but there can be little doubt that some remnant of it afterwards mixed 
with the inv.iders, and impai'tcd to them many arts then unknown to 
them, and of which their more northern brethren still remain ignorant. 
Ihuler these favourable circumstances of climate and aggregation, the 
conquerors of Mexico reached a degree of civilization which the red 
men never attained in their native plains. 

The valh>v of Mexico, of which alone we have any lecord, is a pro- 
vince about twice the size of Lancashire, and one-third of it is covered 
with water. In process of time it became siibject to three petty kings 
who carried on perpetual wars one with another. It was not until 
immediately befoie the conquest of the coimtry by the Spaniards that 
these three kings, tired of their ruinous wars, joined their forces to- 
gether, and, thus combined, proved more than a match fin- unj of the 
surrounding states. Thc}^ spread their arms and influence to the 
Mexican Gulf, penetrated to the shores of the Pacific, and on one occa- 
sion are even said to have crossed the Isthmus of Tetlmantepec. and 
reached the confines of Guatemala. These last expeditions seem to 
have been undertaken merely to obtain prisoners for their horrid rites 
ol" human sacrifice, of which they were becoming passionately fond ; 
and they made no settlement in these countries sufficient to influence 
either their arts or institutions in any way. Shortly after this the 
conquest of the Spaniards under Cortes put an end to the kingdom and 
power of the Astecs for ever. 

All this, however, refers wholly to the Astecs in the valley of 
Mexico ; and all the affinities that have been traced between them and 
their northern neighboui's apply to them, and them only. The prin- 
cipal remains of architecture in Cential America are not found in 
Mexico Proper, but in distiicts in which the Astecs never obtained a 
peiTuanent footing, in Yucatan, Chiapas, and Guatemala. They are 
evidently works of an earlier and far more highly civilised race than 
that of the invaders — in short, of precisely such a I'ace as the Toltecs 
are recorded to have been. Thus we have a striking concurrence of 
evidence — that of the Mexican annals, and of the ruins themselves — 
provuigthat, previous to the arrival of the Red Indians, these countries 
wei'c inhabited by a people possessing a considerable degree of 
civilisation. • 

Were it not from what we learn from the description of the 
Spaniards and earlier travellers, we should now be utterly ignorant 
of the arts of the Mexicans^thcmselves, all that they built having pe- 
rished from the lapse of time, or having been destroyed by the savage 
bigotry of the invaders. Though these descriptions are often inflated 
and seldom intelligible, they suffice to prove that the Mexicans had 
learnt from their ]iredccessors the art of building, and erected monu- 
ments capable of exciting the amazement of those who were fomiliar 


with the cathedrals of Toledo and Seville, and knew well the palaces 
and monasteries of ancient Spain. 

^Vo must not ascribe even the great pyramid of Cholnla or the 
temple of Tlascala to the Mexicans. These cities, though so near to 
tlio Mexican capital, were inliabited by a people of a dift'ercnt race, 
and wlio practised their own arts. Beyond the Mexican boundaries 
there exists a comitry full of niins of the most interesting character, 
and in a state of singularly pcifeet prcsci-vation, which, when properly 
explored, will do more to elucidate the history and to illustrate the 
ai-is of this mysterious people than anything that has yet come to light ; 
but much i-emains to be done before any satisfactory result can be 
obtained from the materials so unexpectedly afforded us. The country 
has been %'isited by verj^ few travellers at all capable of judging of 
what they saw. The explorations undertaken by Mr. Stephens,' and 
the publication of the beautiful drawings of his companion, Mr. 
Catherwood, tirst conveyed a just idea of the extent and character 
of these monuments ; neither, however, of these gentlemen were fami- 
liar with the i-ules of architectural criticism, nor capable, consequently, 
of })roperly airanging the materials they were collecting with such 
zeal and talent ; and it still remains for some one who has the know- 
ledge and the energy requisite for such a task to complete the work 
they have so nobly begun, and to read for us the history of Central 
America, and the long-forgotten Toltecs, as wiitten by them in their 

No one could be long among these buildings, provided he was 
familiar with the styles of other parts of the world, with(Uit perceiving 
a sequence among them, and, when once this is done, the problem is 
half solved. We may never be able to ascertain at what exact date 
the earliest building was erected, nor when the last was completed : 
but we may be able to trace the steps by which the stylo arose, to 
judge how far it was capable of further development, and also, 
perhaps, to leam the origin and history of the people to whom it 

These last are the forms of the problem that have been hitherto most 
carefully and zealously investigated, though with singularly little suc- 
cess. Because this people built })yramids and engraved hieroglyphics, 
it is conjectiired that they came from Egypt. Their temples are supjioscd 
to be copies of the temple of Belus at Babylon. Lord Kingsborough's 
great work was undertaken to prove that the temple of Palenque was 
built on the model of Solomon's, and, consequently, that the peo])le were 
Jews. Certain astronomical similarities have been assumed as identi- 
fying them with the Moguls, and so on ad infinitum. But there is not 
one of these supposed links of evidence which can be relied iipon when 
we consider what very natural shapes to bg adopted by a rude peo])le 
are those of the rectangular pyramid of stone or brick and the conical 
mound of earth. The same may be said of picture-writing as a mode 

• Previous to Mr. Stepliens's book the Lord Kingsborough's work, and some others 
ruins only of Palenque were known throui^h had been imperfectly sketched. 


of expressing tlie thoughts. Tlioro may no doubt be certain affinities 
with the old world. Influences may have come by Behring's Straits, 
or across the ocean. The only connection that can be traced with any 
certainty is Avith the rolynesian islanders. The very variety of the 
theories just mentioned almost proves that none can be made out at all 
satisfoctorily. On the whole we may safely exclude all such con- 
siderations, and treat of the architecture of Central America as com- 
plete in itself, and unconnected with any other kno-wii style. 

Central American Architecture. 

Owing to our imperfect knowledge of the subject, it is not easy to 
defino the various classes of buildings into which the exami)]es wo 
possess should be divided. As in almost all countries, however, the 
principal are the Teocallis or houses of God. 

These are always pyramids, sqiiare in plan, and generally formed 
into two, three, or more stories or terraces, with a platform on the top, 
on which the temple, properly so called, always stands. 

Next to these are the palaces, or the houses of kings, which are 
extremely similar to the temples, except in the number and extent of 
the chambers they contain, and also that, generally, the pyramids on 
which they stand are lower, and much longer in one direction than in 
the other. 

A third class are tvimidi or mounds of earth, with sepulchral 
chambers, generally above ground, the openings of which are visible 
outside ; their outline seems to have been merely that of a mound of 
earth with no buildings on the top. 

Besides these there are gateways apparently more intended for 
display than defence, city walls, wells, and various works of public 
utility, and great monolithic idols, which belong more to the province 
of architecture than to anything that can be styled imitative sculpture. 

As specimens of architecture, however, in reality only the two first 
deserve notice in a work like the present. 

Of the first class, by far the largest and most celebrated is the 
pyramid of Cholula, near Mexico, said to have been erected long before 
the arrival of the Astecs. It is now a mere mound of ill-built bricks 
and rubbish. In plan it measures 1440 ft. each way, and the height of 
its 4 terraces is 177 ft. Its area, therefore, was nearly four times that 
of the largest of the Egyptian pyramids, though its height is not much 
more than one-third. W hen we come to consider the material and skill 
required for the erection of the two, no comparison can be made between 
this rude mound of the Americans and the imperishable structures of 
the Egyptian kings. On the large platf jrm on its summit now stands a 
church dedicated to the Virgin, and no remains of ancient aj'chitectural 
ornament exist, either in or about the place, by which its style or 
afiinities can be guessed. The same remarks apply to the temples of 
Tezcuco and Teotihuacan, and to all the buildings in the Mexican 

In Yucatan the case is widely difterent. The pyramids there are 

L 2 



Book III. 

not generally iu terraces, but rise, at an angle of about 45°, to the 
level of the platfonn on which the temple stands ; and a magiiificent 
uiibiok.-n flii;ht of stci)s leads lixiiu the base of the buildini!; to the 
suiiiiiiit. Almost all these retain more or less of the remains of arehi- 
teetural magnifieence that once adorned their summits. The annexed 
woodcut (No. 94), representing the elevation of a temple supported by 


Elevation ol Teoculli al I'aliiiciue. Scalo 00 H. lo an incli. 

a pyramid at Palenque, with the plan of the temple C woodcut No. 95), 
will give a good general idea of their fonn. The pyramid on which 
it stands is about 280 ft. square, and 60 ft. in height : on the top 
of this stands the temple, 7(5 ft. wide in fi'ont, and 25 ft. deep, orna- 
mented in stucco with bassi-rilievi of better execution than is usually 
found in these parts, and with large hieroglyphical fciblets, Avlntse 
decipheiTuent, were it possible, would probably reveal to us much of 
the history of these buildings. 

The roof is formed by approaching courses oi stone meeting at the 

sinnmit, and following the same out- 
line extemially, with curious projec- 
tions on the outside, like dormer 
windows, but meant aj>parently either 
for ornament or to support small 
idols, or for some similar purjiose. 
The other temples found in Yucatan 
diflFer but little from this one, excci)t in size, and, architecturally 
speaking, are less interesting than the palaces — the splendour ot the 
temple consisting in the size of its pyramid, to which the su])er- 
structure is entirely subordinate : in the palace, on the other hand, the 
pyramid is entirely subordinate to the building it sujiports, forming 
mei'ely an a]ipr(i])iiate and convenient ])cdes1al. just sufficient to give 
it a jiroper degree of architectural eifect. 

In speaking of the palaces it would be most important, and add 
vei-y much to the interest of the descripticm, if some classification 
could be made as to their relative affe. The absence of all traces of 
history makes this extremely difficult, and the only mode that now 

Plan of Temple. Scale 50 ft to an inch. 

Chap. II. 



sugj2;ests itself is to assume that those buikiings which show the greatest 
similarity to wooden eoiistrnetioiis in their details are the oldest, and that 
those in which this peculiarity cannot be traced are the more modeiii. 

This at least is certainly the case in all other countiics of the 
world where timber fit for building purposes can be piocured : there 
men inevitably use the lighter and more easily worked vegetable 
material long before they venture on the more durable, but far more 
expensive mineral substance, which ultimately supersedes it to so 
great an extent. Even in Egypt, in the age of the pyramid-builders, 
the ornamental arcbitecture is copied in all its details from wt)oden 
constructions. In Greece, when the art reached its second stage, the 
base is essentially stone, and the upper part only copied in stone from 
the earlier wooden forms : and so it was apparently in Mexico ; the 
lower })art of the buildings is essentially massive stone-woik, the 
upper part is copied from forms and carvings that must originall}' have 
been executed in wood, and are now repeated in stone. 

The annexed woodcut, for instance, represents in its simplest form 
what is repeated in al- , 

most all these buildings >, ,. \ ■,^\Vi 
— a stone basement with 
square doorways, but 





Klevation of Building at Chunjuju. From a drawing by 
F. Catherwood. 

without w^indows, sur- 
mounted by a super- 
structure evidently a 
direct copy of wood- 
work, and forming part 
of the construction of 
the roof. 

In most cases in Yu- 
catan the superstructure 
is elaborately carved 
with masks, scrolls, and 
carvings, similar to 
those seen on the prows 

of the war-boats, or in the Mo]-ai.s or biuying-phiees of the Polynesian 

Sometimes pillars are used, and the wooden construction is carried 
even lower down, though inixed in that case with parts of essentially 
lithic f(^)rms. Barring the monstrotsit}' of the carvings, there is often, as 
in the palace at Zayi (woodcut Ko. 97), a degree of elegance in the 
design by no means to be despised, more especially whoi, as in this 
instance, the building rises in a pyramidal fonn on three terraces, the 
one within aiid above the other, the lowest, as shoAvn in the plan 
(woodcut No. 98), being 205 ft. in length, by 120 ft. in width. I'liis, 
though far fi-om being the largest of these palaces, is one of tlie most 
remarkable, as its terraces, instead of being mere flights of steps, all 
present architectural facades, I'ising one above the other. The upper 
and central tiers of buildings may possibly have been a many-celled 
temple, and the lower apartments appropriated to the priests, btit it is 



Book III. 

«\' ! 

;>•'•''''.■"■ .'-',■•■ .!^ 

97. Klevation of part of Palace at Zayi. From a drawing by F. Catherwood. 

more probable tliat they were all palaces, the residences of temporal 
chiefs, inasnnich as at Uxmal a pyramidal temple is attached to the 
building called the Casa del Gnbemador, which is extremely similar 
to this, though on a still larger and more oniate scale. There are 
other instances also of the palace and temple standing together. 

C tmB&uis&miimi'JkC 

98. Plan of Palace at Zayi. S&ile louft. to an inili. 

Sometimes, instead of the buildings standing Avithin and above 
each other, as in the last example, they are arranged around a court- 
yard, as in that called the Casa de his ^Monjas at Uxmal (woodcut No. 
99), one of the most remarkable buildings in Central America, for its 
size, as well a« from the elaborateness of its decorations. It is laised 
on three low teiTaces, aggi-cgating 20 ft. in height. The one to the 
south, 271* ft. long, is pierced by a tiiangular-headed gateway, 
10 ft. 8 in. wide, lea<ling to a court-yard, measuring upwaids r»f 200 ft. 
each way, and surrounded on all sides by buildings, as shown in the 
plan ; which, though only one stoiy in height, arc, considering their 
size and the elaborateness of their decorations, one of the most remark- 
able groups of buildings in the world. 





Casa de las Moiyas, Uxnial. Scale 100 ft. to an inch. 

Ill tlic same city of Uxinal is another building, called the Casa del 
Gnhcniador, somewhat similar to the principal of the three edifices 
composing the Casa de las Monjas, but larger, and even more elabo- 
rate in its decorations. It stands alone, however, with only a temple 
attached nnsymmetrically to one angle of it. 

Besides these, the works of Messrs. Stephens and Catherwood 
describe and represent the remains of at least a dozen other cities 
scarcely less splendid and wonderful than Uxmal itself. The ruins of 
Palenquc have long been known in this country from the splendid 
work of Lord Kingsborough, and those at Mitlan from Humboldt, and 
afterwards more fully from Lord Kingsborough's work. The latter 
are remarkable for a hall, whose roof was supported by pillars of por- 
phyry, at one time supposed to be the only pillars to be found in that 
coxmtry. But, as already sho"\\ni at Zayi and elsewhere, they are fre- 
quently used. 

\Vith regard to constiiiction, as above remarked, the style may be 
generally characterized as one remove from the original wooden con- 
struction of early times. Xo wooden buildings, or even Avooden roofs, 
now remain, nor could any be expected to have resisted the effects of 
the climate ; but many of the lintels of the doorways weie formed by 
wooden beams, and some of these still remain, though most of them 
have perished, bringing dow^l vnih. them large portions of the walls 
which were supported by them. In other instances, and generally 
speaking in those that seem most modern, the upper parts of the door- 
ways, as well as the roofs of the chambers, are fonned by bringing the 



Book 111. 

courses nearer tugetlier till they meet in the centre, thus funning a hori- 
zontal arch, as it is called, pre- 
liscly as the Etioiscans aiul all 
the earlier tribes of Pelasgic race 
I lid in Europe at the dawn of its 
civilisatidu. and as is done in 
India to this day. This furm is 
^- : i ' well sliown ia the annexed wood- 

.; ,. / cut (100), representing a chamber 

. in the Casa de las jMonjas at Ux- 
mal. 13 ft. wide. The upjjerpart 

«- . .—r (if the doorway on the I ijiht hand 

■^^^ v**xEli^'' ^^^ fallen in, from its wooden 

ifl»i^ .f -^ "P^fl lintel having decayed. 

A still more remarkable in- 
stance of the construction em- 
]»loyed by the natives is shown 
in the woodcut (No. 101), re- 
presenting a room in a temple 
atChichcn Itza in Yucatan. The 
room is 19 ft. 8 in. by 12 ft. 9 in. ; 
in the centre of it stand two 
pillars of stone, supporting beams 
of sapote-w(jod, Avhich also fonn 
the lintels of the door, and over 
these is the stone vaulting of the usual construction : the whole appa- 
rently still perfect and entii-e, though time-wom, and bearing the 
marks of great age on its face. 


Interior of a Cbamlier, Uxniiil. 
by F. Catierwood. 

From a drawing 


.\|i.irtni»nl at Chichen. From a drawing l)j- F. Cathrrwood. 


Wluii the roof was constructed entirely of wood, it |)ic)l)iil)ly ])in- 
tuok very much of the same form, the liorizou- 
tul beam bcinjj;' supported by two struts meet- 
ing at the centre, and framed up at the sides, 
wliich woukl at once account for the appear- 
ances sho\vn in tlie woodcuts Nos. 100 and 
101. It is also pi-obable that both light and 
air were introduced above the walls, between 
the interstices of the wood- work ; which is 

X' j_i n 1 T_ j.1. i. i* 'U'J. iiiuirruiji ul .Mexican coii- 

Turther connrmed by the strange erection on stiuction. 

the top of the Casa at Palencpxe (woodcut No. 

!t4), Avhere the openings look very like the copy of a ventilator of 

some sort. 

It is of course impossible to ascribe any very remote antiquity to 
buildings containing so much w^ood in their construction, and erected 
in a climate so fatal to the durability of any class of buildings what- 
ever. Indeed it is probable that many were erected immediately 
before the conquest of the country by the Spaniards ; and it is pos- 
sible, though not probable, that the age of some may extend as high as 
the Christian era. So far as we may venture to guess at their relative 
dates, I should be induced to assume the buildings at I'alenque as the 
most modern, and those of Zayi as among the most ancient of the 
sei'ies ; but it would require far more knowledge than can be obtained 
from such books as have been published to speak with anything like 
certainty on this point. 

A far more tempting field of speculation, and one that every author 
who has treated of the subject has indulged in more or less, is to trace 
the similarities that exist between this style and that of Egypt, of 
Pelasgia or Assyria, of China, Mongolia, itc. ; and certainly there are 
stiiking similarities tt) many of these : the essential ditterences are, 
however, on the othei' hand, so remarkable, that, though it is impossible 
to den}'^ the coincidences, it is far safer, for the present at least, to 
ascribe them to the common instincts implanted by Nature in all the 
varieties of the human race, which lead all mankind, in certain 
climates and at a certain stage of civilization, to do the same thing in 
the same way, or nearly so, even without any teaching, or previous 
commtmication with those who have done so before. 


CllAl'TEIi 111. 
P E E U. 

Historical Notice — Titicaca — Tombs — Walls of Cuzco. 

MaucoCapac 13th century. | Conquest by IMzarro a.i>. I5:i4 

Peru is situated geogi'aphically so near to Mexico, and the inhabitants 
of both countries had reached so nearly to the same grade of civilization 
at the time when the Spaniards first visited thein and destroyed their 
native institutions, that we miglit naturally expect a veiy considerable 
similarity in their modes of building and styles of decoration. Nothing, 
however, can be further fi'om the fact : indeed it would be difficult to 
conceive two people, however remotely situated fi-om one another, 
whose styles of art differ so essentially as these two. 

The Mexican buildings, as we have just seen, are characterized by 
the most inordinate exuberance of cai"ving, derived probably, with 
many of the forms of their architecture, from wooden originals. Peni, 
on the other hand, is one of the very few countries knoMTi where timber 
appears to have been used in primitive times so sparingly that its traces 
are hardly discernible in subsetjuent constniction ; and, either from 
inability to devise or from having acquired no taste for such a mode of 
decoration, the sculptured fonns are few and insignificant. 

The material which the Peruvians seem to have used earliest was 
mud, and many walls of this substance, erected certainly before the 
Spanish conquest, still remain in a state of very tolerable i)resei'\'ation. 
The next improvement on this seems to have been a sort of nibble 
masonry or concrete : the last, a Cyclopean masonry, of gi'eat beauty 
and solidity. None of these fonns, nor any of their derivatives, are found 
in Mexico : the climate would not jienuit of the use of the first — hardly 
of the second ; and in all their buildings, even the earliest, the Mexicans 
seem to have known how to use stones carefully squared, and set with 
horizontal beds. 

Auijther peculiarity wliicli. Peruvian art has in common with most 
of those derived fi'om purely stone construction, is the sloping sides of 
the openings — a form invented on purjiose to diminish the necessary 
size of the lintel. There are two discharging arches so constructed at 
Uxmal, but, so far as is known, none anywhere else ; and no single 
opening of that class in the whole arehitectiual province of Mexico. 


Tho roofs and upper parts of the larger openings, on the contrary, 
ahuost nniversally slope in that country. In Peru tho I'oofs are always 
flat, or domical, and the sides of the openings always straight lined. 

These and many otlier peculiarities will bo more apparent in what 
follows, but even as stated here they are sufficient to establish the entire 
difference of the two races, and to give those who have so easily 
assumed the Asiatic origin of the Toltecs and Astecs a second and 
more difficult problem to solve, in accounting for the origin of the 

Besides this remarkable distinction between the architecture of the 
two countries, we have the negative evidence of their history and tra- 
dition, which make no mention of any intercourse between the Peru- 
vians and any people to the northward. This, however, is not of much 
weight, as there are no accounts at all which go back so far as 3 cen- 
turies before the Spanish conquest. 

At about that period it is fabled that a godlike man, Manco Capac, 
appeared with a divine consort on an island in the lake of Titicaca, 
journeying from whence they taught the nide and uncivilized inha- 
bitants of the country to till the ground, to build houses and towns, 
and to live together in communities ; and made for them such laws and 
regulations as were requisite for these purposes. 

Like the Indian Bacchus, Manco Capac was after his death reve- 
renced as a god, and his descendants, the Incas, were considered as of 
divine origin, and worshipped as children of the Sun, which was the 
great object of Peravian adoration. At the time of the Spanish con- 
quest the 12th descendant of Manco Capac was on the throne, but, his 
fatlier having married as one of his wives a woman of the Indian race, 
the prestige of the purity of Inca blood was tarnished, and the country 
was torn by civil wars, which greatly facilitated the progress of tlie 
Spaniards in their contpxests under the unscrupulous Pizarro. 

In a country so deficient in history of any sort, and without a 
single buildmg whose date can be fixed with certainty, it is of 
course hnpossible to AVi-ite a history of its architecture ; Imt a sequence 
can easily be made out, which is not the case in Mexico. By this 
means, if we are to confine the whole history to a period of 8 cen- 
turies, it is not difficult to fix approximately the date of any building 
we may find ; and although it is more a question of masonry and con- 
struction than of architecture, properly so called, it is surprising what 
progress this nide people made in so short a time, and how the}- ad- 
vanced from the rudest Cyclopean work to as peifect a class of masonry 
as is found in any part of the world. 

Both from its style and the traditions attached to it, the oldest 
building in tho country seems to be that called the house of Manco 
Capac, on an island in the lake of Titicaca. The part sho^vn in tho 
woodcut (No. 103) is curvilinear in form, standing on a low terrace, 
and sui-mounted by upper chambers, hardly desei-\'ing the name of 
towers. All the doorways have the sloping jambs, and the masonry 
is of I'ude, irregular polygonal blocks of no great size. Inside the wall 
are a number of small square chambers, lighted only from the doorway. 

1 50 


Book III. 


Ttiiiiis of IIouso of Maiico Cipac, in Cuzco. J. B. rciitUiiRl. del 


^ — ^-^ 





llcjiisc of (lip \'irniiis of till' Sun. From a skPtrh bv .1. U. rciitlaiKf. 




A more advauced specimen of building, though inferior in masonry, 
is the 2-storied edifice called the house of the Nuns, or of the Virgins 
of tlic Sun, in the same place (woodcut No. 10-t). It is nearly scjuare 
ill i)lau, though witli low projecting wings on one side, and is divided 
into 12 small scpiare rooms on the ground-floor, and as many similar 
ro( )ms above them. Several of these chambers were surrounded by others, 
and tliose that had no doors externally had nothing like windows (exceitt 
one witli two slits in the u])])cr story) ; and they nnist have been as dark 
as dungeons, unless the Uj)per ones were lighted from the roof, which is 
by no means uuprobable. The most striking architectural features they 
possess are the doorways, which exactly resemble the Etruscan, both in 
shape and uiode of decoration. We are able in this case to rely u])on 
the accuracy of the representation, so that there can be no doubt of the 
close similarity. 

Another building on the island of Coata, in the sacred lake of Titi- 
caca, is raised on five low terraces, and surrounds three sides of a court- 
yard, its principal decoration being a range of doorways, some of them 
false ones, constructed with upright jambs, but contracted at the top 
by projecting courses of masonry, like inverted stairs, in this instance, 
however, only imitative, as the building is of rubble. 

The masonry of the principal tomb represented in the woodcut 
(No. 105) may be taken as a fair specimen of the middle style of 


I'eruvian roiiiis. 

masonry ; less rude than that oi the house of JManco Capac, but less 
perfect than that of many subsequent examples. It is square in plan — 
a rare form for a tomb in any part of the world — and flat-roofed. Tlic 
se]mlclii'al chamber occupies the base, and is covered by a floor, above 
which is the only ojiening. The otlier tomb in the background is like- 
wise s(piare. but dift'ers from tlic first in lieiiig of better laasonry, and 



Book III. 

having; hoen originally covered, apparently, with a dome-shaped roof 

cither of clay or stucco. Some of these tombs are circular, though the 

squares form s(vms more common, in those at least which have been 

nt)ticed by l^urupeans. 

A specimen of the perfected masonry' of the Peinivians is represented 

_„^_______________ "1 tlie woodcut No. 106, 

:-UJ-Ug'. 0!"'T .y^'mm of a portion of one of the 

Caravanserais, or Tamf>os, 
erected by the last Incas 
jilong the great road they 
made from their oldest 
capital, Cuzco, to Sinca. 
The road was itself per- 
haps the most extraordi- 
nary work of their race, 
being built of large blocks 
of hard stone, fitted to- 
gether with the greatest 

nicety, and so well constnicted as to remain entire to the present day 

in remote parts where uninjured by the hand of man. 

As will be observed, the masonry here is in regular courses, and 

beautifully executed, the joints being perfectly fitted, and so close as 

hardly to be visible, except that the stones are slightly convex on their 

faces, something after the manner of our rustications. 

Intermediate between the two extremes just mentioned are the walls 

of Cuzco, the ancient capital of the kingdom, foiming altogether the 


Elevation of Wall of Tambos. From Humboldt's Atlas 


Sketch I'lan of Walls of Cuzco. No scale. 

most remarkable specimen now existing of the masonr)' of the ancient 
Teruvians. They are comjiosed of immense blocks of limestone, of 
polygonal foiTQ, but beautifully fitted together: some of the stones ai'e 
8 and 10 ft. in length, by at least half as much in width and dei)th, and 
weigh from 15 to 20 tons; these are piled one over the other in 3 
successive terraces, and, as may be seen from the plan, ai-e an-anged 
with a degree of skill nowhere else to be met with in any work of forti- 
fication autcritir to the invention of gimpowder. To use a modem torm, 
it is a fortification en tenaille ; the re-cjitering angles are all right angles, 

Chap. TTF. 



so contrived that every part is seen, and as perfectly flanked as in tlio 
1 lest European fortifications of the present day. 


View of Walls of Cuzco. J. B. Pentland, del. 

It is not a little singular that this perfection shoiild have heen 
reached by a nide people in Southern America, while it escaped the 
Greeks and Konians, as well as the Mediajval engineers. The tiiie 
method of attaining this perfection was never discovered in Europe 
until it was forced on the attention of military men by the invention of 
gunpowder. Here it is used by a people who never had, so far as we 
know, an external war, but who, nevertheless, have designed the most 
perfectly planned fortress Ave know. 

Between these various specimens are many more, some less per- 
fect than the walls of Cuzco, showing greater irregularity in the 
form, and a greater admixture of large and small stones, than are there 
found ; others, in which all the blocks are nearly of the same size, and 
the angles approach nearly to a right angle. Examples occur of every 
intermediate gradation between the house of Manco Capac (woodcut 
No. 103) and the Tambos (woodcut Ko. 106), precisely con-csponding 
with the gi-adual progress of art in Latium, or any European countiy 
where the Cyclopean or Pelasgic style of building has been fomid. So 
much is this the case, that a series of examples collected by Mr. Pent- 
land from the Peruvian remains might be engTavcd for a description of 
Italy, and Dodwell's illustrations of those of Italy woxdd ser^^e equally 
to illustrate the buildings of South America. 

We do not know how long the natives of Italy were in elaborating 
the regular squared masonry oTit of the polygonal style, biit here we are 
forced to believe that the whole was done within the short space of less 
than thi'ee centuries, and there seems no reason for doubting that the 

100 PERUVIAN AUClIlTECriltK. I'.uoK 111. 

greater or less regularity in tlu* masonry is a correct index to the rela- 
tive age of any specimen we may finil. 

One element only seems to interfere m ith this regularity of succes- 
sion, namely, the nature of the material. Where polygonal masonry 
is found, it is always and invariably in limestone. This material frac- 
tures wth regularity, and the facets are easily nibbed down and 
worked into those smooth, even joints which we find. It seems, in fact, 
to be a limestone form of masonry, ))ut even that material was afterwards 
forced to follow the fonns adopted for sandstone and other less tract- 
able materials. 

Though not quite so cei-tain, it seems also that the polygonal method 
was used only by people who were ignorant of tlie use of ii"on, and 
were consequently forced to employ tools of copper, hardened with a 
ceiiain admixture of tin or zinc. We know that very excellent chisels 
can be, or rather could be, so made, from their having been generally 
employed by the 7*]gyptians, even in their greatest works ; but iron 
certaiidy is a better and more economical material, and with its intro- 
duction polygonal masonry seems everywhere to have disappeared. 

It would be a tem})ting subject for speculation to try to account for 
the remarkable similarity in style that exists between these Peiiivian 
buildings and the I'elasgic lemains of Italy. But the distance of time 
at which the style was practised in the two countries is sufficient jiroof 
that the resemblance is only ac^cidental. It was disused in Eiu-ope at 
least 5 or 6 centuries before Chi-ist, and did not commence in Peru till 
12 centuries after Christ, so that, unless these facts can be controverted 
or some channel pointed out — of which no trace now exists — by which 
the style could have been so long preserv'ed, and at last Ciirried to the 
New World, the fact can only remain as the most remarkable coin- 
cidence knoAvn to exist in the wlu)le history of architecture. It must 
be borne in mind that in both cases the style is a mere masonic form, 
almost wholly without mouldings, and entiiely without sculptures : 
had either of these existed, the chances of stxch a coincidence woidd 
have been diminished a thousand fold. It affords another and even 
a stronger evidence than that of the jn'ramids of Mexico, to ])rove 
how much alike human nature is in the same stage of civilisation, 
however distant the country may be, and however diiferent the 
external circumstances of the people may appear at the first superficial 

Chap. I. 





Historical Periods — Palaces at Nimroud — Khorsabad — Koynnjik — Babylonia. 



Foundation of Xincvch bj' Ninas . about B.C. 1341 
Ashurakbal builds north-west palace at 

Ninivoud about 900 

Devanubara builds central palace at Nim- 
roud, &c 870 

Arbaces 821 

Sargon h\iilds palace at Khorsabad . . . 722 

Sennacherib builds palace at Koynnjik . 702 
Esarhaddon builds south-west palace at 

Nimroud 690 

B.C. 600 

Nebuchadnezzar builds Babylon 

Cyrus founds Passargad* 

liuildings of Cambyses at Passargada;. . 

Darius builds palace at Persepolis . 

Xerxes' halls at Persepolis and Susa . 

Artaxerxes Mnemon repairs buildings at 

Persepolis and Susa 405 to 360 

Alexander burns palace at Persepolis, 
ruins Susa, and destroys the Persian 
empire 332 

In following out the principles laid down in the Introduction, and 
adopting an arrangement of siibject partly geograpliical and partly 
chronological, as the most convenient and the one least likely to lead 
to repetition, the next great section into which onr subject divides 
itself is that of Assyrian architecture. I'his is easily defined, both in 
space and in time. Locally, it com])rises all the countries between 
the Valley of the Indus and the Mediterranean Sea— the AN'esteni 
boundaries being the Sea of Mannora, the Mediterranean, and the Ked 
Sea ; the Northern, the Caucasus, and the seas on either hand ; the 
Southern, the Indian Ocean. 

Through the centre of this great region flow the Euphrates and 
the Tigi-is. It is on the banks of these rivers that the people were first 

• This chapter and that next following may 
be regarded as, in all essential respects, an 
abridgment or condensation of the informa- 
tion contiiined in a work published by the 
author about two years ago, entitled, ' The 
Palaces of Xinovoli and Persepolis Kcstore<i,' 
the only real diftorence being that the more 
perfect decipherment of the inscriptions since 
that work was i)ubli>hed has caused some of 
the palaces and Ixiildings to be ascribed to 

different kings and dynasties from those to 
whom they were then assigned, and proved 
tliem to be more modern than suspected, 
for the oldest at least. Their order, how- 
ever, remains the same, and so consequently 
do all tlie architectural inferences drawn from 
it. Those readers who nny desire further 
information on the subject are referred to the 
work alluded to. 



grouped together in civilised cominunities ; and from this centre the 
arts and the pocTdiar civilisation of the race spread outwards to all the 
boundaries of the province. 

]Jin-ing the whole period through which our acquaintance with these 
countries extends, we find the three great typical races of mankind, 
the Tai-tar, the Semitic, and the Arian, li\Tng together in the Valhiy 
of the Euphrates, and inteniiinglod with oiu' another in a manner that 
makes it extremely dithcult to discriminate Ijotween them. 

It would be out of place to enter here into any discussion of the 
origin and affinities of the Assyrian people, the subject of whose archi- 
tecture wo are now entering upon, the ]>rincii)al point being that, at the 
period to which all the monuments hitherto discovered belong, the 
architecture of Assyria was that of a Semitic people, and es})ecially 
interesting as exhibiting actual exam]des of that style with which Ave 
have long been familiar from the descri]>tions in the Bible of the build- 
ings of Solomon. 

The disc(jvery of the i)alaces of Nineveh lias enabled us to under- 
stand what we never could have distinctly made out from mere verbal 
descriptions. The architecture of Assyria is now as familiar to us as 
that of Egypt, and we can realise as correctly the a})i)earance of the 
house of the Forest of Lebanon as we could that of CJreek tt^mples from 
the description of Pausanias, aided by the examination of their actual 

The Assyrian is an entirely new chapter added to our history of 
architecture since the year 1843, and certainly not one of the least 
interesting, not only from its own intrinsic merits and the beauty of 
many of its fonns, but because of its historic value, being the sister 
style to that of Egy|it, and the parent of all the Ionic forms we after- 
wards find so cun-ently and so beautifully blended with the architecture 
of (J recce. 

Until the discoveries in Assyria were made, half the history of the 
architecture of Greece was a riddle and inexplicable mystery ; now all 
is cleai-, and with Egypt on the one hand, and Assyria on the other, we 
are enabled to trace every feature to its source. These two still stand. 
and probably will ever remain, as the primitive styles of the human 
race— essentially distinct in all their more important features, borrow- 
ing very little from each other, but each working out its own objects 
independentl}- of the other. It seems absolutely hopeless to look for 
anything anterior to the style of Egypt which can have had any 
influence upon it ; and, so far as we can see, nearly as idle to attempt 
to find in Asia anything that can have influenced the architectural 
stylo of the great Assyrian empire. 

Politically the history <jf the country' separates itself into two 
great divi.'-ions, between which comes the Eg_>-ptian domination under 
the 18th dynasty. To the earlier period belong the migrations of 
Nimrod and Asshur, the building (jf Kalah, Kesen, and Nineveh in 
Assyria -of Eioidi, Accad, Babel in the South, and the still more 
famous erection of the tower of Babel. It is uncertain, however, from 
the Biblical account, whether the latter erection was ever allowed to 

Chai>. 1. illHTDlllCAL PERIODS. 10:5 

bo liiised uiiich above the fuiindation, and there certainly is no snfficient 
cvidenco for assuming that tlie tem])le of Bolus, described by (ho IJicoks, 
was either the tower of Babel itself, or even at all resoinbled it. Still 
less is it possible now to attempt to identify that building with the Biis 
Niniroud, every brick of which bears the name of Kebuchaduezzar, the 
son of Nobopolassar, Nor, indeed, can we feel snre that one single 
reuniant exists of all the buildings of this early age. 

Although it is nearly certain, from the monumental records of Egypt, 
that the Egyptians overran Assyria, and practically must have held 
it in subjection for nearly 5 centuries -from the 19th ttj the 1-ith n.c. 
— still they have left no moniuuents in the subject land; nothing, 
indeed, by which we can now trace the extent of their domination ; 
and none appear to have been raised by the natives while under their 
rule of sufficient importance to last to a later period. 

The architectural history commences therefore with the period 
markotl by the Gi'ooks as that of the rise of Ninus and his successors — 
about the middle of the 14th century B.C. — coinciding with the decline 
of the power of the Egyptians, and the exode of the Jews from that 

This second or great Assyrian period divides itself again into two 
epochs, the first extending from Ninus (1341) to the revolt of Arbaces 
(821), a period of 520 years. To this age belong the North-west 
palace of Nimroud, the Central palace, the rock-cut sculptures at 
Bavian, and generally all the older monuments of the Assyrian period. 
The second epoch extends over only 221 years, from Aibacos to 
the destruction of Nineveh, about the year 600, and, so far as archi- 
tecture is concerned, is by far the most brilliant. To it belong the 
palace at Khorsabad, built by Sargon (Shalmaneser ?) about 722 B.C., 
that of Koyiuijik by Sennacherib (703), the South-west palace; at 
Nimi'oud by Esarhaddon (690), and the North palace at Koyimjik, built 
apparently by a son of Esarhaddon. These are the most splendid 
edifices yet disc(jvered, and, now that the inscriptions have been 
(Iccipliored, there can be almost no doubt either as to the name of 
the king who built them, or to the approximate dates above given for 
their erection. 

On the destniction of Nineveh Babylon rose from its ruins with 
renewed splendour during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar; and it is 1o 
him, as before remarked, that every building yet discovered about 
Babylon and the Birs Nimroud owes its origin; at least every brick 
hitherto exhumed is marked with his name. They are now all ikmiIv 
forndess ruins, and add little to our architectural knowledge, though 
much historical information i»ay hereafter bo gleaned from their iiKiro 
carelnl stutly. 

From Babylon we pass to Passargada;, which was adorned l)y 
C^yrns and Cambyses between the years 560 and 523, and thence to Iho 
far more magnificent capital of Darius and Xerxes, who have left on the 
platform of Persept)lis remains of architectural magnificence unrivalled 
in the country, and which may be considered as the cidminating fonn 
of the earlier architecture of the Assyrians and Babylonians. 

M 2 

ItJ-l ASSYIIIAX AllCIII'n'Xrri'IlE. IJook IV. 

At Snsa, Artaxcrxes Mncmcm erected or restored a great hall, veiy 
similar to that at Persepolis ; and, as far as Eeba tana and Telieraii, 
remains aie found of this great Persian style, wliieh closes the fiist 
series of the architectural monuments of Assyria. 

Contemporary witli the Assyrian period are the buildings of 
Solomon at Jerusalem, and contemporary with the Persian arose that 
peculiar style of imitating -vvoodcn erections in stone which prevailed 
all over Lycia and the soutlieni provinces of Asia Minor. To the 
same ago also belong the rock-cut sculptures of Doganlu, and those of 
Pterium : and no doubt many curious fragments of architectural anti- 
quity still remain to bo examined in the recesses of tho almost 
unexplored countries of Asia Minor. These, however, are the ]>rin- 
cipal of those which are found during the ten centuries that elapsed 
between Ninus and Alexander the Great. 

With the Macedonian conquest, all originality in art ceased for 
nearly five centuries in the valley of the Kui)lirates. The Greeks, it 
is true, built nobly in their own Ionian provinces, but it was in theii- 
own style. Syria was adorned with the still extant ruins of Baalbec 
and Palmyra, and almost every city of Asia ]\Iinor bears traces of 
Roman magnificence, but all in the Koman style. Indeed, with tho 
one exception of the ruins of Al FTadhr, not one single edifice is kno-\\ai 
which was erected between the time of Alexander (b.c. 323) and that 
of the first Sassanian Ardeshir (a.d. 223), which has any claim to be 
called native, either in style or arrangement, and even this can hardly 
claim to rank higher than bastard Koman. At Diarbekir, it is said, 
thei-e arc some other remains of the same age, but they have not yet 
been delineated. 

During tho Sassanian period (a.d. 223 to 632) a slight revival took 
place in the native style of architecture. It was neither, it must be 
confessed, very original nor very beautiful, but still it is interesting as 
a traiisitional style, contributing many features found in the Saracenic, 
and still more in the Christian styles of Armenia and the neighboui-ing 
countries. So that, although it may not itself be worthy of much 
attention, still, as the last of the native styles of the great architectural 
province, and as the first of tlie modem styles that took shajjo and 
consistency in these Eastern provinces in the middle ages, it should 
not be passed over without much more attention than has hitherto been 
bestowed u]ion it. It, however, belongs more properly to a subsequent 
c-hapter, and will be more aii]u-opriatcly treated, as well as more easily 
understood, after reviewing the architecture of the Eomans, many 
features of which are foimd in this Eastern style. 

The remarkable absence of sacred 6r monumental buildings at 
Nnieveh, or in the other Assyrian ]»alaces, has already been alluded to. 
The pyramid at NiTuroud, at one time supposed to be a tomb, resembles 
HO closely the description by Greek writers of tho temple of Uelus at 
Babylon, and is so like what we now know of Babylonian temples, that 
It may almost certainly be classed among them. Setting, therefore, 
this structure aside, there arc no sepulchres, no representation of 
funeral ntes, nothing to show that the AssjTians cared for their dead. 

riiAi-. [. NIMROUR 165 

or attached any importanco to tlie preservation of their bodies after 

Ill one comer of the palace at Khorsaliad is found a hnikling of 
black stone, raised on a terrace by itself, and, though much ruined, still 
showing, with sufficient distinctness, that it was exclusively devoted to 
leligious purposes, and a seven-storied pyramidal temple has lately 
been discovered there. Nothing of the sort has been found at Koynnjik, 
and, with the excei)tion of the great pyramid at the north-west angle, 
which is almost certainly a religious edifice, Nimroud is also without 
anything that can properly be called a temple. 

All the buildings, therefore, that have been discovered in Assyria 
are palaces, or, perhaps it might be more correct to say, palace-temples, 
like those in Egypt, regarding which it is difficult even now to t^ay 
whether they ought to be called palaces or temples. In Egypt, how- 
ever, the latter element was certainly the predominant and overruling 
one. In Assyna, on the other hand, the buildings partook far more 
of the palatial than the sacred character, though, at the same time, 
many oi the apartments seem, from the nature of theii' sculptures, to 
liave been principally at least devoted to the purposes of worship. 


The oldest of the buildings hitherto excavated in Assyria is the 
North-west palace at Nimroud, built by a Sardanapalus, about the year 
UUO B.C. Though not the largest, it more than makes up for this defi- 
ciency by the beauty of its sculptures, and the general elegance of its 
ornaments. These are not only superior to those of the following- 
dynasty, l)ut so different from them that it was difficult to believe 
that a greater intei-val had not elapsed between them, at least before 
the inscriptions had been sufficiently deciphered to correct the dates 
originally assigned. 

As will be seen by the annexed woodcut (No. 109), the excavated 
portion of the palace is nearly a square, about i33U ft. each way. The 
[)riiicipal entrance was on the north, at the head of a noble flight of 
steps, leading from the river to the level of the terrace on which the 
palace stood. From this, 2 entrances, adorned with winged bulls, led 
to a great hall, 152 ft. in length by 32 in width, at the upper end of 
which was situated the throne, and at the lower a smaller apartment 
or vestibule opened on the terrace that overlooked the river. Within 
the great hall was one of smaller dimensions, opening into the central 
ccmit of the palace, the entrance of which was so an-anged as to ensure 
privacy, ]n-oving that it partook of the nature of the private ai>aitnients 
or Ilareem of the palace. To the eastward of this was arranged a suite 
of apartments, 3 deep, decreasing in width as they receded from the 
light. To the south was a double suite, a]iparently tlie baiujueting- 
lialls of the palace, and to the westward a fourth suite, more ruined, 
however, than the rest, owing to its being situated so near the edge 
of the terrace. As far as can be made out the rooms on this face seem 
to have been arranged 3 deep : the outer opened on the terrace by 

1 M 



^ -- .?=_i— |j 



North-WeU I'alaco at Nimroud.' 

three poituls, the central one of which had winged bulls, but the 
lateral seem to have been without these ornaments ; the whole favade 
being about 330 ft, in extent, north and south. 

All these apartments were lined with sculptured slabs, representing 
mostly either the regal state of the sovereign, his prowess in war, or 
amusements during peace, but many of them wholly devoted to reli- 
gious subjects. Beyond these apartments were many others, cover- 
ing at least an equal extent of ground, but, their walls having been 
only ])lastcred and painted, the sun-bunit liricks of which tliey were 
built have crumbled again to their original mud. It is evident, how- 
ever, that they were inferior to those already described, both in fonn 
and size, and applied to inferior purjioses. 

The mound at Nimroud was so much extended after this palace wa« 
built, and so covered by subsequent buildings, that it is now impossible 
to ascertain either the extent or form of this, which is the only palace 
of the oldei- dynasty known : and it will therefore perhaps be as 
well to tuni at once to Khorsabad, which, being built wholly by 
one king, and not altered afterwards, will give a clearer idea of the 
|>osition and arrangements of an Assyrian }ialace than we can obtain 
fnjm this. 

' Tliis, with all the particulars here every point. The plan is reduced to the 

ni.'iiliontHl, arc taken from Layard's work, usual scale of inO ft. to one inch, for 

which is the only a-ithority on the subject, comparison with Kluu-saltad and the I'ci-sepo- 

so that it is not necessary to refer to him on litan and other edifices quoted. 





The city ul' Khuisabad was situated about 15 miles iVuin Isiiievcli, 
ill a northern direction, and was nearly square in plan, measuring 
about an English mile each way. Nearly in the centre of the north- 
western wall was a gap, in which was situated the mound on which 
the palace stood. It seems to have been a peculiarity common to all 


fill. ; 111 , A 

/.■ ^a 


,iSV.-i-i'-.;Si»,»i . 


W * 4. L 


riaii ol Palace at KborsabaiJ No scale. 


Assyrian palaces to be so situated. Their ImilJers wisely objected to 
beiug surrounded on all sides by houses and walls, and at the saiue 
time sought the protection of a walled enclosure to cover the gateways 
and entrances to their palaces. vVt Koyunjik and Niniroud the outer 
face of the ])alaee was covered and protected by the river 'rii;ris, 
and here the small brook Kausser Hows past the fort, and, thou<;li 
now an insignificant stream, it is by no means improliable that 
it was dammed up so as to form a lake in front of the palace 
when inhabited, which may have been further deepened by exca- 
vating fi'om it the eai-th necessary to raise the mound on which the 
palace stood. 

The mound in this instance was a square of aboiit 650 ft. each way, 
raised about 30 ft. above the level of the plain, and protected on every 
side by a supporting wall cased with stone of very beautiful masonry. 
Ijehind this, and inside the city, was a lower mound, about 3U() ft. in 
width, and 1300 or 1400 ft. in length, on which were situated the 
great portals of the palace, and the residences of the guards and 
inferior officers ; and beyond even this, on the plain of the city, a set 
of interportals are found, from which the great winged bulls now in 
the l>ritish Museum were taken. 

Passing these poi-tals a flight of steps seems to have led uji to the 
great outer court, marked a on the plan, on the south side of which 
was a magnificent set of jiortals leading into what was proba1)ly the 
hareem court (b) or private apartments of the jialace. The public 
entrance ajjpears to have been through a narrow arched passage 
between the two courts a and c, which led to the principal court of the 
palace (c). On two sides this was open to the eountiy ; the third was 
piiirced Avith the entrance just described; the fourth was adorned with 
a si)lendid triple entrance leading to the principal suite of apartments 
of the palace. These consist of 4 great rooms, tkree placed side by 
side, the outer ones 110 ft. in length, and resi)ectively 33 ft. and 29 ft. 
8 in. in width, the central one being both shoiier and narrower. At 
right angles to them is the fourth, overlooking the country, and Avitliin 
these, on the other hand, are two naiTow apartments on the side of the 
hareem court. A line of openings leads through the three principal 
rooms, fronting which is situated one of the few buildings yet dis- 
covered in Assyria that can with any certainty be called a temide. It 
stands in a fourth court, marked D, one side of which is open to the 
country, the opposite side being occupied by several entrances, one of 
which leads direct into the hareem court (b), the others into smaller 
rooms, w)iose plans and uses cannot be satisfactorily made out oAving 
to their not being reveted with slabs. 

All parts marked dark on the general plan, whether external 
or internal, are reveted with sculptural slabs of alabaster, generally 
about Oft. in height, which, like those at Kimroud, either represent 
the wars or the i)eaceful amusements of king Hargon, commemorate 
his magnificence, or express his religious feelings. 

Above this the regular courses of the brickwork in the walls can 
even now lie traced, generally to the height of 3 or 4 ft. more; but 

t'HAP. I. 





.K IV. 

eM^ i 








ClIAl'. 1. 



tlic size of the winded bulls in the portals, and ollicv indications, 
j)rove that they must ha^e been raised to a h(;i<j;ht of at least K! or 
ISft. ; and the number of painted bricks and traces c)f colour around 
their bases show that they were adorned with paintings, generally in 
conventional patterns, but of gi'eat brilliancy. 

Above this we are left somewhat to conjecture. The whole super- 
structure was of wood, and has evidently in most of the palaces been 
destroyed by firo. The indications still left, however — the enoiTuous 
thickness of the walls — the necessities of the climate — and, more than 
this, the existing remains at Persepolis, where much that is here in 
W(n)d is repeated in stone — enable us to restore the upper part of the 
palace with considerable confidence. This restoration is shown in the 
two large woodcuts here given, the first of which (No. Ill) represents 
the external appearance of the court (c), the other (No. 112) a section 
of the three principal rooms of the palace, of which a plan is given 
(^woodcut No. 113). 


Scale 50 tbct to an inch. 
Three principal Rooms at Khorsabad. 

It will be observed that the area covered by the walls is of nearly 
the same extent as that of the rooms themselves, so that the galleries 
f( limed in fact an upper story to the palace; and thus, in the heat of 
the day, the thickness of the walls kept the inner apartments free from 
heat and glare, while in the evenings and mornings the galleries formed 
airy and light apartments, affording a view over the country, and open 
on every side to the breezes that at times l)low so refreshingly over 
the plains, it will also be observed that by this ariangement the 



Book IV. 

direct rays of the sun coixld never penetrate into tlie balls tlieiu- 
selves, and that rain, or even damp, could easily be excluded by 
means of cuii^iins or screens. 

On the lower teri'ace another suite of apartments has been since 
excavated by M. Place, who succeeded M. Botta as French Consul at 
Mosul. These differ in many respects from anythinp; hithei-to dis- 
covered in Asspia. Tlio walls are neither reveted Mith slabs, nor are 
pictures painted on the plaster : but they are ornamented by a series of 
alternate reedings, separated by pilastei-s Avith square sunk panels : 
the fonner looking like the stems of trees jammed closely together — 
the latter like deep coffers of squared timbers. 

The details of these excavations have not yet been published, but 
the same mode of decoration has been found at ^Vurka in Southern 
Babylonia, at the Birs Nimroud, and other places, and offers a new style 
wliich will no doiibt be further developed in future excavations. This 
mode of decoration at Khorsabad covers not only the walls of the 
rooms internally, but is repeated on the exterit)r on a larger scale. 
There are other peculiarities in the foiin and arrangement of these 
apartments, which will open a new view of Assyrian art when they are 
given to the public. 

So little remains of the temple that it is difficult to say what its 
original fomi ma}^ have been ; the ten-ace, how- 
ever, which supported it is interesting as showing 
almost the only instance of a peifect Assyrian 
moulding or coniice, betrapng a similarity to the 
fonns of Egyptian architecture which we do not 
find anywhere else. The curve, however, is not 
exactly that of an Egyptian coniice, being con- 
tinued beyond the vertical tangent ; but this may 
have arisen from the terrace being only G ft. in 
height, and consequently the cun'c below the line 
of the eye, and thus requiring a different treatment 
from one placed so high above it as is usually the 
case in Egypt. 

From the above description it will be obsei-ved 
! ! that in every case the principal part, the great mass 

~: ' of the palace, was the ten-ace on which it stood, 
——^'"^'" which was raised b\' artificial means to a height of 

no. Section of styiobatc yo ft, and more, and, as shown in the annexed illus- 
em e. tratlon, carefully reveted with stone. On this stood 

the palace, consisting princijjally of one great block of private apart- 
ments situated around an inner square court. From this central 
mass 2 or 3 suites of apartments projected as wings, so arranged as 
to be open to the air on 3 sides, and to give great vai-iety to the 
outline of the palace as seen from below, and gieat play of light 
and shade in everj' aspect under whicii the building coidd be sur- 
veyed. So far also as we can judge, the wliole arrangements were 
admiraV)ly adapted to the climate, and the onuiments not only elegant 
in themselves, but singidarly expressive and appropriate to the situa- 
tions in which they are found. 

114. Klcvatiou of Stylo- 
bate of Temple. 

CllAI'. I. 



M. l^lacc has recently excavated tlic huge monnd at E, and found 
that it contained a 7-stoned pyramidal toni])lc very similar t(j the 15irH 


Terrace Wall at IChnrsabad. 

Nimrond, which will be described further on. Neither the details nor 
the dimensions of the building have yet been published. 

Another most important discovery of M. Place is that of the gates 
of the city. These were apparently always constructed in pairs — one 
devoted to foot-passengers, the other to wheeled carriages, as shown 
by the marks of wheels worn into the pavement in the one case, while 
it is pcifecth' smooth in the other. 

Those appropriated to carriages had plain jambs rising peii^endicu- 
larl}^ 12 or 15 ft. These supported a semicircular arch, adorned on its 
face with an archivolt of great beauty, fonned of blue enamelled bricks, 
with a pattern of figures and stars, of a warm yellow colour, relieved 
upon it. 

The gateways for foot-passengers were nearly of the same dimen- 
sions, about 12 or 15 ft. broad, but they were ornamented by winged bulls 
with human heads, between which stood giants strangling lions. In 
this case the arch sprang directly from the backs of the bulls, and was 
ornamented b}^ an archivolt similar to that over the carriage entrances. 

Otlier arches have been found in these Assyrian excavations, but 
none of such extent as these, and none which show how completely 
the Assyrians in the time of Sargon understood not only the construc- 
(ion of the arch, but also its use as a decorative architectural feature. 

There must always bo many points, even in royal residences, which 
would be more easily understood if we knew the domestic manners 
and usages prevalent among the common people of the same era and 
country. This knowledge we actually can supply, in a great measure, 
in the present case, from modem Eastern residences. Such a mode of 
illustration in the West would be out of the question ; but in the P]ast 
manners and customs, processes of manufacture, and forms of biiilding 
have existed unchanged from the earliest times to the present day. 
This immutability is the greatest chann of the East, and frequently 



Book IV. 


Interior of a Yezidi House at liiikia, in ilit- .'^iiijar. 

enables us to understand what in our own land would liave utterly 
faded away and been obliterated. In the Yezidi House, for instance, 
borrowed from Mr. Layard's work, we see an exact reproduction, in 
ever}' essential respect, of the style of buildin<:; in the days of Sen- 
nacherib. Here wo have the wooden pillars with liracket capitals, 
sui>p()i-ting a mass of timber intended to be covered with a mass of 
earth sufficient to prevent the rain or heat from penetrating to the 
dwelling. There is no reason to doubt that the houses of the hiuubler 
classes were exactly similar to what is here re]iresented : and this very 
form amplified into a ))alaee, and the walls and pillars ornamented and 
cal•^•ed, would exactly coiTCspond with the principal featiires of the 
palace of the great Assyrian king. 

1'alack of Sen n ACM Kit I rt, KovrNJiK. 

Having said so much i>f Khorsabad, it will not be neee.s.sary to .say 
much alxtut the palace at Koyunjik, built by Sennacherib, the son of 
the Khoisabiul king. 

As the great metropolitan palace of Nineveh, it was of coin-se of far 
greater extent and far more magnificent than the sul)urban ])alace of 
his father. The mound itself on which it stands is about liinile in 
eireiiiuferenec (7800 ft.) : and, as the whole was rai.sed artificially to the 
height of not less than 30 ft., it is in itself a work of no mean magnitude. 

e'.iiAi'. 1. 





Tlie princii)al i)alaco Rtood at the south-western angle of this raonnd, 
and as far as tho excavation lias been cairied seems to have foniied a 
square of about GOO ft. each way — double the lineal dimensions of that 
at Nimroud. Its general arrangements were very similar to those at 
Khorsabad. It enclosed wathin itself two or three great internal courts, 
surrounded by 60 or 70 apartments, some of great extent. The principal 
fa(;-ado. facing the east, far sui-passed any of those of Khorsabad, botli 
in size and magnificence, being adorned by 10 winged bulLs of the 
largest dimensions, with two giants between the two principal external 
ones, in the manner shown in the annexed woodcut (No. 118), besides 
smaller sculptures — the whole extending to a length of not less than 
;3oO ft. Inside tliis great portal was a hall, 180 ft. in length by 40 in 
width, with a recess at each end, and through it access was had t(j two 
court-yards, one on the right and one on the left ; and beyond these to 
the other and apparently the more private apartments of the palace, over- 
looking the countiy and the river Tigiis, which flowed to the westward of 
the i)alace — the principal entrance, as at Khorsabad, being from the city. 
It is impossible, of course, to say how much further the jialace 
extended, though it is probable that nearly all the apartments which 
were revoted with sculptures have been laid open ; but what has been 
excavated occupies* so small a portion of the mound that it is impos- 
sible to escape the conviction that it forms only a very small fraction 
of the imperial palace of Nineveh. Judging even from what has 
been imcovered, it is, of all the buildings of antiquity, surpassed in 
magnitude only by the great palace-temple at Kaniac : and, when we 
consider the vastness of the mound on which it is raised, and the rich- 
ness of the ornaments with which it was adorned, it is by no means 
clear that it was not as great, or at least as expensive, a work as the great 
palace-temple of Thebes. The latter, however, was built with far higher 

motives, and designed to last through ages, while 
the palace at Nineveh was built only to gratify 
the barbaric pride of a wealthy and sensual mo- 
narch, and perished with the ephemeral dynasty 
to which he belonged. 

Palace of Esakh addon. 

Another Assyrian palace, of which consider- 
able remains still exist, is that of Esarhaddon, 
commonly kno%\ni as the South-west palace at 
Xiuiroud. Like tlie others, this too has been 
dostroj^ed by fire, and the only part that remains 
sufficiently entire to be described is the entrance 
or southeni hall. Its general dimensions are 
souc io«.,. u, . inch. 1G5 ft. in length by ()2 ft. in width, and it conse- 

119. Hall of South-West Palace, quently is tho largest hall yet found in Assyria. 

Tlie architects, however, do not seem fo have been 
quite equal to roofing so large a space even with the number of pillais 
with wliich they seem usually to have crowded their floors; and it is 

CllAP. I. 


consequently divided down the centre by a wall snitpoiting dwarf 
colnnins, formiiii;- a centre gallery, to wliicli access was had liy bridge 
galleries at both ends, a mode «)f arrangement capable of great vaiiety 
and pictnresipu'uess of effect, and of which I have little donbt that the 
builders availed themselves to the fullest extent. This led into a 
court-yard of consid(>rab]c dimensions, sunounded by apartments, all 
which are too much destroyed by fire to be intelligible. 

/biothei" great palace, built, as ap]iears from the inscrii)tious, by a 
son of Esarhaddon, has been discovered nearly in the centre of the 
mound at Koyunjik. Its terrace-wall has been explored for nearly 
300 ft. in two directions from the angle near which the principal 
entrance is placed. This is on a level 20 ft. lower than the i)alace 
itself, which is reached by an inclined passage nearly 200 ft. in length, 
adorned with sculpture on both sides. The palace itself, as far as has 
been explored, is similar in its arrangements to those already described ; 
lint the sculptures with which it is adonied are more minute and deli- 
cate, and show a more perfect imitation of nature, than the earlier ex- 
amples, though inferior to them in grandeur of conception and breadth 
of design. 

The architectural details also display a degree of elegance and an 
amount of elaborate finish not usually found in the earlier examples, 
as is well illustrated by the woodcut No. 120, representing one of the 
pavement slabs of the palace. It is of the same design, the ornaments 
are the same, as the earlier examples, but the finish is better, and the 

Pavement Sliib from the Central Palace, Koyunjik. 


whole design more elaborate, than in any of the more ancient examples 
we are acquainted witli. 

Besides these, there were on the mound at Nimroud a cential i)alace 
built by Tiglath I'ileser, and one at the south-easteni angle of the 
mound, built by a grandson of Esarhaddon, but both too much i-uined 
for any one now to be able to trace either their form or extent ; and 
around the great Pj'ramid, at the north-west angle, were buildings 
more like tcmi)les than anything else on the mound — all their sculptures 
apparently pointing to devotional pui-jjoses, though theii" forms are very 
much the same as those of the palaces, and there certainly is nothing 
in them to indicate that the mound at whose base they were situated 
was appropriated to the dead, or to funereal puiposes. Between the 
nttrth-west and south-west palaces also was raised a tenace higher than 
the rest, on which were situated some chambers whose use it is not 
easy to determine. 

Not%\athstanding this im])ossibility of making out all the details of 
the buildings situated on the great mounds of Nimroud and Koyunjik, 
these great groups of buildings must have ranked among the most 
splendid monuments of antiquity, surrounded as they were by stone- 
faced terraces, apprcjached on every side by noble flights of stairs, and 
surmounted by great palaces, Avith towers and temples, and otlier 
buildings, of which only the most indistinct traces now remain, ^\'hen 
all this was seen gay with colour, and crowded with all the state and 
splendoiir of an eastern monarch, it must have formed a scene of such 
dazzling magnificence that one can easily comprehend hoAv the inha- 
bitants Lif the little cities of Greece were betrayed into such extravagant 
hyperbole when sj^eaking of the size and splendour of the great cities 
of Assyria. 

The worst feature of all this splendour was its ephemeral character — 
th(jugh perhaps it is owing to this very fact that we now know so much 
alx)ut it — like the reed that bends to the storm and recoA^ers its elasticity, 
while the oak is snapped by its violence. Had these buildings been 
constnicted like those of the Egyptians, their remains would probably 
have been applied to other puii)oses long ago ; but having been ovei- 
whelmed so early and forgotten, they have been pieserved to our day, and 
it is not difficult to see how this was done. The pillars that supjiorted 
the roof being of wood, probably of cedar, and the beams on imder 
side of the roof being of the same material, iKjthing was so easy as to 
set fire to them. The fall of the roofs, which were probably com})osed, as 
at the present da}', of 5 or 6 ft. of earth, reijuircd to keep out the heat 
as well as the wet, Avould alone suffice to bury the building up to the 
lieight of the sculptures. The gradual crumbling of the thick walls 
eonse(picnt on their iniprotected exposure to the atmosphere would add 
'i or 4 ft. to this ; so that it is hardly too much to suppose that green 
grass might have been growing over the buried palaces of Nineveh 
before two or three years had ehipsed from tlie time of their destruction 
and desertion. When once this had taken place, the mounds were far 
too tempting ])ositions not to be speedily occupied by the villages of 
the natives; and a few centuries of mud-hut building would complete 

Chap. I. 



the process of entombment so completely as to protect .the hidden 
remains perfectly for the many centuries dnriiig which they have lain 
buried, and to enable us now to restore their form almost as certainly 
as we can those of the temples of Greece or Kome, or of any of tho 
great nations of antiquity. 

It is by no means improbable that at some futuie period we may be 
able to restore much that is now unintelligible, from the repres(Mitations 
of buildings on the scnlptTires, and to complete our account of their style 
of architecture from illustrations drawn by the Assyrians themselves. 
One or two of these have already been published. Tlie annexed wood- 
cut, for instance (No. 121), of a sculptured view of a little fishing 

\■/^v^yvww^^\J^.,J^ /\.^^/^y\y'v^vy\A/^/'^■/^-. ttx, 


ravilion from the sculptures at Khorsabad. 

pavilion on the water's edge, exhibits in a rude manner all the parts of 
an Assyrian order with its entablature, and the capital oidy requires 
to be slightly elongated to make it similar to those found at i'ersepolis. 
Another curious representation (woodcut No. 122) is that of a palace 
of two stories, from a bas-relief at Koyunjik, showing a range of openings 
under the roof in both stories, divided into three parts by two Ionic 
columns between square piers, probaT)ly meant to represent such an 
arrangement as that shown in woodcut No. Ill, while the part on tho 
right is a correct representation of the panelled style of ornamentation 
recently discovered at Khorsabad and elsewhere. Further comparisons 
will no doubt do much to complete the subject ; and Avhen the names 
written over them are definitively deciphered, we may lind that we 
really possess contemporary representations of Jerusalem, of Samaria, 



Book IV 

of Van, and other cities familiar to us both from ancient and from 
modtM-n luKtnrv. 



Exterior of a Palace, from a Bas-relief at Koyunjik. 

The Pyramid at Nimruud yet remains tu be mentioned. It stiinds 
at the north-west angle of the mound, and measures 1 07 ft. each Mav : 
its base, 30 ft. in height, is comjiosed of beautiful stone masonry, orna- 
mented by buttresses and offsets, above which the wall wa*! continued 
peiiiendicularly in brickwork. In the centre of the building, on the 
level of the l)ase or terrace, a long vaulted gallciy < ir tunnel was dis- 
covered, but it contained no clue to the destination of the building. 

The whole now rises to a height of about 120 ft. from the plain, and 
is composed of sun-dried bricks, with courses of kiln-burnt bricks be- 
tween at certain distances near the summit, which render it probable 
that it originally was not a pyramid in the usual sense of the tenn, but 
a square tower, rising in three or four stories, each less than the lower 
one, as in the traditional temple of Belus at Babylon, or as the summit 
of the obelisk represented in the woodcut (No. 123), which most pro- 
bably is a monolithic re]iroduf'tion of such a temple or tower a,s this, 
rather than an obelisk like those of Eg.ypt. 

The excavations at the Birs Nimroud, and the discovery of a similar 
seven-storied temple at Khorsabad, leave little doubt that this tower 
was also a temple, though it is not clear in how many stories, or to 
wIkiiu it wius dedicated. 

(Jhap. 1. 



OtlioT obelisks have since been discovered, some of wliicli leok 
evi'ii more lik(> miniature models of temples than this one docs. 


1 23. 

Obelisk of Divanubara. From Layard's Nineveh. 


The knowledge which we now possess of the remains in Assyria 
ftiinishes an explanation why all researches at Babylon have hitherto 
been in vain. In the fomier country, wherever we get beyond the 
limits of the scidptured slabs, all is one mass of forndess mud, in 
which it is impossible to distinguisli what were chambers, what walls, 
Lii- indeed to be sure that it was a habitable building at all ; and as 
in Babylonia no trace has yet been found of these slabs ever having 
been used, it is easy to imderstand how all the excavations hitherto 
made have been so fruitless in results. 

Still the mound called Mujelibe is just such a one as those that 
support, the palaces on the Upper Tigris, and situated like them in a 
break in the city walls. The mounds known as the Kasr, and that of 
Amran, in like manner most pjobably supported the ])alaces which 
excited the wonder of the Greeks ; but as not one stone Ims Ixen found, 
or any harder material than the usual sun-dried bricks of the country, 




it is nut to be woiKleied at that tlu-y have so completely lost their 
(jriginal form as to he perfectly nnintelligihle, except from the analogy 
derived from those of Nineveh. 

More carefnl explorations and measurements may enable the topo- 
«j;rai)her to deteraiine the sites of many buildings whose names are 
known only fi-om history; and much useful information may yet be 
thus obtained ; but I fear little of an architectural character can now 
be hoped for among any of the mounds of the ruined city of Babylon. 

Scale of yds. 
500 1000 2000 3000 

I I I r 


4000 yds. 

I'laii <if Babylon. 

A few miles to the south-west of Babylon stands a great mound now 
known as the Birs Nimroud. This has recently been explored by Colonel 
Kawlinson, and from the inscriptions found among the niins it is 
ascertained to be the remains of the Temple of the Seven Spheres at 

It consists, as is shown in the woodcuts (Nos. 125 and 126), of an 
extensive basement, about 6 ft. in height, on which stands a pyramid 
of fi stories, averaging somewhat less than 20 ft. each in height, and 
every story 42 ft. less in horizontal dimensions than the one below it. 

They are not placed concentrically one upon the other. Towards 
the front the platforms are 30 ft. in extent, and consequently are 12 ft. 
in the rear. On the sides they are equal, 21 ft. each. 

(hi the upper ])latform now stands the fragment of a tower about 
30 ft. in height, which once enclosed a chamber — the sanctum of the 
temi)le— following the analogy of the temple of Belus, as described 
by the Greeks, which the building resembles in almost evefy par- 

CllAP. I. 



iicTilar. Tlierc probably was also a slirine or image on the third plat- 
form. In front were the steps that led to the summit. The lower 
story was black, the colour of Saturn, and panelled like the new 
Ijuilding discovered at Khorsabad ; the next orange, the colour of 
.lnpit«'i' ; the third red, emblematic of Mars ; the fourth yellow, belong- 







Restored Elevation of the Birs Nimroud. Scale 106 ft. to ] in. 


' D 







Restored Plan of the Birs Nimroud. Scale 100 ft to i in. 

ing to the Sun ; the fifth and sixth green and blue respecti-vely, as 
dedicated to Venus and Mercury ; the upper probably white, that 
being the colour belonging to the Moon, whose place in the (.^haldean 
system would be the uppermost. 



Rook IV. 

These jicculiarities (•(mfinii su com])letely the Greek descriptidus 
of the temple of Helus, and of the seven coloured walls of Eebatana, 
that we may feel contident of having a nearly perfect restoration of at 
least one of the princi])al forms of liabylonian temples. 

The inscriptions of Nebuchadnezzar mention, besides this temple 
at liorsippa, several others, which he considered as more important. 
As all tJ-aces of these, however, are lost, it is probable that they were 
of a dilferent fonn, perhaps more like the temples of Egypt or Greece, 
but constnicted of more perishable materials. If of the same pyramidal 
form as this, sucdi great masses could haidly have disa])peared. 

Another small temple of the same fonn, but only three stories in 
height, has been discovered at Mugheyr, in Southeni Babylonia. It is 
principally interesting as confinning in every respect what has been 
said of the form and plan of that of Borsippa, which, though explored 
to a considerable extent by Colonel Kawlinson, has not Ixen so com- 
pletely excavated as to render all the details absolutely certain without 
confinnation from other quarters. 

Contemporaneous with these discoveries is that of a bas-relief 
woodcut No. 127) of a temple rising in diminishing stages, which. 


Representation of a Temple. From a Bas-relief from Koyiinjilc. 

though the upper story is destroyed, curiously illustrates this subject. 
'J'hc temple itself seems to stand on an artificitU moinid. The base is 
panelled: a niche is shown on the Tipper jdatform ; and it has all the 
peculiarities which have been alluded to in those temples we have 
just been describing. 

(."IIAT. 1. 



'I'luisc (lotails onablo us to realise to some extent what we leani 
iVom tlie CJreeks of the great city of liuhyhm. It is ceitainly to he 
regretted that they are not more complete, for, thoiigh it is scarcely 
prohable that the edifices of Babylon, as rebuilt by Nebuchadnezzar, 
wore eitlier more extensive or more beautiful than those of Kineveh, 
still it is the city best known from the descri])tions of the Greeks and 
of the sacred writings, so that we could more easily test the knowledge 
acquiied from the excavations. Babylon was also the capital of the 
em]nre contem])orary with Torsepolis and Passargadfu, and thus her 
]ialaces formed the link that would enable us to connect, in a satis- 
factoiy manner, the edifices and architecture of Assyria with those of 


V ^ 








Knowinp; as avc now do, from the inscriptions on tlio bricks, tliat 
none of the biiildinj^s now existing in or abont Babylon arc older than 
the reign of Kebnchadnczzar, it is evident that they never conld liave 
possessed either the historical or aesthetic vahie of the long series of 
bas-reliefs which adorned the palaces of the npper valley of the Tigris ; 
and although we may regret having recovered so little of the famons 
city of Babylon, we may rest assured that by far the most valuable 
portion of the antiquities of Assyria is that which has already been 
exhiuned in the Northern province. 

The only other city of Babylonia which has yielded any important 
architectural results is Wurka, situated in the marshes to the south of 
Babylon. The moxinds hero are of immense extent, but composed 
principally'' of coffins and tombs, supposed to be of the Sassanian age, 
the. place having for centuries been used as a burial-place for the sur- 
rounding nations, as Kerbela and I\[esjid Ali are at the present day, 
from some supposed sanctity attached to the sjiot. 

The principal building hitherto explored is a palace called by the 
natives Wuswus : it is a rectangle 246 ft. by 173, with one entrance, 
but no other opening in its external wall. Internally it seems to 
have consisted of one largo oblong court, at the u])pcr end of which 
were the state apartments, and on the left-hand side a series of small 
chambers, forming the private apartments of the i)alace. 

Extenially the whole of the walls were ornamented by reedings 
and ]ianc]s, like those of the newly discovered building at Khorsabad, 
or the base of the Birs Nimroud. 

Another building, called Bonarieh, was ornamented in a similar 
manner, biit Avitli this additional peculiarity, that the walls were 
covered with a mosaic formed of small cones, the bases of which were 
dipped in colours, and arranged in various patterns, as shoAvn in the 
woodcut (No. 128). The style of ornament is elegant, and was 
probably the same as that painted on the plaster of the walls of the 
other buildfngs, and Avhich has consequently perished from the lapse 
of time. 

(;iiAi>. II. 






IJuildings at Passargadte — General appearance of Ruins at Persepolis — Propylaea — 
Palace and Tomb of Darius — Halls of Xerxes — Susa — Fire Temples — Tomb 
of Cyrus. 

From the time of Nebuchadnezzar the history of this style of archi- 
tecture is continued in a direct line for about two centuries and a half 
by the I'ersians, who succeeded to the arts, as well as to the empire, 
«)f the Babylonians. Their monarchs frequently resided at Babj^on, 
and no doubt added to its buildings; but their own first capital was 
Passargadfe, where Cyrus and Cambyses resided from 560 b.c. to 522. 
This was succeeded by Istakr, or Persepolis, which was the principal 
capital of Darius Hystaspes, of Xerxes, and of all the kings of the 
Achajmenian dynasty, though they all certainly resided occasionally at 
Susa, and erected edifices there equal to those of their native metro- 
polis, if not sui-passing them in splendour. 

Besides these, remains of the architecture of the Acha3menida3 are 
found at Hamadan, and even as far nortli as Teheran : biit the principal 
buildings are at Persepolis and its neighbourhood, wliich was tlie 
favourite residence of these monarchs during the most brilliant period 
of the dynasty. 


I'latfonu at Pussargad;e.i 

.8 f- 


l.'H). Elevation of Masonry at Passargnda:. 

' The woodcuts in this chapter, except the restorations, are t^iken from FhmJin and 
Coste's Perse Ancienne, except where the contrary is mentioned. 


In thoir ])reseiit state thu lemaiTis at Passargada^ are, i)erhapfi, 
more iuteri'sting to the antiquary than tu the architect, tlic palaces on 
the phxin being so niincil that their architectural arrangements cannot 
bo nndei'stood or restored. 

On the side of a hill overlooking the ])lain is a i)latfonn of masonrj- 
(woodcut 129) which originally supported either a temple or fire-altar, 
l)ut tills hi\« now entirely disappeared, and the structure is only re- 
markable for the beauty of its masonry- and the largeness of the stones 
with which it is built. These are bevilled (woodcut 130) not only at 
their joints but often on their faces with the same flat sinking as is 
found in all the Jewish works at Jemsalem, and sometimes in Greek 
buildings of the best age. Thus an ornament of great beauty and 
elegance is formed out of what would othei-wise be merely a plain 
mass of masonry-. 

On the plain are the foiindations of several large buildings, probably 
palaces, temples, or basilicas, but all so completely destroyed that it is 
now impossible to say what their original form or destination may 
have been. One pillar only is now standing, a plain shaft, without 
capital or base, and more like an Indian J at than a column destined to 
support a roof. 


Turning from these scattered remains, we find on the gi-cat terraced 
]>latfonn at Persepolis by ftir the most remarkable group of ancient 
buildings now existing in this part of Asia. It so happens that the 
ruins at Persepolis are an exact complement to the style described in 
the last chapter, suppl^-ing what was there wanting, and enabling iis 
to understand much that would ]irobably for ever have remained a 
mystery without it. 

At Nineveh, as we have seen, all the pillars, the roofs, and the 
constnictive jiarts of the building, which were of wood, have dis- 
appeared, and left notliiiig but the massive walls, wliich, falling, and 
being heaped the one on the other, have Imricd tliemselves and their 
ornaments till the present day. At I'erscpolis, on the contmrj', the 
brick walls, being thinner and exposed on the bare surface of the naked 
rock, have been washed away by the stonns and rains t)f 2000 years, 
leaving only the skeletons of the buildings, but which fortunately in 
the rocky country of Persia the architect constructed of stone. We 
have thus at Persepolis, if I may use the expression, all the bones 
of the building, but Avithout the flesh; at Nineveh, the flesh, but 
without the bones that gave it form and substance. At the same time 
there are still so man}- ])oints common lo both styles as to leave no 
doubt of their identity, and to enable us to complete the whole by 
putting together the two sets of materials. The principal discrepancy 
a]>pears to have been in the )tur])oses to whicli the buildings were 
ap])ropriated ; those at Nineveh being residencies, though it may be 
sacred residences, of the kings ; while those at Persejtolis partook coi-- 
tainly more of the temple character. The latter were all separate halls 
of state, ajtpropriated to the great ceremonial jiageants of royalty, 

CUAl'. 11. 



\vhii'li were always, more or less, conjoined with relig'itms observances, 
iiuel Ihey do not s(>om to have been rosidenoes in the nsn;d acceptation 
of the term. The hareem, the fauiil}-, and de])cndiiuts of the king 






either have resided in l)uiiding.s on the rock. Avliicli. composed t>f 
inferioi" materials, have been washed away, or have dwelt in the neigh- 
boming palace in ihe town of IsUtIvI'. or in some of the buildings on 
the pUiin which arc now in ruins. 


Tlie general appearance of the ruins, as they at present stand, will 
be seen fnuii tlio Avoodciit (No. 131). The princi])al mass in the fore- 
ground (in the left is the I'ropyhea of Xerxes, and l)ehind that and to 
the right stand the pillars of the Chehil Minar, or Great Hall of Xerxes. 
Between these are seen in the distance the remains of the smaller halls 
of Darius and Xerxes. 

One of the most striking points in this view is the staircase that 
led from thu plain to the platfijrm, and also that leading from the lower 
level to that on which the great hall stood. Indeed, among these niins, 
nothing is so remarkable as these gi-eat iiights of steps. The builders 
nf those days were, so far as we know, the only ])eoi)le who really 
understood the value of this feature. Tlie Egyptians seem Avholly to 
have neglected it, and the Greeks to have cared little about it : but it 
was not so at Nineveh, where, so far as wo can understand from the 
indistinct traces left, the stairs must have been an impoiiant part of the 
design. But they were so situated that they were not buried when the 
buildings were ruined, and consequently have been removed. At 
Jei-usalem too we read that, when the Queen of Sheba saw " the ascent 
by which Solomon went up to the house of the Lord, there was no 
more spirit in her." Indeed, in all the ancient temples and palaces 
of this district, more attention is paid to this featuie than to almost 
any other ; and from the favourable situation of all these palaces on 
artificial terraces, the builders were enabled to do this with far more 
effect than any others in ancient or in modem times. 

The lower or great staircase at Persepolis is plain, and without any 
sculi)ture, but built of the most massive GyeloiJcan masonry, and of 
great width and very easy acclivity. That in front of the great hall 
is ornamented with sculpture in three tiers, representing the ])eoi3le of 
the land bringing presents, and the subject nations tribute, to lay at the 
feet of the monarch, combined wdtli niythological representations ; the 
whole bearing a very considerable resemblance to the sculi)tures on the 
walls of the Assyrian palaces, though the position is different. The 
arrangement of these stairs, too, is peculiar, none of them being at right 
angles to the buildings they approach, but all being double, a]iparently 
to allow processions to pass the throne, situated in the porches at their 
sunnnit, without interruption, and without altering the line of march. 

One of these flights, leading to the platform of Xerxes' palace, is 
shown in the woodcut (No. 132). In arrangement it is like the stairs 
heading to the great terrace, but very much smaller, and profusely 
adorned with sculptuie. 

The principal apartment in all the buildings situated on the plat- 
form is a central square hall, whose floor is studded with pillars placed 
eipiidistant the one from the other. The smallest have 4 ])il]ars, the 
next k;, then 36, and one has 100 pillars on its floor; but to avoid 
inventing new names, we may call these respectively, distyle, tetrastylc, 
hexastyle, and decastyle halls, from their having 2, 4, 6, or 10 i)illais 
on each face of the phalanx, and because that is the number of the 
l)illars in their porticos when they have any. 

The l)uildingat the head of the great stairs is a distyle hall, having 

CllAl>. 11. 



4 pillars supiiorting its roof. On each side of the first entrance stands 
a pair of hnman-headiHl winged bulls, so nearly identical with those 
found in Assyrian palaces as to leave no douht of tlieir having the same 

origin. At the opposite entrance are two bulls mthout wings, but 
drawn with the same bold, massive proportions which distinguish all 
the sculptured .inimals in the palaces of Assyria and Persia. The other 
entrances are destroyed, and the foinulatiun uf only one remaining ; but 



BuuK JV. 

this, with the foundations of the walls, leaves no room to doubt that the 

annexed woodcut (No. 133) is a tnie representation of its ground-|»lan. 

Nor can it be doubted that this is one of those 
buildings so frequently mentioned in the Bible as 
a "gate," not the dooi- of a eity or buildings, 
but a gate of justice, such as that where Mor- 
dccai sat at Susa — where Abraham bt)Ught his 
field — where Kuth's marriage was judged of — 
and, indeed, where public business was generally 

There are two other distylc halls or gates on 
the platfonu : one to the westwaid of this, very 
much i-uined ; and one in the centre of the 

whole group, which seems besides to have had external porticos. 

There are two tetrastyle halls, one of which, erected by Darius 

(woodcut No. 134), is the most interesting of the smaller bnildiiigs on 

■i,:iU' 111(1 II. In I imh, 

KIj. I'ropyl.ta. 


Scale of 90 n. to 1 inch. 
Palace of Darius. 

the terrace. It is the only building that faces the south, and is ap 
proached by a flight of steps, represented with the whole facade t)f the 
palace as it now stands in the woodcut (No. 135). These steps led to a 
fctiastylo ]torch, two ranges in de})th, which opened into the central 
ball witli its l(j colunnis, around which Avere arranged smaller rooms 
or cells, cither for the occupation of the king, if it was a palace, or of 
the priests, if a temple. In the western side a staircase tmd doorwa;\- 
were added, somewhat \xnsymmetrically, by Artaxerxes. 

W'c a])))ear to possess, in the tomb of Darius, at Naksh-i-lvustam, a 
representation of this palace as it was in the days of the great king — 
for the arrangement, the dimensions, and all the features of this tomb, 
as represented in woodcut No, 136, coincide so exactly with the 
existing remains of the palace as to leave little or no doubt Init tbal 
tlie one is an e.vact copy of the other; so much so as to enalde us to 
KUjiply from the rock-cut example those paris wliich arc wanting in 

Chap. II. 



the built paLico. It appears certain that the juilace uriginally sup- 
])()rted a raised ])1atforni, or taUir, on its roof, identical witli that re- 
presented in tho tomb, on whicli the fire-altar was placed at which the 


king used to worship, or on which he was wont to exhibit himself to 
his subjects on state occasions. 

The other tctrastyle hall is" similar to this, only phiiner and some- 
what smaller. 


i'Ki{siAX AiiciirrKirruHK. 

H.M.K IV. 

fSt I 




Scale for Elevation. 
SO 80 
I L 




10 So 

Scnlc for Plan. 

I I 

I I 


1.36. Tomb of Darius at Noksh-i-RustAin, representing tlic facade of liis palace surmounted by a Talar. 

ClI.M'. II 





II ji ;; — 

1 n o o 
1 r^ C o 

1 O O 
1 c o o 

1 C O 

1 r o 

o O 
o o 

o e o 


o o c 
f» o o 

1 <• " 


r"^' ' '^ 

Turning from these to the hexaistyle halls, the smallest but most per- 
fect (woodcut No. i;57) is that standing- on the southern edge of the upper 
platfoini, the inseripti(jns on 
which certainly prove it to 
have been built by Xerxes. 

Its platform is approached 
by 2 flights of steps, that 
on the east being the one 
represented in woodcut No. 
132, and there are indications 
of a tetrastyle hall or gate 
having existed on its summit. 
That to the west is simpler. 
The hall itself had a portico 
of 12 columns, and on each 
side a range of smaller apart- 
ments, the two principal of 
which had their roofs sup- 
ported by 4 pillars each. 

Tlie great value of this 
building, however, is that it 
enables us to understand the 
arrangement of the great 
Hall of Xerxes- -the Chehil 
Minar — the most splendid Iniilding of which any remains exist in this 
part of the world. From the annexed plan (woodcut Xo. lo8) it will 


Suile ItO n. to I incll. 

Palace of Xerxes. 

o # 
f) ® 

'I f 

H B 

1 H 

m m 


1 Ci 3 1 1 

lyl @ # 
# ® 


138. i;osli'R(l plan 111 Uioat Hall of Xerxes at rci-sepolis. Scale luo ft to 1 in. 

o 2 



B..nK IV. 



be seen that the plan of the whole central part is identical \vith that 
of the hniklinji; just descvihed, as the bases of all the 72 eolunnis still 
exist in situ, as Avell as the jambs of the 2 piincipal duorAvays sliaded 
darker in the ]dan. The walls only are restored fnnn the jireceding 

illustration. Instead of the 
2 distyle halls on each side, 
this had hexastyle porticos 
of 12 pillars each, like that 
in front ; the angles be- 
tween which were filled up 
with rooms or buildings, 
probably such as suggested 
in the plan. 

Two orders of pillars 
were employed to support 
the roof of this s])lendid 
building, one, represented 
in woodcut No* 139, with 
doxible bull-capitals, like 
those of the porch of l)a- 
rius's palace. These are 
67 ft. 4 in. in heiglit from 
the floor to the back of the 
bull's neck, or 64 ft. to the 
under side of the beam that 
lay between the bulls. The 
other order, with the Ionic 
volutes (woodcut Ko. 140), 
which is also that employ- 
ed in the northem ])ortieo, 
and generally in interiors 
througlnmt, is nearly iden- 
tical, as far as the base and 
shaft are concerned, except 
in height. The ca])ital, 
however, diffeis widely, 
and is 16fl. 6 in. in height, 
making an order altogether 
9 ft. 7 in, less than the ex- 
teraal one, the difference 
being made up by brackets 
of wood, which supi)oi-ted 
the beams of the roof, in- 
ternally at least, though 
externally the double bull capital probably surmoxuited these Ionic- 
like scrolls. 

There is no reason to doubt that these halls also had platforms 
or talaris like the smaller halls, which besides woidd serve to shelter 
any opening in the roof; though in the present instance it seems 




.4 U f c ■ I 


139. Pillarof Western Portito. 140. Pillarof XorthemPortko. 

CllAI'. II. 



very doiiLtful if any such openings or skylights existed nr were 

Tims arranged, the section of the buildings would l)c as shown 
in the Avoodcut (No. 141); and presuming it to be sculptured and 


K. ,Mmi,m1 Section uf Hall of .Yer.Kes. Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 

painted as richly as other buildings of its age and class, which it no 
doubt was, it was not only one of the largest, but one of the most 
splendid buildings of antiquity. In plan it was a rectangle of about 
300 ft. by 350, and consequently covering 105,000 square ft. ; it was 
thus larger than the hypostyle hall at Karnac, or any of the largest 
temples of Greece or Eome. It is larger, too, than any mediaeval 
cathedral except that of IMilan ; and although it has neither the stone 
roof of a cathedral, nor the massiveness of an Egyptian building, still 
its size and proportions, combined with lightness, and the beauty of 
its decorations, must have made it one of the most beautiful buildings 
ever erected, and both in design and proportion far surpassing those of 
Assyria, though possessing much of detail or ornament so similar as 
to be almost identical in style. 

There is no octastyle hall at Persepolis, and only one decastyle. 
In this instance the hall itself measured about 225 ft. each way, and 
had 100 pillars on its floor; still it was low in proportion, and devoid 
of lateral porticos, and consequently by no means so magnificent a 
building as the great hall of Xerxes. The portico in front was 2 
ranges in depth, and flanked by gigantic bulls ; but as the whole height 
was barely 25 ft., it could not have been a remarkable or pleasing 
object. Indeed, the sculptures on the jambs of the doorway's are the 
most interesting part ttf this building, representing the king on his 
throne, and various mythological subjects, on a more extensive scale 
than those similarly situated in the other buildings of the platform : 
for it is probable that in the other palaces these subjects Avere painted 
on the internal walls, as was done in thtjse Assyrian halls which were 
not reveted with slabs. With an appropriateness that cannot be too 
much pi-aised, sculpture seems only to have been used in parts of the 
building exposed to atmospheric injury, but at the same time also 
always to have been employed there in preference to painting. 

Besides these there are the remains of several buildings on the 
plain, and within the precincts of the town of Istakr a building still 



lkH)K IV 

called the Hareem of Jcmshecd, which may in reality have been the 
residence of tlie AihaMiu'iiian kings. It certainly belongs to their age, 
and from the irregularity of its form, and its general proportions, 
looks veiy much more like a residence, properly so called, than any of 
the monnmental erections on the neighbonnng platform of Persepolis. 


The explorations of Mr. Loftus at Siisa in 1 850 have laid bare the 
foundations of a j)alace almost identical with the C'hehil Minar at 
I'ersepolis. It is, however, much more completely ruined, the jilace 
having long been used as a quarry by the inhabitants of the neigh- 
bouring plains, so that now oidy the bases of the pillars remain in 
situ, and fragments of the shafts and capitals strewed everywhere 
about, but no walls or doorways, or other architectural members 
which woidd enable ns to supply anything wanting at Persepolis. 

The bases seem to be of the same form and style as tlmse at Perse- 
polis, but rather more richly carved, though the bull capitals do not 
appear to have been so well executed. 

lnscri]iti()ns round the bases of the pillars iid'orm us that it was 
erected by Darius and Xerxes, but repaired or restored by Artaxerxes 
I\Inemon. who added the inscriptions. In all probability it is the 
identical hall in which the scenes described in the book of Esther 
took place. The foundations of other parts of this palace might be no 
doubt laid bare by further excavations; but the i-nin of the place has 
been so cdmijlete, that little of interest in an arehiteetural point of view 
can be looked for. Below these Persian ruins are probfdjly buried 
the remains of long-preceding d3aiasties, whieh deeper excavations 
WDidd lay bare, and affnrd a rich harvest in t1ic historical exjdorer. 

Near the town 


of Istakr, and o})posite the tombs of Naksh-i- 
liustam. stands a small tower-like building, 
leju-esented in the wtxxlcut. The lower 
part is solid; the upper contains a small 
scpiare apartment, roofed by two great Hat 
stone slabs : access to this is olitained from 
a dot)rway situati'd at some distanee from 
the ground. 

Both the traditions of the place, and the 
knowledge we have of the forms of the 
Magiau religion, point to this as one of the 
tire tem})les of the ancient Persians, its 
roof is internally still black, probably with 
the smoke of ancient fires, and, though 
simple and insigjiifieant as an architectuial 

monument, it is interesting as the only form of a temple apart from 

regal state which the ancient Persians possessed. 

1 12. Knabnh nt Istakr. No scale. 

ClIAl'. II. 



Another, almost identical in form, is found at l'assarj;;uliV'. The 
crelebrutcd Kaabali at lAlccca, to which all the Moslem woi-ld now Ijow 
in prayer, is ])rol)al)ly a third ; and we possess an Assyrian picture of 
a temple very much rescmblino- this, it is found on the end of a 
l)lo(;k*of marble, called Lord Aherdeen's Black Stone, which is covered 
bv tli(> annals of a kmp; who reigned at Nineveh in the 7th century B.C. 


Tjittle requires to he said of the tombs of the Persians : that of 
Darius is re]iresented in plan and elevation in woodcut No. 13G, and, 
as before remarked, on the rock is a copy of the fa9ade of his palace. 
Internally, three small cells contained the remains of the king, with 
those oft lie persons, probably his favourite wife or wives, for whom he 
had destined that honour. Close by this, at Naksh-i-Rustam, are four 
others, and in the rock behind Tersepolis three more tombs of the 
Achajmenian kings, identical with these in all essential respects, Init- 
still with such a diiference in workmanship and detail as would enable 
a careful architectnral student easily to detect a sequence, and so affix 
to each, . appn)ximately at least, the name of the king to whom it 
belong-s. Unfortunatelv, that of Darius only is inscribed ; but his 
position in the dynasty is so well known, that, starting from that point, 
it would be easy to complete the series with the others. 

The one exception to this rule is the structural tomb at Tassargadaj, 
which, from the description of the Greeks, we know certainly to be 
that of Cyrus. It consists of a small temple-like chamber, situated on 
the top of a small pyramid of stone steps, and surrounded by a peri- 
stvh^ or cloister of columns at some distance from the building i+self. 

Toiiili i.f Cyrus. 

IJeferring lo the woodcuts • Kos. ll^T) and I'Jt;. representing the 
temple at Pxirsijipa, and bearing in mind liow exactly this I'epresents 


lie temple, or, as it was as frc([neiitly called l»y the Greeks, the tomh- 
of lieliis, we have no diiliculty iu recognising the source whence this 
form of sepulture is derived. 

The building before us is in fact a reproduction, on a small scale, of 
the tomb of the fouTider of the Babylonian dynasty. Like it, it con- 
sists of a ])vramid of 7 stories, with a chamber or cell in the upper one. 
In this instance the chamber is proportionall}- magnified, and the 
stories become mere steps, but the form and airangements are the 
same, and this is in fact the only representation we have of one at least 
of the Babylonian modes of sepulture. 

OiiAP. 111. SYRIAN AltCHlTECTUIlE. 201 

8 Y E I A. 


B\iil(lings of Solomon — Second Toniple at Jerusalem — Palmyra. 


.Soloniun builds I'omplc at Jeiusnloni n.n. 1005 

Nehemiali vrbiiilils Temple 4-15 

Herod the fireal repairs and rebuilds I'eniple .... IT 

WiiF.N we turn from Assyria to Syria, we have unfortunately nothing 
l>nt the memories of the past to guide us in our researches into the 
history of the art of that country. Tyre and tSid(jn, the great com- 
mercial cities of the ancient world, are no more, and, were it not for 
history, even their site would be unknown. Nowhere throughout the 
country have any remains yet been discovered that can witli certainty 
be said to be older than the Christian era ; but it by no means follows 
that such may not exist, for, so far as I know, no traveller has yet 
visited that country capable of discriminating between what is really 
old and what uiust be ascribed to a more modern date. 

Even Jenusalem herself, one of the most remarkable cities of the 
ancient world, is almost without one vestige of her pi'istine gi'eatness. 
It is true that the site of her celebrated temple is still known, and part 
of the terrace-wall which sup])orted it still exists ; but it is very un- 
certain if even this wall can lie dated earlier thun the time of Herod, 
who rebuilt the temple just before the birth of Cluist. 

This absence of material remains is, however, in some measure 
compensated for in the fact that we have more detailed descriptions 
of the buildiugs f)f Jerusalem than of those of almost any ancient citj^ 
known. From those in the liible, with the paraphrase of them in 
Josephus, Ave arc able to acquire a tolerably distinct idea of tlie build- 
ings of Solomon, and from the descriptions of the latter tiuthoi- we can 
also understand the form of the temple as rebuilt by Herod. Till, 
however, the palaces of Assyria wei'e disinterred, and those of Per- 
sepolis examined, we had but little to guide us in our restorations, 
but now it requires only a little more time and patient industry to make 
all clear. 

Buildings of Solomon. 

No building, for instance, of antiquity so much resembles the 
tem}tle of Solomon as the so-called palace of Darius at Persepolis 



Book IV. 

(woodcuts N(i. i;U and No. 135), only that the latter is by fiir the 
larger of the two, being 5<) ft. in front, while Solomon's teiujtle wa.s 
only 30 ft. (20 cubits), and had consequently only 2 pillars in its 
porcli instead (jf4. In both buildings the poieli opened into the 
largest hall of the building; and beyond this, at Jerusalem, was the 
Holy t»f Holies, a cube of 30 ft. eacli'way. The arrangement of the 
innennost part of the temple- palace of Darius cannot be clearly made 
out. No doubt it dift'ered from the Jewish temple, as the objects for 
which the buildings were designed were dilferent ; but the small 
chambers on the side, the square mass on either side of the porch, and 
above all the form of the capitals of the Fersepolitan pillars (woodcut 
No. 140), explain the corresponding anangement in the Jewish 
temple far more completely than anything elsewhere in anticpiity 
can do. 

iVnothcr curious circumstance mentioned by Josephus,' but not in the 
Bible, is that the Jewish temiile had an upper story of wood on its roof, 
a talar, in short, such as that represented (woodcut No. 136) as carved on 
the tomb of Darius. Its use in the Jewish tenq)le is by no means so clear, 
though its existence may serve to explain the disciepancy 
between the measurements given in the books of Kings 
and Chronicles of the height of the building, the proba-. 
bility being that the temple itself was 45 ft. high, and the 
t(dar, and ])r()bably the eastern tow-ers, as much more. 
The parts and dimensions of Solomon's temple were, 1st, 
a porch, 30 ft. wide by 15 ft. deej) ; 2nd, a pronaos, GO ft. 
by 30 ft., and beyond that a naos or sanctuary, 30 ft. 
cube; the lower chambers were only 7^ ft. wide by 10 J ft. ; 
so that the whole external dimensions of the building 
probably were rather more than GO ft. in width by 120 ft. 
in length, or less than an ordinary jjarish church in 
this country. 
The house t)f the Forest of Lebanon still more distinctly resembled 
an Assyrian palace; the piincipal apartment being 150 ft. long by half 

that breadth, and 45 ft. in height, and, 
according to the description, itssection 
seems to have been like the diagram in 
woodcut 145, though there is a dis- 
crepancy between the authorities that 
introduces some difficulty into the 
matter. The pillars, like those at Ni- 
neveh, were of cedar, and siqqxirtcd 
a roof of the same condmstible and 
perishable material. Follnwing Jose- 
jihiis we read that "Solomon l)uilt some of these (the walls) with 
stuiics (if 10 cubits, and wainscoted the walls with other stcmes that 
were sawed, and were of great value, such as are dug out of the 
bowels of the earth for the ornament of temples. The arrangement 

)44. Plan of Solo- 
mon's Toinpli-. 

Scale K.O It. lu 1 Inch. 

145. Diagram Section of Solomon's House. 

' .Viit. Jii.l., viii. :5, 2 ; XV. 11,1. Bel. Jud., v. 1, b. 

CiiAr. 111. TIIK SECOND TKMI'LH. 203 

of tlie envious work of these stones was in three rows, but the fourth 
was pre-eminent for the bea\ity of its seulpture, for on it were 
represented trees and all sorts of plants. I'hese trees and plants 
covered the stones that were beneath th(.'ni, and their leaves were 
A\Toua;ht so wondeifnlly thin and subtile that they api)carcd aluKjst in 
motion; but the rest t)f the wall up to the roof was plastered over, and 
as it were wroTipjht over with various colours and pictures." ' This is so 
exact a picture of what we have recently discovered in Assyria as to 
leave no doubt of the identity of the two styles of building. The same 
observation applies to the other works of Solomon as described by 
Josephus^the I'orch of Judgment, the house of Phai'aoh's daughter, 
and the house where lie dwelt, which had another court Avithin the 
poich, which was of like work. The historian's whole account of the 
bancpieting-halls, pleasm'e-gardcns, &c., might serve as well to describe 
one of the exhumed edifices on the banks of the Tigris as anything 
which ever existed at .lerusalem. This analogy, when a little more 
study has been bestowed on the subject, will enable us almost certainly 
to restore the whole style by comparing the existing remains in the 
one place with the description of those in the other. 

The Second Temple. 

Although it is anticipating somewhat on tlie chronological oider 
of the book, and transgressing a rule which in other paits has been 
strictly adhered to, of not attempting the I'estoration of buildings from 
mere veibal descripticms, still the last temple of Jenisalem is so in- 
teresting, both from its history and associations, that it may well claim 
to be an exception. 

This was at all times regarded by the Jews as the Second Temple, 
though it appears to have undergone repairs in the time of Herod 
amounting to a complete rebuilding. The temple itself no doubt stood 
on the foundations of that of Nehemiah. It was situated at tlie south- 
western angle of the enclosure now called the llaram-es-scherref, and 
was exactly one stadiuui or GOO Greek ft. each way. On ;} sides it 
was surrounded by double porticos or cloisters of 2 rows of columns, 
that to the east being called Solomon's, probabl}- from one which liad 
been built there by him. To the south stood the magiiificent lioyal 
porch, or Stoa Basilica, erected by Herod. This consisted of 4 rows 
of Corinthian columns, -KJ in each row, and conse(piently \b ft. apart 
from centre to centre. The (juter aisles were 30 ft. in widtli, the 
central 45 ft. or two and three iutci'colnmuiations respectively. The 
central aisle terminated in a bridge which, spanning the intennediate 
valley, led direct to the city. 

These porches, with the space immediately within them, were called 
the court of the Gentiles, and were separated fioiu that apitropriated 
exclusively to the children of Israel by a hiw railing; witliin which 
steps led to an u]i]>e)- ]>latforui. on wliicli stood tlie Tcmjilc, properU" 
so called. 

' Joseplius, Ant. Jiul.. viii. v. 2. 



r,...)K IV. 


I'lan 1)1 lemiilt' at Jerusalem, iis rebuilt by Herod. Scale 2li(i it. to 1 in. 

This had four gates on the north side, and as manj'- on the sonth, 
three on each side leading into the inner coui-t, the two most eastern 
to the wtimen's court. To tlie east there were also two gates, more 
magnificent than the rest ; the first leading into the women's court, 
the second from it into the inner court : both seem to have been 
adoined with all the art the Jews were capable of lavishing on such 
objects. In Ihc inner court stood the altar, in the axis t)f the building, 
and beyond tliat the tcm^jle or holy house itself, somewhat larger 
than Solomon's, but built <in the same plan, and with the evident 
intention of being an exact reproduction of it, although, judging from 
the evidently Ifoman character of the outer courts, it is more than 
]iioT)ablc that many features of Koman art were introduced into its 
details also. 

Taken altogether, it must be confessed this was a very splendid 
building, though the temple or Naos itself was so small. Its sub- 
structures, of a class of masonry very similar to that found in the 
ten-ace at Passargada; (woodcut No. 130), still strike evciy beholder 
with astonishment — the mass is so great, the stones so large, and the 
features altogether so Imld. The Stoa Basilica Avas in itself as large 
as one of our finest Gothic cathedrals. The ten-ace, with its 10 great 
gatcway.s. its inner porches, and last of all the tem])lc itself, if it made 
uj) at all in richness for the smallness of its propurtions, must liave 
fonned a group seldom surpassed, and almost justifying the encomiums 
which Josephus passes upon it. 

CiiAi'. iir. 



14". Capital of Pillar in subteri-iinean entrance 
to Temple at Jerusalem. From a draw ing by 
F. Arundale. 

Below the Stoa Basilicii, and nearly in the centre of it, a vaulted 
passage led IVoni the outside to a flight of steps leading up to the outer 
court of the temple. This passage is of bold, simple architecture, and 
without much ornament except one pillar, represented in the annexed 
woodcut, which is interesting as the only architectural fragment of 
ancient .Jerusalem yet discovered, 
which seems to belong to a date even 
as early as the time of Herod. Ex- 
ternally the arch is now adorned by 
ornaments of the Byzantine period, 
and above stands the mosque El 
Aksali, and that of Omar, both built 
in the first centuiy of the Hegira. 

The Temple of the Sun at Palmyra 
is another building very similar to 
this. It consists of a cloistered en- 
closure of somewhat larger dimen- 
sions than that at Jerusalem, mea- 
suring externally 730 ft. by 715, with 
a small temple of an anomalous form in the centie. It wants, how- 
ever, all the inner enclosures and curious substructures of the Jewish 
fane ; but this may have arisen from its having been rebuilt in late 
Eoman times, and consequently shorn of these peculiarities. It is so 
similar, however, that I cannot but look on it as a cognate temple to 
that at Jerusalem, though re-erected under another race of people. 

A third temple, apparently very similar to these, is that of Kangovar 
in Ben^ia. Only a portion now remains of the great court in which it 
stood, nearly of the same dimensions with those of Jerusalem and 
I'almyra, being 6(30 ft. by 568. In the centre are the vestiges of a 
small temple. At Aizaini in Asia Minor is a fourth, with a similar 
court : but here the temple is more important, and assumes more 
distinctly the forms of a regular Eoman peristylar temple of the usual 
form, though still small and insignificant for so considerable an en- 

None of these are original buildings, but still, when put together 
and compared the one with the other, and, above all, xvhen examined 
by the light which discoveries farther east have enabled us to tlu-ow 
on the subject, they may enable us to restore this style in something 
like its pristine form. At present they are but the scattered fiagmcuts 
of an art of which it is feared no original specimens now remain, and 
which can only therefore be recovered by induction from similar cog- 
nate examples of other though allied styles of art. 


C a APTER i V. 

Historical notice — Tombs at Smyrna — Dogaulu — Lycian tombs. 

Ir is now pi-rhaps in vain to expect tliat any monuments of the most 
ancient times, of gieat extent or of great aicliitectnial imjturtance, 
remain to be discovered in Asia Minor ; still it is a storehouse from 
which much information may yet be gleajied, and whence we may 
expect the st)lnti(in of many dark historical problems, if ever they arc 
to be solved at all. 

Situated as that country is in the very centre of the old world, mu"- 
rounded on three sides by navigable seas opening all the regions of the 
world to her commerce, possessing splendid harbours, a rich soil, and 
the finest climate of the whole earth, it must have not only been iidia- 
bited at the earliest period of history, but must have risen to a piteh of 
civilization at a time preceding any wi-itten histories that we possess. 
^Ve may recollect that, in the time of Psammeticus, I'hrygia contended 
with Egypt for the palm of antiquity, and from the monuments of the 
18th dynasty we know what rich sjjoil, what beautiful vases of gold, and 
other tribute of a rich and luxurious people, the Pout and L'oteno and 
other inhabitants of Asia ]\[inor brought and laid at the feet of Thoth- 
mes and other early kings many centuries before the Christian era. 

At a later period (71(5 to 547 B.C.) the Lydian em])ire was one of 
the richest and most powerful in Asia ; imd contemporary with this, 
and for adong period subsequent to it, the Ionian colonies of Greece 
surpassed the mother-country in wealth and refinement, and almost 
rivalled her in literature and ari. Few cities of the ancient world 
siir})assed Ephesus, Sardis, or Ilalicamassus in splendour; and Troy, 
Tarsus, and Trebisond mark three great epochs in the history' of Asia 
Minor unsiu-passed in interest and political importance by the recoi- 
led ions of any cities of the world. Excepting, however, the remains 
of the Greek and Roman periods — the great temples of the first, and 
the great theatres of the latter period — little that is architectin-al 
remains in this once favoured land. It happens also unfortunately 
that there is no great capital city — no central point — where we can 
look for monuments of importance. The defect in the i)hysical geo- 
graphy of the coimtiy is that it has no great river running thiough it — 
no vast central plain capable of sujiporting a population sufficiently 
great to oveii)ower the rest and to give unity to the whole. 

CllAl'. IV. 



80 fill- ius our rcsearclK's yet reach, it Wduld seem that the dhh-st 
remains still loniul in Asia Minor are the lumiili of Tantalais. on the 
northern shore of the ji;iill' oi" Smyrna. Tliey seem as if h-ft there most 
opi)ortuuoly to antheutieate the tradition of tlie Etiniscans having 
sailed from this poit for Italy. One of these is represented in wood- 
ents No. 148 and 149. Though these tumuli arc built Avholly of stone. 

148. Elevation of Tumulus at TantaUiis. From Texier's 
Asie Mineure. 100 ft. to 1 in. 

14'.). Plan and Section of Cliamber 
in Tunmlus at TantiUais. 

MO one familiar with architectural resemblances can fail to see in them 
a common origin with those of Etruria. The stylobate, the sloping- 
sides, the inner chamber, with its pointed roof, all the arrangements 
indeed, are the same, and the whole character of the necropolis at 
Tantalais would be as appropriate at Tarquinii or Ceeraj as at Smyina. 

The tumuli at Troy belonging to the same race are ])robably of 
ab(mt the same age ; they are still unopened, and so are the later ones 
around the Gygtean Lake. If not already rifled, no excavation that 
could now be undertaken promises more fruitful results than an ex- 
ploration of these sepulchres of the Lydians, and more especially that 
of Alyattes, so minutely described by Herodotus, and so interesting 
from its historical and ethnographic value. 

Whether other tumuli exist elsewhere or not is by no means clear ; 
but it seems more than probable that in the earliest times the whole 
of this country was inhabited by a Pelasgic race, who \wre also the 
first known occupants of Greece, and built the so-called Treasuries of 
Mycenae and Orchomenus, and who sent forth the Etruscans to civilize 
Italy. If so, they would have left behind them no buildings but the 
sepidchres of their departed great ones ; and if their history is to be 
recovered, it must be sought for in the bowels of the earth, and not in 
an_)i;hing existing above ground. 

Next to these in point of age and style comes a curious gioup of 
rock-cut monuments, found in the centre of the land at Dosanlu. 
They are placed on the rocky side of a narrow valley, and unconnected 
apparently with any great city or centre of population. Geneially 
they are called tombs, but there are no chambers nor anything about 



UouK IV. 

\ vi-'^^W 

»o J >>!!>> J »>]>>> I ■>•>]»> loo J Vo J ■/»]■>-> 1>> y>M> >. > > if, 


Rock-cut Frontispiece at Dogaiilii. From Tcxicr's Asic Jlineure. 

them to indicate a funereal pui-pose, and the inscriptions which accom- 
])iiny them are not on the monuments themselves, nor do they refer 
to .such a purpose. Altogether, they are certainly among the most 
mystei-ious remains ai antiquity, and, beyond a certain similarity to 
the rock-cut tombs around I'ersepolis, it is not easy to ])oint out any 
monuments that afford even a remote analogy to guide us in our con- 
jectures. They are of a style of art clearly indicating a wooden origin, 
and consist of a square frontispiece, either carved into certain geo- 
metric shHi)es, or prepared api)arently for painting ; at each side is a 
flat pilaster, and above a pediment terminating in two scrolls. Some, 
apparently j^he more modem, have pillars of a rude Doric order, and 
all indeed aie much more curious than beautiful. When more of the 
same class are discovered, they may help us to some historic data : all 
that we can now say of them is, that, judging from their inscriptions 
and the traditions in Herodotus, they seem to belong to some Indo- 
Gennanic race from Thessaly, or thereabouts, who have crossed the 
Hellespont and settled in their ncighbouihood ; and their date is pos- 
sibly }us far back as 10()U, and most probably before 700 B.C. 

There are other rock-cut sculptures farther cast, at Pterium and 
elsewhere : but all these are figure sculptures, without architectural 
fonn t.r details, and therefore hardly coming within the limits of this 

Tlje Hilly remaining important architectural group in Asia Minor 

(.'llAl'. I\'. 



is that (if Lycia, iiiadu knctwn in thin ccanitry since the year 1838, by 
the (liscovorit's of Sir Cliarlcs Felhiw.s and othci-s. hitorestiiii;- th(>n!j;h 
they certainly arc, tlicy are extremely (lislieartenin^' to any oile looking 
for earlier remains in this land,^ — inasmuch as all of them, and more 
especially the older ones, indicate distinctly a wooden origin — more 
strongly perhaps than any architectural remains in the western world. 
The oldest of them cannot well be carried iarther back than the Persian 
eoncpu'st of Cyras and llarpagTis. In other words, it seems perfectly 
evident that up to that period the Lycians used only wood for their 
buildings, and that it was only in the time of the Persians that they 
first learnt to substitute for their frail and perishable structures others 
of a more durable material. 

Ml — 





ipr ■ ■ 

■ \ 


1 ■ 



Lycian Tomb. From IJiitish Museum. 

As already observed, the same process can bu traced in Egypt 
ill the earliest ages. In India it continued as late as the 4th or 
5th centui-ies a.d. In Greece — in what was not borrowed from the 
Egyptians — the change took place about the same time as in Lycia, 
that is to say in the 0th century B.C. It is important to observe 
here that, wherever the process can be detected, it is in vain to look 



Book IV 

for earlier buildings. It is cmlj' in the infancy of stone architecture 
that men adhere to wondcn forms, and as soon as hahit gives them 
familiarity Avith the new material they aljandon the incongniities of 
the style, and we lose all trace of the original form, which never 
reappears at an after age. 

All the original huildings of I^ycia are tombs or monumental 
erections of some kind, and generally may be classed under two heads, 
those having cTirvilinear, and those having rectilinear roofs, of both 
which classes examples are found stnictural — or standing alone — and 
also specimens cut in the rock. The woodcut (No. 151) represents 
a ]ierfect constnicted tomb. It consists first of a double podium, 
which may have been in all cases, or at least generally, of stone. 
Above this is a rectangular chest or sarcophagTis, certainly copied fiom 

a wooden form ; all the 
mortises and framing, even 
to the pins that held them 
together, being literally 
rendered in the stonework. 
Above this is a curvilinear 
roof of pointed form, which 
also is in all its parts a copy 
of an original in wood. 

When these forms are 
repeated in the rock the 
stylobate is omitted, and 
only the upper part rei)re- 
sented, as shov.Ti in the an- 
nexed woodcut (No. 152). 
When the curvilinear 
roof is omitted, a flat one is 
substituted, nearly similar 
to those common in the 
country at the present day. 
consisting of beams of uu- 
squaied timber, laid side 
Ijy side as close as they can 
be laid, and over this a 
mass of concrete or clay, 
sufficiently thick to pre- 
vent the rain from pene- 
trating through. Some- 

152. Rockcut Lycian Tomb. From Forbes and Spratts Lycia. timCS this is SUrmOUntcd 

by a low ]iediment, and 
sometimes the other framing stands out from the rock, so as to give 
the entrance of the tomb something of a porchlike form. Both these 
fonus are illustrated in the two wf.odeuts (Nos. 153, 154), and nume- 
rous varieties of them are shoAvn in the works of Sir Charles Fellows 
and others, all containing the same elements, and betraying most dis- 
tinctly the wooden origin from which they were derived. 

ClIAl>. IV. 


21 1 


Kock-cut Lycian Tomb. From Texier's Asie Miueuie. 


Rock cut I-ycian Tomb. From Sir Charles Fellowss work. 

V 2 



1500K IV. 

The last form that those buildings took was in the sulistitiition of 
an Ionic facjado for tliese carjientry forms : this was not done ap])arently 

at once, for, tlioiigli the Ionic 
form was evidently boiTowed 
from the neighlionring Greek 
cities, it was only adopted by 
degrees, and even then betray- 
ed more strongly the wooden 
forms from which its enta- 
blature was derived than is 
usually found in other or more 
purely Grecian exam[)les. As 
soon as it had fairly gained a 
footing, the wooden style was 
abandoned, and a masOniy one 
substituted in its stead. The 
whole change took ])lace in 
this countiy probably within 
a centuiy ; but this is not a 
fair test of the time such a 
process usually takes, as hero 
fyite„,^,M!^ it was evidently done under 

■'7''7t\^''i' I'lfti'' foreign influence, and with the 

ITia. Ionic Lyiian Tomb. Fioin Te.\ier's Asic Mineurc. spur of the C.vamplo of a StonO- 

building people. We have no 
knowledge of Ikjw lorig it took in Egypt to etl'ect the transformation. 
In India, where the form and construction of the older Buddhist 
temi)les resemble so singiilarly these examples in Lycia, the process can 
be traced tln-ough five or six centuries ; and in Persia it took perhaps 
nearly as long to convert the wooden architecture of the Assyrians 
into even the imperfect stone architecture of the AchaMuenians. Even 
in their best and most perfect buildings, however, much still remained 
to be done before the cai-pontry types were fiiirly got i"id of, and the 
style entitled to rank among the nia.sonic arts of the world. 

The remaining ancient l)uildings of Asia Minor weie all built liy 
the (ireoks and IJomans, each in their own stylo, so that their classi- 
fication and description belong properly to the chapters treating of the 
architectural history of those nations, from Avhich they cannot properly 
be separated, although at the same time it is true that the purely 
Euro]tean forms of the art are considerably modified by the iniluencc 
of local Asiatic forms and feelings. The Ionic order, for instance, 
wliich an)se in the Grecian colonies on the coast, is only the native 
style (if Ibis countiy I)(jrici/ed, if the expression may be used. In 
otiier words, the local method of building had become so modified and 
altered by the Greeks in adapting it io the Doric, which had become 
the typical style with them, as to lose almost all its original Asiatic 
forms. Tl thus became essentially a stone aichitecture with external 
(•olnmns, instead of a style indulging only in wooden pillars, and those 
used intenially, as there is every leason to su]ipt)se was the earlier 

('iiAi>. IV. ASIATIC AUClllTECTUUK. 213 

I'diiu of tlie Jut. TIk- lunif style, tlms composed of two elements, 
took the arran^i'ment of the temples from the Doric, and the details 
trom the Asiatic original. The Koman temples, on the contrary, which 
have been erected in this part of the world, in their columns and other 
details exactly follow the buildings at Eome itself; while, as in the 
instances above qtioted of Jernsalem, Palmyra, Kangovar, and others, 
the essential forms and arrangements arc all local and Asiatic, The 
former are C4reek temples with Asiatic details, the latter Asiatic 
temi)les Avith many Roman masonic forms. The Greeks in fact were 
colonists, the Romans only conquerors ; and hence the striking dift'cr- 
ence in the style of Asiatic art executed under their res])ective influ- 
ence. We shall have frequent occasion in the setpicl to lefei' to this 



(J H APT Ell I. 
E G Y r T.' 


Introductory remarks — Diinensious of the Pyramids — Pyramids of Gizeh 
Saccara — Architecture of the Pyramids. 

VVk have now traced the history of all the known styles of architecture 
of tlie Eastern World, from their origin to the time when they lost 
their local individuality in the great reacticmary movements that took 
place from time to time from the A\' towards the East, It now 
remains to take up the thread of the Western styles of art at their 
earliest dawn in Egypt, and to trace them through the history of that 
great band of nations living round the shores of the Mediterranean Sea, 
who carried forward the ])rogress of the art, without any interruption 
of its continuity, from its first apjicarance on the banks of the Nile till 
it sunk with the fall of the Koman Empire, to make way for the era of 
Christian forms and Christian art. 

Even, however, in this limited space, perfect continuity of narrative 
will be impossible. To prevent confusion, and the necessity of re- 
curring to a subject after it lias been fini.shed, it will be exi)edient first 
to complete the history of Egyptian art from the earliest time till its 
extinction in the time of the Eoman Emperors; then to go back 12 or 
13 centuries to commence the early history of Pelasgic art in Greece, 
and trace the history of the rjrecian styles down to the time of Alex- 
ander the Great, and a thiid time to revert to a ]icriod nearly as early, 
or to the commencement of Etruscan art in Italy. Finally it will be 
necessary to trace the development of art in Kome during the period 
when that groat city gradually al)sorbed Greece and Egy}>t in the vast 
vortex of her ambition, till all these forms of art perished with the 

' It will be seen that in this chapter tlie 2400 years. It lias been thought better, iu 

whole subject of Egyptian chronology is a work like the ])icsent, to exclude the ques- 

oniittcd. Ii has been thought necessary to tion altogether than to atlopt a sj-steni which 

do this on account of the largeness of the is so far from settlwl, without the ])ossibility 

subject and of the great dilference of opinion of stilting the grounds on which tluit system 

which jirevails u]>ou it. The acUia] difference rests. Tiie question is examined in an Ap- 

between the best authorities for the date (for pendix to the ' Principles of Beauty in Art,' 

instance) of the Creat Pyramid is no less than by the Author. 

CiiAi>. I. INT1{01)UCT0RY REMAIUvS. 215 

early civilization of the Western World, in the downfall of Iho Koman 
Empire after the a^e of Constantino the Great. 

Without atteuii)ting here to assign accurate, or even approximate 
dates, we will endeavour to state v/hat is beyond all dispute, and what 
must be borne in mind in order to fonn any correct idea at all of the 
various classes of remains in this ancient land. 

In the accounts which have been transuiitted to us by the Egyptians 
themselves, their early history and chronology are divided according 
to the dynasties of their kings, of which they enumerate no less tlian 
29. Most of these are obscure and unimportant. The great epochs 
wei-e the 4th dynasty, which reigned at lAlemphis, to which the pj-ramids 
of Gizeh are assigned ; the 12th, of which Osoi-tasen was the great 
monarch and Thebes the capital ; and the 18th and 19th, which followed 
on the expulsion of the intruders known as the Shepherd Kings. The 
early part of the 1 8th dynasty was rendered illustrious by the exploits 
of several kings bearing the name of Thothmes. After their period 
a second interruption took place under foreign kings who were wor- 
shippers of the sun, probably a I'emnant of the Shepherd Kings. On 
their expulsion the original line was restored, and during the reigns 
of Mauepthah and the two first kings named Ehamses or Eemeses 
attained the liighest pitch of splendour. 

The first king of the 19th dynasty, known locally as the third 
Ehamses, is clearly identified with the great conqueror known by the 
Greeks as SesoKtris. This and the previoTis dynasty are those which 
furnish us with the most magnificent architectural remains ; and from 
the conclusion of this brilliant epoch began the decline of Egyptian 
art and dominion. 

Tlie architectural history of Egypt thus divides itself into two great 
periods. The first is represented by tlie Pyramids, all the principal of 
wliich stand in the neighbourhood of Memphis, the royal city of the 
old kingdom of LoAver Egypt. The second period is representecl by 
the temples erected by the kings of the later dynasties, who reigned at 
Thebes in Tapper Egypt. All chronological systems, however Avidely 
differing in the actual dates assigned, concur in placing the pyramids 
of Egypt as the oldest of all architectural objects, either in existence 
or of which any record or description whatever is preserved. Their 
relative age, as well as that of the other monuments, is known beyond 
a doubt. Previous to the rise of the 12th or 1st great Theban dynasty 
we have a series of nearly 50 royal pyramids or tombs, wdth contem- 
porary sepulchres and smaller monuments in their neighboaxrhood, 
which enable us to understand, and very completely to illustrate, the 
Avliole progress of the art of this earlier kingdom. This being tlie case, 
it rcall}' is not necessary to attempt to ascertain the exact period which 
elapsed between their erection and that of the monuments wjiich suc- 
ceeded them. It is sufficient to know that they fonn the oldest group 
of monunients in Egypt, and, so far as we can ascertain, also the oldest 
in the woi'ld. We have every reason to look upon them as exam])k's of 
a style absolutely inde]iendent of all previous ett'orts of human art either 
in Egypt itself or in any contemporaiy nation. 


Witli thcsL' evidences of extreme anti(iTiity we arc istartled t«» fiiul 
J0g-3ptia)i ait nearly jis peii'eet in the oldest pyramids as in any ol" 
the later, or as it became aftenvards, when all the refinement aaid all the 
science of the Greeks had Leen applied to its elaboration. Even at 
the earliest peiiudthe Egyptians had attained the art of transporting the 
heaviest blocks of granite fiom iSyene to Memjjhis, of s(|uaring them 
with a mathematical precision never surpassed, of polishing them to a 
suifacc as smooth as gla«s, and of raising them higher thtui such blocks 
have ever been raised in an}' buildings in the world, and setting them 
with a truth and precision so wondeiful, that they now lie there 
without liaw or settlement, after thousands of years have passed over 
them, and swept the more modem buildings of other nations from 
the face of the earth, or laid them in undefinablo and indiscriminate 

At that early period, too, the art of sculpture was as perfect as it 
ever afterwards became: the hieroglyphics are an perfectly cut, as 
beautifully coloured, and told their tale with the same quaint distinct- 
ness which aftenvards characterised them. It is in vain to speculate 
on how long it must have taken any nation to reach this degix-e of jicr- 
fectiou, moie especially a nation so little progressive as the Egyptians 
were. We must content ourselves with the fact, and in our wonder at 
its immensity leani from it more humble notions of our own anticpiity 
and knowledge, and more extended views of ancient history-. Above 
all, we ac(]uiic a more exalted admiration for the ])eo})le who, long 
before the da-\\ii of civilisation among other natit)ns, had already reached 
so high a pitch of greatness, and achieved that jiosition which enabled 
them to intlucnce and instruct all subsequent ages in their science and 
their i)hilns(»phy. 

Turning, then, to the Pyi-amids — the oldest, largest, and most mys- 
terious of all the monuments of man's art now existing — we find that all 
thos^e in Egypt are situated on the left bank of the Nile, just beyond 
tlie cultivated ground, and on the edge of the desert, and all the ])rin- 
cipal ones withiji what may fairly be called the Necropolis of Memphis. 
Lej)sius, it is said, has discovered and explored about 50 of these, all 
which appear to be royal sei)ulchres. This alone, if tnie, would sutfice 
to justify us in assigning a duration of 1000 years to the dynasties of 
the pyramid-builders, which is about the date we acquire from other 

The three great pyramids of Gizeh are the most remarkable and the 
best known of all those of Egy])t. Of these the first, erected by ('heo])s, 
or, JUS he is noAV more correctly named, Sui)his, is the largest; but the 
next, by Cheidieren, his brother, is scarcely inferior in dimensicms ; the 
tliird, that of Mycerinus, is very much smaller, but excelled the two 
others in this, that it had a coating of beautiful red granite from Syenc, 
while the other two were reveted only with the beautiful limestone of 
the country. Tart of this coating still remains near the top of the 
second ; and Colonel Vyse was fortunate enough to discover some of 
the ccjping-stones of the Great Pyiamid buried in the rubbish at its 
base, sufticient to indicate the nature and extent of the whole, and to 

CiiAi-. I. THE PYRAMIDS. Iil7 

,sli(i\v lliat it was commcncoil from ihv luttioin Jiiid carried iipwards. not 
at tho to]), as it has somctiiues been thoiightk'ssly asserted. 

The diiuensiuiis of these three, as ascertained by the copings, are 
as follows : — 

Length of 


Area in 

Anple of 

Angle of 


square feet. 





o ' 


Cheops . 

. 764 . 

. 480 . 

. 543,691) . 

. 51-50 . 

. 26-41 

Chepheren . 

. 707 . 

. 454 . 

. 409,849 . 

. 52-20 . 

. 25-55 

Mycerinus . 

. 354 . 

. 218 . 

. 125,316 . 

. 51- 

. 26-2 ' 

From this it will be seen that the area of the Great Pyramid (more 
than 13 acres) is more than twice the extent of that of St. Peter's of 
l\ome, or any other building in the world. Its height is equal to the 
higliest spire of any cathedral in Europe ; for, though it has been 
attempted to erect higher buildings, in no instance has this yet been 
successful. Even the third pyramid covers more ground than any 
G(,)thic cathedral, and the mass of materials it contains far sur^iasses 
that of any erection we possess in Europe. 

All the pyramids (with one exception) face exactly north, and have 
their entrance on that side — a circumstance the more remarkable, as 
the later builders of Thebes seem to have had no notion of orientation, 
but to have placed their buildings and tombs, almost as if to avoid 
regularity, in every conceivable direction. Instead of the entrances 
to the pyramids being level, they all slope downwards— generally at 
angles of about 26° to the horizon — a circumstance which has led to an 
infinity of speculation, as to whether they were not ol)servatories, and 
meant for the observation of the pole-star, &c. All these theories, 
liowever, have failed, for a variety of reasons it is needless now to 
recapitulate ; but among others it may be mentioned that the angles 
are not the same in any two pyramids, though built within a few years 
of one another, and in the twenty which were measured by Colonel 
Vyse they vary from 22° 35' to 34° 5'. The angle of the inclination 
of the side of the pyramid to the horizon is more constant, varying 
only from 51° 10' to 52° 32', and in the Gizeh pyramids the angle of 
the passage seems to have been intended to have been about one-half 
of this. Beyond this it is difficult to proceed, unless we may perhaps 
ol)tain an approximation to the principle by which the builders seem 
to have been governed by the following sim})le calculation. Divide 
the circle into 28 parts, which, as the Egyptians used weeks and lunar 
reckoning, is by no means an im]irobal)le division. Let every 28th 
]«irt be represented by (t, which will thus be ec^ual to 12°. 857. Mul- 
tiply this by 2, 3, 4, and 5, and we obtain thereby very nearly the 


The measures quoted in the text are all loweil in the text, and another set corrected 

taken from the elaborate siu'veys made by according to his theory of what they ought 

:Mr. Perring for Colonel Vyse, which are by to have been, sujiposing every part to have 

far the most comitlete and correct which have been set out of an even miml)er of Kgyptian 

vet bcLMi pulilished. It is necessary, how- cubits. In most instances Iiis theory agrees 

ever to warn the reader that ]Mr. Terring pretty cKisely witli liis observations, liut is 

iiublished two sets of measurements, tliose generally more lila-ly to mislead than guide 

iVoni actual observation, wliicli are tliose fol- tlie reader. 


moan an^lo tf all the dittbront imrts of tlio jnramid.' But as no two 
liyiamiils tblluw the same lule, it is obvious tluit this or any other 
explanation must fail, if strictly apjjlied to any one, to be equally 
ajtplicable to the others. 

The most ]>lausible thef)ry seems to be, tliat the faces of the jtyjamid 
were intended to be practically 4 equilateral triangles, laid a<;aiiist 
one another, and meeting at the apex. For instance, in the three 
great p^Tamids at Gizeh, the ratios of the sloping edges to the base are 
as follows : — 

Gi-e.1t rynimid 7G4 feet. . . 7JU feet. . . 44 feet. 

Secoud Pyramid 707 ,, . . 072 ,, . . 35 ,, 

Tliii-d Pynmiid 354 ,, . . 330 „ . . 24 „ 

It will be observed that the difference is least — about 5 per cent. — 
in the second ])vramid, the one which retains the greatest part of its 
coi)ing ; and there may be some error in the measurement of the others 
deiived from a single coping-stone. 

^^'ith any other people than the Egyptians this might be considered 
a sufficient explanation — all the other parts being multiples or sub- 
multiples of the angles derived from this fact. But the Egyptians were 
such excellent mathematicians and such perfect luiildei's in those times, 
that this can only be considered as an approximation towards the solu- 
tion of the problem ; but it is one sufficient for our empirical nile to 
attain the general fonn ami dimension of a pyramid, using the multiples 
given in the pieceding i)age. 

The principal dimensicms (jf the Great Pyramid have been given, 
to which it may be added that the entrance is about 47 ft. (3 in. above 
the base, on the 15th step or platform. There arc in all 2U3 such 






Angles ciilculalol 

' Angle ADIi . . 

. 5P 2it' 

52 3 21' 

. . 5P 10' . 

from tlic 2.''lli of a 

circle (a). 

4,1 = 51-4-'8 

„ OAG . 

1 1 




. . 77 


(),( = 77-142 

„ ACB 

. 41 


. 42 


. . 41 

18 . 

. 3(1= 38-571 

.) <"AI' 

. 97 


. 94 


. . 97 

23 . 

. 7^a= 96-428 


., i:ak . 

Passages . . . 

. 58 


. 58 


. . 58 


. 4^ = 57-856 

. G3 


. 62 


. . 63 

46 . 

')(i = 64-285 

. 26 



. 25 


. . 27 

34 . 

. 2«= 25-714 

CllAl-. 1. 



stei)s. Tlioir average height is nearly 2 ft. (! in., but they diiuinish 
ill lieight — generally speaking, hut not unifunnly — towards the t(jp. 
'I'he summit now consists of a platform 32 ft. 8 in. scpiare ; so that 
about 24 ft. is wanting, the present actual height being 4oG ft. It con- 
tains 2 chambers above-ground, and 1 cut in the rock at a considerable 
depth be'low the foundations. 

The passages and chambers are worthy of the mass ; all are lined 
with polished granite ; and the ingenuity and pains that have been 
taken to render them solid and secure, and to prevent their being 
oushcd by the superincumbent mass, raise our idea of Egyptian science 
higher than even the bulk of the building itself could do. 

Towards the exterior, where the pressure is not gi'cat, the roof is 
flat, though it is probable that even there the weight is throughoTit 
discharged by 2 stones, sloping up at a certain angle to where they 
meet, as at the entrance. Towards the centre of the pyramid, how- 
ever, the passage becomes 28 ft. high, and assumes the form of inverted 
stairs, as shown in the section (fig. 1), till it contracts so much at 
the top that no pressure can hurt it. Nowhere, however, is this 
ingenuity more shown than in the royal chamber, which measures 
17 ft. 1 in. by 34 ft. 3 in., and 19 ft. in height. The walls are lined 
and the roof is formed of splendid 
slabs of Syenite, but above the jf/m/^ni'//' i, 

roof 4 successive chambers, as ^^ " - a 

sho^ni in the annexed section ^ -/^ 

(fig. 2), have been formed, each ' "^ '^ pj_, ^ 

divided from the other by slabs of ; ■ "■ , 

granite, polished on their lower 
surfaces, but left rough on the 
upper, and above these a 5th 
chamber is formed of 2 sloping 



Kis;. 1. 




Section ul King's Chamber and of I'assage in 
Gre;it Pyramid. Scale 50 ft. to 1 in. 

blocks to discharge the weight of 
the whole. The first of these 
chambers has long been kno'WTi : 
the upper four were discovered and 
first entered by Colonel Vyse, and 
it was there that he discovered the 

name of the founder. This Avas not engi'aved as a record, but scribbled 
in red paint on the stones, apparently as a quarry -mark, or as an address 
to the king, and accompanied by something like directions for their 
position in the building, sufficient, however, to identify completely the 
founder and the time of the erection of the pyramid. This is the only 
really virgin discovery in the pyramids, as they have all been opened 
either in the time of the Greeks or ]-iomans, or by the Mahometans, 
and an unrifled tomb of this age is still a desideratum. Until such is 
hit upon we must remain in ignorance of the real mode of sepulture in 
those days, and of the pui-pose of many of the arrangements of these 
mysterious buildings. 

The porteullises which invariably close the entrances of the si'])ul- 
chral chamber in tlu' pyramids are among tlu- most ciirious and Inge- 


nioiis of the aiTfni<:;cniciits <>f these lnn'Minjj;s. Generally they eunsitst 
ul great eiibiciil masses ctf" gniuito, measuring 8 or lU it. each way, and 
consequently weighing 50 or 60 tons, and even more. These were 
fitted into chambers prepared during the construction of the building, 
but raised into the ui)per parts, and, being lowered after the body was 
dc})u.sited, closed the entrance so eifectually that in some instances it 
has been found necessary either to break them in ])ieces, or to cut a 
passage round them to gain admission to the chaiubers. They gene- 
rally slide in grooves in the wall, to which they fit exactly, and alto- 
gether show a degree of ingenuity and forethought very remarkable, 
considering the early age at which they were executed. 

In the second pji-amid one chamber has been discovered partly 
above ground, partly cut in the rock. In the third the chambers are 
numerous, all excavated in the rock ; and from the tunnels that have 
been driven by explorers through the superstnictures of these two, it 
is very doubtful whether . anything is to be found above gr(.)uud. It is 
observable that the measurements of the third pyramid are as nearly as 
possible the exact half of those of the second. This cannot have been 

The exceptional pyramid above alluded to is that of baccara, shown 
in the annexed plan and section (woodcut No. 153), both to the scale 
of 100 ft. to 1 in. It is the only pyramid that does not face exactly 
north and south. It is nearly of the same general dimensions with the 
])yramid of C'hepheren, but its outline, the disjiosition of its chambers, 
and the hieroglyphics found in its interior, all seem to })oint to an imi- 
tation of the old form of mausolea by some king of a far more modern 

All the old pyramids do not follow the simple outline of those of 
Gizch. That at Uashoor, for instance, rises to half its height Avith a 
slope of 54^ to the horizon, but is finished at the angle of 45 , giving 
it a very exceptional appearance ; and that of Meydoon has more the 
api)earance of a tower, its angle being 74° 10'. Two smiUler toAvers 
rise from its summit, in the manner in which it is supposed Assyrian 
[)yramids were usually constructed. The latter, indeed, seems not to 
have been an unusual mode of building p>Tamids in stories or stages, 
each less than the other, but it is possible that this was only temjiorary 
or preparatory, and that it w;is intended eventually to smooth the whole 
down to the more orthodox fonii of a straight -sided i)yramid. 

The architecture of the ago of the i)yramids hjis not yet been sufli- 
ciently illustrated ; but when the great Pnissian wt)rk is finished, this 
reproach will be removed, as Lcpsius seems to have paid especial 
attention to the stnictural tombs and buildings around the pyramids, 
many or most of which are contemporary, or nearly so. with the oldest 
of them. 

Like all early architecture, it shows evident symjitoms of having 
been boiTowed from a wooden original. The lintels of the doorways 
are still rounded, and the walls are mere square posts, grooved and 
jointed togethei", and every ])art of it as unlike a stone architecture as 
can possil)ly be seen. Vet the pyramids themselves, and those toml)s 

ClIAf. I. 






— 1^|m|H 





C^v^^^^^^ '~, 

From Culiiui,'! V'j-se's work. 
Stale 100 ft. to 1 ill. 



Book V 

whicli are found oiitsi<le, generally are far removed fiom wooden 
forms ; and it is only when we find tlio E<»;yptian indnl<j;ing in deco- 
rative art that we trace this more primitive form. There are two door- 
ways of this class iu the British Museum, and many in that of Berlin ; 
but i)erhaps one of the best illustrations of the architectural forms of 
that day is the sarco])ha.t!;us of Mycerinus, luifoi-tunately lost on its way 
to En^hmd. It represents a palace, with all the ])eeu]iarities found (m 
a larger scale in the buildings which surround tlui pyramid, with the 
peculiar cornice and still more peculiar roll oi- ligature on the angles, 
uu)st evidently a carpentry form, but which the style retained to its 
latest day. 



Sarcophagus of Myccrinus, found in 'I'ljiiil ryniinid. 

In many of the tombs surrounding the pyramids square piers are 
found su])poiting the roof, sometimes, but rarely, with an abacus, gene- 
lally without any carved work, though it is more than pixibable that 
they were oiiginally i)aiuted with devices upon which they depended 
for their ornament. In most instances they look more like frag- 
ments of a wall, of which the intei-vening spaces had been cut away, 
than pillars in the sense in which we usually miderstand the word ; 
and in all instances iu the early ages they must be considered moi'c 
tis utilitai-ian expedients than as parts of an ornamental style of 

From the knowledge, however, that we do possess of this style, we 
may safely assert that it is one of the least beautiful artistically of those 
we are ae<piainted with, and infinitely infeiior to the 'l'hel)an style 
which succeeded it. The early Egyptians built neither for beauty iior 
for use, but for eteniity. To this last they sacrificed every other feeling. 
In itself nothing can be less artistic than a ])yramid. A tower, cither 
round or scpiare, or of any other form, and of the same dimensions, 
would have been far more imposing, and if of sufficient height— the 
mass being the same— might almost attain to sublimity ; but a pyramid 
never looks so large as it is, .-md not till you alnujst touch it can you 
be brought to believe that its dinu'usions are so great as they are. This 
is owing principally to all its parts sloping away from the "eye instead 
of boldly challenging obsei'\-ation ; but, on the other hand, no form is 
80 stiible, none so capable of resisting the injuries of time or force, and 


none, e()nso(iiiontly, so well cjilculatefl to attain the ohject for wliieli 
{\\o i>viainiils were evecterl. As examples of tei-hnic art, they air uii- 
livalled aniono; the works of men, but they rank amonj;- tlu; lowest if 
jii(1,l;\hI hy the aesthetic rules of arehiteetural art. 

'J'lie same character belongs to the tombs and buildings avDiuiil 
them : they are low and solid, and possess neither beauty of form nor 
any arehiteetural feature at all worthy of attention or admii-atif)n, but 
they have lasted nearly uninjured from the remotest antiquity, and 
tlms have attained the object their builders had princi])ally in view 
when they designed them. 

224 THKIUN AUCUlTEnTHK. J]o<jk V. 


llistoricjvl notice — rillara — Teinple-Palaces — lihamession — Kaniac. 

The moment we pass the local limits of the necropolis of INIemphis, or 
eliiT)nol(),<;-ically come below the d^-nasties of the pyramid-lmildors, wo 
■ aie at once aware of being in the presence of a new style of architec- 
ture, differing in almost every respect from that which preceded it, and 
in many characteristics antagonistic to it to a remarkable extent. 

We have no longer any pyi-amids, nor any traces of that quaint 
style of wooden architecture pointed out above. C)bclisks become one 
of the most remarkable and striking featiires of the new style, all of 
theui, so far as we know, situated on the eastern side, as all the pyra- 
mids Avere on the western side of the Nile. CVdunmar architecture 
becouies also general, comprising two of the forms of columns, after- 
wards more generally used ; the I'roto-Doric, so called from its extreme 
similarity to the Greek order of that name, and those with what is 
(•ailed the lotus-bud capital, from its supposed resemblance to the bud 
of that sacred plant. It is in this ago that the great temple at Kamac 
was commenced by Osortascn, the first temple of which we have any 
cognizance in Egyptian history; and under another king of the same 
dynasty — Amenemha — the LabjTinth was also begun, though when it. 
was finished, or how far it was carried by him, are as yet by no means 
clcai'. Xor is it known whether the pyiamid that forms part of the 
group was built by that king, or belongs to some prior dynast}'. 

lender the kings of this period Egypt enjoyed great prosj^erity ; 
the face of the country was changed ; a new style of art and new man- 
ners were introduced. This state of things was suddenly checked by 
the Shepherd invasion, the greatest of all tlie afliictions which Egypt 
suffered during her long career, which luuubled her into the condition 
of a subject province. It is by no means satisfactoril}' settled, even 
now, who these Shejdierds Were, though they must probably have been 
a race inhabiting either the Valley of the Euphrates, or some of the 
cuuntrics between that region and the A'alley (»f tlie Nile, who, entering 
by the Isthmus of Suez, took possession of the whole country from the 
Cafciract to the sea. The detest<ation in which the memory of these 
intiudcrs was ever after held in Egypt testifies to the oppressiveness 
oi their nile, and to the disgust which their barbarism inspired among 
their far more civilised subjects. We read that, during the steward- 

riiAi'. 11. riLLAUs. 22:. 

slii]) of .loise})h " tlio Kp;yptian.s mi<:;lit not cat In'cail Avith the ITol)]-uw8 ; 
tor tliat is an alioininatioii to the Eji'v])tians," and that " every shepherd 
is an abomiiiatiun nnto the l]<j:;yptians." ' 

The descendants of the old Egyptian kings, however, still existed, 
tliongh they cannot be said to have reigiied till lapse of time bronght 
ileeay and corniption into the janks of the Shepherd kings, when, 
joining with the other petty ])rinces of native descent, they rose, 
expelled the Shepherd races, and restored the 'J'heban Empire with 
even greater glory than before. Under their iiilc Egypt became the 
most powerful state in the ancient world, and attained a point of great- 
ness in arms and art which she never snipassed, and which, in so far 
as architectnre is concerned, is unequalled by any state Avhich has 
existed from that time to this. 

On the restoration of the old Egyptian monarchs they brought back 
with them the st^'le of art which had prevailed before the inteiTuption 
caused by their subjection, luialtered in all respects. The two periods, 
therefore, must be taken together as one grouji. As this group com- 
}»rehends all that is best and greatest in Egyptian art, it will be neces- 
sary to treat it rather more in detail and more methodically than the 
previous style. 


Egyptian pillars aie of very A^arious fonns. Of these we must be 
content here to describe a few, which appear the most distinct, and 
t}'2)ical of the general style of art. 

The simplest form is that of a plain square pier, with or Avithout 
an abacus, as used in the tombs about the pyramids. Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson suggests that it Avas derived from the supports left in quar- 
ries to sustain the superincumbent strata, but its origin may be even 
earlier and simpler than this, for it is evident that, wherever a loof or 
verandah or open space is to be covered, Avhether the masonry is of 
brick or of stone, a square pier is the most obvious, the simjjlest, and 
mechanically the best mode of su])porting a beam or beams. Such 
square piers Avere probably used in the bazaars, the houses, and tenq)les 
of Memphis, before CA'en the time Avhen the pyi-amids Avere erected. 
When built of brick or a rubble stone, an abacus, either of flat tiles or 
of Avood, becomes indispensable, to diifuse the pressure of the beams 
equally. Piers of masonry in regidar flat courses Avere used contem- 
poraneousl}' Avith those of brick or rubble. In none of these is it 
necessary that the abacus should project beyond the line of the i)illars. 
no)- in fact does this appear ,to have been usual in any peiiod of Egyp- 
tian art. The next form that this pillar took Avas that of an octasron 
])roduced by cutting off the angles of the square : an improvement 
Avhich, if not indispensable for jjillars on the exterior of buildings, Avas 
nearly so internally, Avhcie the space occupied and the shai-ji square 
angles Avere particularly aAvkAvard. This step made, it Avas easy to 
cany it further by cutting oil" the angles of the octagon, so as to make 

' (Jenosis xliii. 32; xlvi. I!4. 



Book V. 

160. Pillar at BeniHiissiiiu. 

it a pillar of 16 sides, and again of 32, as was done afterguards in India, 
Imt, with this diffbrcnce, that in that oonntry all these polygons are 
found in the same pilliir, while here the same one 
is always carried from the base to the summit. All 
these variations required a marked and projecting 
abacus, to correspond with the lines of the Learns 
or entablature that rested upon them, which was not 
indispensably necessary when merely a square pier 
was en\ployed. 

The last improvement, and that Avhicb brought 
it nearest the Grecian form, was hollowing out the 
faces of the polygon with a reversed curve, so as to 
produce what is called fluting. All these kinds of 
pillars are found perfected in very early tombs, and 
may have been used from tlie most remote anti(|uity. 
The earliest examples exhibiting all these improve- 
ments that have come down to our. age ai'e those at 
Beni Hassan, excavated during the supremacy of the 
12th dynasty. There both 8 and 16 sided pillars 
are found supp<irtiug Avhat may have been either a 
stone or wooden architrave, and sometimes, as in 
this view (woodcut No. 161), what certainly represents a wcoden roof. 
Internally^ as shown in woodcut No. 160, it looks very much as if a 
))rick arch were thrown from range to range of these columns, but, 
being cut in the rock, it is diflicult to be certain on this point. 

These proto-Doric pillars occur in the rock-cut temples of Nubia, of 

the age *)f lihamses II., and 
elsewhere, sometimes with 
a flat band down the cen- 
tre, containing an inscription 
in hieroglyphics ; generally 
they have all the character- 
istics of the Grecian order, 
except the echinus or beau- 
tifid carved member under 
the abacus, which the Egyp- 
tians never used. 

One of the oldest forms 
of pillars in Egypt is repre- 
sented in woodcut No. 1 02. 
It is evidently derived from a wooden post used to support a roof 
internally, and its peculiar shape may be meant, either as a rei^ro- 
duction in cai-ving of what were originally stripes of colour, or as 
stems of lotus, or of some kind of reeds, coupled and banded 
together. Its capital is not unlike the shape of a bud. It is found 
with the proto-Doric at Beni Hassan, and it continued the favourite 
order throughout the whole Bharaonic period, though frequently a 
plain circular shaft was substituted for the complex one. 

At Beni Ihussan the shaft tapers regularly from the bate to the 


Tomb at Beni Hassan. 

t'llAf. II. 


mjckiiiL;" of the ciipital, but in the great exain])les executed during the 
18th dynast V the pilhus eoutraet again at the base, as in the next 
woodeut, which gives a degree of liglitness and ele- 
gance to their otherwise too massive forms that is 
singularly pleasing. 

The best example of the order is found in the 
lateral colonnades of the great hall at Karnac (wood- 
cut No. 170 farther on), but there are scarcely any of 
the temples of the great age that have not specimens 
of it. At first sight its form is so peculiar, and so 
unmeaning, that it has never been copied out of 
Egypt, though all her other orders are found else- 

A large class of pillars have capitals resembling 
the calyx or bell of a flower, but the form is so con- 
ventional, and, as no examples of the order are found 
of a date anterior to the great 18th dynasty, we find 
it (luly so far removed from its origin, that it is diffi- 
cult to trace it backward to its source. 

The typical example of this style is found in the 
Ilypostyle Hall at Karnac, where the pillars are 70 ft. 
in height to tlie under side of the architrave, and 
more than half that in circumference at a little above 
the base. 

Those, hoAvever, of the Ehamession (woodcut No. 
163), on the other side of the Nile, thoiTgh only 30 ft. 
in height, are perhaps more graceful, though certainly neither so 
majestic nor so characteristic of Egyptian art. 

Of these capitals the papyrus cup may be considered as the typical 
form, but there are also in Egypt some decidedly lotus forms. Some- 
times the bell of the capital is adorned with palm leaves, or reeds, or 
conventional vegetable forms. In the Ptolemaic period the Greeks 
showed a peculiar preference for this order, from its resemblance to 
their favourite Corinthian order, which in fact was copied from it, and 
they adorned it, not only as the Egyptians had done, but in fifty fan- 
tastic ways, many of them far from being conducive to its appropriate- 
ness or architectural beanty. 

Another class of pillars is, as far as taste is concenicd, the 
most questionable of any. Its peculiarity consists in employing Tsis 
heads or figures of Typhon, or other deities, as the ornaments of its 

The origin of these is easily explained ; for early examples exist 
showing the Isis head, either painted or sculptured in low relief, on 
the face or faces of square piers, and gradually the relief and promi- 
nence of the head became greater and greater, and the column 
more and more attennated, till we conie to the typical specimen of 
Dendera (woodcut No. 165), of the Koman age. It cannot, however, 
be regarded as an example of the bad taste of modem times, as an 
Isis-headed capital, represented in (lie woodcut No. 164, is found 

Pillar from lii iii 



Book V. 

at Sedinga in Ethiopia, of tliu age of Amunopth III., of the 18th 


103. Pillar, from Rhamession, 'I'lifbes. 

164. I'illar, I'rom Sedinga. 

'i'lii.s Older must not he eonfounded witli what ai'e sometimes, though 
imjuoperly, called Caryatide columns. In Egypt there are many 
square piers of the class described above, with Colossi placed in front 
of them, (»ne of which is shown in woodcut No. 100, but the figures 
neither support the architrave, as in Greece, nor do they serv^e to 
strengthen the pillar, though attached to it. They are in fact statues 
ranged architecturally, not architectural objects at all. No doubt they 
heighten the architectural effect, and constitute some of the most im- 
])osing groTips of Egyptian art : .still they are as distinct from tlie archi- 
tectuie a.s the adjacent Sphinxes or seated Colossi with wliicli tlicy 
unite to produce that grandeur of effect the Egyptians knew so well 

ClI.M'. II. 



h.iw to create, by combining: the arts of the builder, the sculptor, and 
tlio ]i;iintor, each in liis .sepaiiite province, but still encli working out 
iho ('labi)ratiou of one grand design. 


Ifio. Pillar, from the Portico at 

KiC. Ciryatiilp Pillar, from (Iir Great Court at 


The plans of Egyptian temples aic as various as tlic forms of fheii' 
pillars; so much .so, indeed, as to make it very ditlicult to describe 
them. The greatest and noblest is that at Karnac, but, like most 
Indian temples, it is an aggregation of parts around a small but sacred 
centre ; and having been gradually elaborated during several centuries, 
it presents no uniformity of jdan or design. The temple knoAvn as tlie 




lihumession, on the opposite side of the Nile, is better therefore fur our 
piir])ose. The whole of it was built b}' Itlumiscs the Groat, in the 15th 
centnrv n.c, as will bo seen from the ])laii, clra•\^Tl to the iiniial scale. 

Its ia(;'a(le is formed by 
two great pylons, or pyra- 
midal masses of masonry, 
which, like the two west- 
ei-n towci-s of a Gothic 
cathedral, are the ap])ro- 
priate and most imposing 
pai't of the structure ex- 
ternally. Between these 
is the entrance doorway, 
leading almost invariably 
into a great square court- 
yard, with porticoes al- 
ways on two, and some- 
times on three sides. This 
leads to an inner court, 
smaller, but far more 
splendid, than the first. 
On the two sides of this 
couii, through which the 
central passage leads, aie 
square piers with colossi 
in fnmt, and on the right 
and left are double langes 
of circular columns, which 
are continued also behind 
the square piers fronting 
the entrance. Passing 
through this, we come to 
a hypostyle hall of great 
Ijeauty, formed by two 
ranges of larger columns 
in the centre, and three 
rows of smaller ones on 
each side. These hyjio- 
stjde halls almost alwa^'s 
accompany the larger 
Egyptian temples of the 
great age. They derive 
their name from having 




Rbumession at Thebes. .Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 

an upper range of co- 
lumns, or what in Gothic 
architecture would be called a clerestory, through which the light is 
admitted to the central portion of the hall. Although some are more 
extensive than this, the an-angement of all is nearly similar. They pos- 
sess 2 ranges of columns in tlie centre so tall as to equal the height of 


the sido columns together Avitli that of the attic Avliich is ])laced on them. 
These ai-e generally of different orders ; the central pillars having a 
hell-shaped capital, the under side of which is perfectly illuminated 
from the mode in which the light was introduced : Avhilc in the side 
pillars the cajjital was narrower at the top than at the bottom, appa- 
avntly for the sake of allowing its oi-namcnts to be seen. One of the 
central jiillars is given (woodciit No. 163). Beyond this are always 
.se^ eral smaller apartments, in this instance supposed to be nine in 
number, but they are so ruined that it is difficult to be quite certain 
Avhat their arrangement was. These seem to have been lather suited 
to the residences of the king or priests than to the purposes of a 
temple, as we understand the word. Indeed, palace-temple, or temple- 
palace, would be a more appropriate term for these buildings than to 
call them simply temples. They do not seem to have been appro- 
priated to the worship of any particular god, but rather for the great 
ceremonials of royalty — of kingly sacrifice to the gods for the people, 
and of worship of the king by tlie people. He seems to have been 
regarded, if not as a god, at least as the representative of the gods on 

Though the Ehamession is so grand from its dimensions, and so 
beautiful from its design, it is far surpassed in every respect by the 
palace-temple at Karnac, which is perhaps the noblest effort of archi- 
tectural magnificence ever produced by the hand of man. 

Its principal dimensions are 1200 ft. in length, by aboiit 3 GO in 
width, and it covers therefore about 430,000 square ft., or more than 
twice the area of St. Peter's at Eome, and more than four times that of 
any mediaeval cathedral existing. This, however, is not a fair way of 
estimating its dimensions, for our churches are buildings entirely under 
one roof; but at Karnac a considerable portion was Tincovered by any 
buildings, so that no such comjiarison is just. The great hypostyle 
hall, however, is internally 340 ft. by 170, and, with its two pylons, 
it covers more than 88,000 square ft., a greater area than the cathedral 
of Cologne, the largest of all our northern cathedrals ; and Avhen we 
consider that this is only a part of a great whole, we may faiily assert 
that the whole is among the largest, as it undoubtedly is one of the 
most beautiful buildings in the world. 

The original part of this gi-eat group was, as before mentioned, the 
sanctuary or temple built by Osortasen, the great monarch of the 12th 
dynasty, before the Shepheni invasion. It is the only thing that seems 
to have been allowed to stand during the five centuries of Shepherd 
domination, though it is by no means clear tliat even it stood, and 
that it had not been pulled down by the Shepherds, and reinstated by 
the first kings of the 18th dynasty, an operation which was easily per- 
formed Avitli the beautiful polished granite masonry of the sanctuar}-. 
Be this as it may, Amenophis, the first king of the restored lace, en- 
closed this in a temple about 120 ft. square. Thothmes I. built in 
front of it a splendid hall, surrounded by colossi, backed b}- piers ; 
and Thothmes III. erected behind it a palace or temple, Avhich is one 
of the most singular buildings in Egypt. The hall is 14n ft. long by 



Hook V 

5.") in width intc'iiiiilly, ami llic roof siipiiurtocl by two roAvs of massive 
S(|uaie coluimis, ami two of circular pillars of most exceptional form, 
the capital being reversed, and something of the form usually found in 
Assyria, but never again in Egypt. Like almost all Egyptian halls, 
it was liglitcil fnmi the roof in the manner shown in the section, ^\ith 
all these additions, the temple was a complete whole, 540 ft. in length 
by 280 in width, at the time when the sun-worshipjiers brolce in u])on 
the regular succession of the great 18th dynasty. 



lU 2U 3U 4U 50 

Section of Palace of I'hothmes III., Thtbes. 

When the original line was resumed, Manepthah commenced the 
building of the great hall, Avhich he nearly completed. Ehamses, the 
first king of the 19th dynasty, built the small temple in front ; and 
the so-called Bubastitc kings of the 22nd d-\niasty added the great 
court in front, completing the building to the extent we now find it. 
We have thus, as in some of our meditcval cathedrals, in this one 
temple, a complete history of the style during the whole of its most 
tloiii-ishing ])eriod ; and, either for interest or for beauty, it forms such 
a seii(\s as no other country, and no other age, can produce, liesides 
those buildings mentioned above, there are other temjilcs to the north, 
to the east, and more especially to the south, and pylons connecting 
these, and avenues of s])hinxes extending for miles, and enclosing 
walls, and tanks, and embankments, making up such a grou]i as no 
city ever possessed before or since. St. Teter's, with its colonnades, 
and the Vatican, make up an immense mass, but as insignificant in 
extent as in style when compared with this glory of ancient Thebes 
and its surrounding temjilcs. 

The culminating ])oint and climax of all this group of building is 
the hypostyle hall of ]\Ianei)thah. The accompanying i)lan, and section 
of its central portion, both to the usual scale, will explain its general 
an-angenient ; but no language can convey an idea of its beauty, and 
no artist has yet been able to re])roduce its form so as to convey to 
those who have not seen it an idea of its grandeur. The mass of its 
central piers, illumined by a flood of light from the clerestory, and the 
smaller i)illars of the wings gradually fading into obscurity, are so 
arranged and lighted as to convey an idea of infinite space ; at the 
same time, the beauty and massiveness of the forms, and the brilliancy 
of their coloured decorations, all combine to stamj) this as the greatest 
. of man's architectural works ; but .such a one as it would be impossible 

ClIAl-. II. 



ti) ro]ivo(lncc, cxco])t in sxich a climate and in iiiilivi(lii;il stvlr in 
which, and lor which, it was created. 

On tho same side of the Nile, and connected with it by an avenne 
of sphinxes, stands the temple of Lnxor, hardly inferior in some respects 


Plan of Ilypostyle Hall at Karnac. Scale molt, to 1 in. 

170. Section of central ponion of Hyposty le Hall at Karnai-. Scale 50 ft. to I in. 

to its great rival at Karnac ; but cither it was never finished, or, OAvinp; 
to its proximity to the Nile, it has been mined, and the materials 
carried away. The length is abont 800 ft.. its breadth ranging from 
100 to 200 ft. Its general arrangement comprised, first, a great court 



Book Y. 

at a fliflFeront aii,o:le from the rest, being turned so as to face Kaniac. 
In front of this standtwo coh^ssi of Jihanises the Great, its founder, 
and two obelisks were once also there, one of which is now in J'aris. 
Behind this Avas once a great hypostyle hall, but only the two central 
ran«'-es of columns are now standing. Slill further back Avere smaller 
halls and numerous apartments, evidently meant for the khigs resi- 
dence, rather than for a temple or place exclusively devoted to Avorshij). 
The palace at Luxor is further remarkable as a striking instance of 
hoAV regardless the Egyptians were of regularity and symmetry in 
tlicir plans. IS'ot only is there a considerable angle in the direction 
of tlie axis of the building, but the angles of the courtyards are hardly 
ever right angles ; the pillars are variously spaced, and pains seem to 
have been gratuitously taken to make it as irregidar as possible in 
nearly every respect. All that part on the soiitheni end was erected 

by Amenophis III., the northern part completed 
by Khamses the Great, the same who built the 
Ehamession already described as situated on the 
other bank of the Nile. 

Besides these there stood on the western 
side of the Kile the jNIemnoniuni, or great 
tem})le of Amenophis III., now almost entirely 
ruined, having been placed on the alluvial i)lain, 
Avithin tin* limits of the inundation, which has 
tended on the one hand to bury it, and on the 
other to facilitate the removal of its materials. 
Nearly the only remains of it now apparent 
are the two gi'eat seated colossi of its founder, 
one of which, when broken, became in Greek, or 
rather l\oman times, the vocal Memnon, whose 
plaintive Avail to the rising sun, over its own 
and its country's desolation, forms so prominent 
an incident in the Eoman accounts of Thebes. 
Not far from this stood the great temple of 
1^ Medinet-Habou, built by L'hamses III., the first 
^ ' king of the 19th dynasty. This, though scarcely 
inferior in size to its neighbour, shoAvs a mani- 
^ fest inferiority of art, — as if I^gypt's great days 
^ Avere already fast passing aAvay. Further doAAni 
^ the riA^er stood another temple, that of Gournou, 
E3 built by the same IManepthali who erected the 
great hall of Karnac. This, hoAvcA^er, appears 
only to have been a residence, and both in style 
and size the least remarkable of the great build- 
ings whose wondrous remains still adoni the 
site of the hundred-gated city. 

Another building of this age, attached to 

the southeni side of the gi-eat temple at Karnac, 

deserves especial attention as being a perfectly regular building, erected 

at one time, and according to the original design, and lieing literally a 


171. So\ub Temple of ICarnac. 
Soilf 10(1 ft. to 1 in. 

ClIAl'. II. 



\T2. Section on A B of above. Scale 50 ft. to 1 in. 

tcmplo, without anytliing about it that conhl justify the supposition of 
its boiiic; .1 palaco. 

It was erected hy the first king of tlio 19th dynasty, and consists 
of two pylons, approached through an avenue of sphinxes. AN'ithin 
this is an hypa^tliral court, and 
heyond that a small hypostyle 
hall, lighted from above, as 
shoAvn in the section. AVithin 
this is the cell, surrounded by 
a passage, and with a smaller 
hall beyond, all apparently 
dark, or very imperfectly light- 
ed. The gateway in fi'ont of the 

avenue was erected by the Ptolemies, and, like many Egyptian build- 
ings, placed at a different angle to the direction of the building itself. 
Besides its intrinsic beauty, this temple is interesting as being far 
more like the temjiles erected afterwards under the Greek and Eoman 
domination than anything else belonging to that early age. 

There are, or were, many other great works of this great age 
scattered over the wdiole length and breadth of the country, from 
Tanis, or Soan, near the mouth of the Kile, Avliere the remains of 
13 obelisks can still be traced, to Soleb, on the borders of Kubia, 
where now stands a temple of the third Amenophis, scarcely inferior 
in beauty or magnificence to those of the capital. Those at Memphis, 
at Abydos, many of those at Thebes, and elsewhere, are so completely 
ruined, that it is impossible to restore them, or to judge of their eifect 
architecturally. Kor do they seem to possess any peculiarities which 
are not found in those already mentioned. 



Book V. 




Decline of art — Temples at Dendera — Kalabsche — PhiUc — Mammeisi — Rock-cut 
examples — Ipsamboul — Tombs — Labyrinths — Obelisks— Domestic architecture. 


Fko.m the time of the 19th dynasty. Avith a slight revival under the 

Bubahtite kings of the 22nd 
dynasty, Egypt sank thiongh 
a long period of decay, till 
her misfortunes were con- 
summated by the invasion 
of the Persians under Cani- 
byses, 525 b.c. From that 
time she served in a bond- 
age more destructive, if not 
so galling, as that of the 
She])herd domination, till 
relieved b}- the more en- 
lightened policy of the Pto- 
lemies. L'nder them she 
enjoyed tis great material 
prosperity as under the Pha- 
raohs ; and her architecture 
and her arts too revived, not, 
it is true, with the greatness 
oi- the purity of the great 
national era, but still with 
much richness and material 

Some of the temples of 
this age are, as far as dimen- 
sions and richness of decora- 
tions are concerned, (piite 
wtirthy of tlu' great ag(\ 
though their plans and ar- 
rangements dift'er to a con- 
sideralde extent. There is 
now no hesit;ttion as to 
whether they should be call- 
ed temples or palaces : all is 
now exclusively devoted to 

worship, --and to the worsliip of a heavenly God. not of a deified king. 


Plan of Temple at Edfou, ApoUonopolis Magint. 
Scale 100 fl. to I in. 

CllAl'. 111. 


What these arrangeinents are will be well understood from the 
annexed ])lan of that of Kdfon (woodont No. 173), which, t]K)n<^-h not 
the lai<A'e«t, is the most eomplete of those remaining. It is 450 ft. in 
hnigth, and 155 in width, and eovering upwards of 80,000 ft.; its 
dimensions may be said to be equal to those of the largest of oin- 
liKxliswval cathedrals (Cologne or Amiens for instance). I'art only of 



the whole structure (that which is shaded in the plan) is roofed, and 
therefore it can scarcely be compared with buildings entirely un<l('r 
one roof. 

In front of the temple are two large and splendid pylons, with 
the gateway in the centre, making up a facade 225 ft. in extent. 
Although this example has lost its crowning cornice, its sculptures 
and ornaments are still very perfect, and it may altogether be con- 



EooK V. 

sidercd as a fair specimen of its class, tliough inferior in dimensions to 
many of tliose of the great Fharaonie age. \\ itliin these is a court, 
140 ft. by 161, surrounded by a colonnade on thi-ee sides, and rising 
by easy steps, the whole width of the court, to the porch or poi-tico 
which, in rtolemaic temples, takes the place of the great hypostyle 
halls of the I'haraolis. It is lighted from the front over low screens 
placed between each of the pillars, a peculiarity scarcely ever found 
in temples of earlier date, though apparently common in domestic 
edifices, or those formed of wood, certainly as early as the middle of 
the 18tli dynasty, as may be seen from the annexed woodcut (No. 175), 


Bas-relief at Tell el Aiuarna. 

taken from a tomb of one of the sun-worshipinng kings, who reigned 
between Amenophis III. and ITcmis. From this we pass into an inner 
and smaller porch, and again through two passages to a dark and myste- 
rious sanctuary, surrounded by darker passages and chambers, well 
calculated to mystify and strike with awe any worshipper or neophyte 
who might be admitted to their gloomy precincts. 

The celebrated temple at Uendcra is similar to this, and slightly 
larger, but it has no forecourt, no propylons, and no enclosing outer 
walls. Its facade is given in the next woodcut (No. 176). Its Isis- 
headed columns are not equal to those of Edfou in taste or grace ; but 
it has the advantage of situation, and this temple is not encumbered 
I'ither by sand or huts, as the other is, so that its effect on travellers is 
always moie striking. 


Facade of Temple at Dendera. 

(.'llAl'. 111. 




The Koman temple at Kalabsclie (woodcut No. 177), above the 

(^ataract, is a fair speci- 
men of these temples 
on a smaller scale. The 
section (woodcait Ko. 
178) shows one of the 
juodesby which a scanty 
light was introduced 
into the inner cells, 


Plan of Temple at 

and their gradation in 
height. The position, 
too, of its propyluns is 
a striking instance of 
the irregularity which 
distinguishes all the 
later Egyptian styles 
from that of the rigid, 
proportion- loving, py- 
ramid-builders of Mem- 

This irregularity of 
plan was nowhere car- 
extent as in the Ptolemaic 
Here no two 


ried to such, an extent as in the Ptolemain (V-^ 
temple on the island of Philaj. 
l)uildings, scarcely any two walls, are on the 
same axis or parallel to one another. No Gothic 
architect in his wildest moments ever played 
so freely with his lines or dimensions, and 
none, it must bo added, ever produced any- 
thing so beautifully picturesque as this. It 
contains all the play of light and shade, all the 
variety of Gothic art, with the massiveness and 
grandeur of the Egyptian style ; and as it is 
still tolerably entire, and retains much of its 
colour, there is no building out of Thebes that 
gives so favourable an impression of Egyptian 
art as this. It is true it is far less sublime than many, but hardly one 
can be quoted as more beaiitifnl than it is. 




J-i/^ .r^.^Si 


View of Temple at Pbila:. 



Hook V 

IbU. J'lau of Temple at Philae. 

Nolwithstaiidiiis; its ivrognlaritv, fliis toiii])]e lias the aclvantaj;e of 
being luarly all ni" the same age, and erected aeetpding to one plan, 

wliile the gi'eater Imihlings at Thebes 
are often aggregations of ])arts of ditter- 
ent ages ; and though each is beautiful 
in itself, the result is often nt)t quite si» 
hariuunious as niight be desired. In 
this resijeet the I'toleniaie temples eer- 
tainl}' have the advantage, inasmueli as 
they are all of one age, and all com- 
pleted according to the plan on which 
they were designed, a circumstance 
which, to some extent at least, eom- 
]iensates for their marked inferiority 
in size and style, and the littleness 
of all the oinaments and details as 
!li*i3Sil M lompared Avith those of the rharaonic 

£• ej ipl^^ period. It must at the same time he 

*-i*:^ fi^JfeS admitted that this inferiority is more 

apparent in the sculpture of the Ttole- 
maic age than in its architecture. The 
general design of the buildings is 
frequently grand and imposing, but 
the details are always inferior ; and 
the sculi)ture and jjainting, Avhich in the great age add so much to the 
beauty of the whole, are in the Ptolemaic age always frittered away, 

ill-arranged, and unmeaning — injurious to 
_,.._..., ^^^^ general etiect instead of heightening 

and improving it. 


Besides the temples above described, 
which are all more or less comidex in i)lan, 
and all made iip of various inde}tendent 
parts, there exists iu J^gypt a class of 
temples called 7nammeisi, dedicated to the 
mysterious accouchement of the mother of 
the gods. Small temples of this form are 
common to all ages, and belong as well to 
the 18th dynasty as to the time of the 
Ptolemies. One of them, built by Ame- 
noidiis HI. at Ele]diantine, is represented 
ill jtlan and elevation in the annexed cut. 
It is of a simple ])eristylar form, with 
columns in front aiid rear-, resembling that 
shown in Avoodcut No. 157, and 7 square 
]>iers on each tlauk. These temi)les are all small, and, like the 
Tyjihonia, which somewhat resemlde them, were used as detached 
chapels or cells, deiiendent on the larger temples. What renders 

l!>l. Manuucisi al Klepliaiitiiiu. 

CiiAr. 111. 



llu'iii moro than usually interesting to us is the fact that they were 
uii(l(»u1)t{>(lly the originals of the Greek pcristylar forms, that people 
having horrowed nearly every peculiarity of their arts fi-oni the banks 
of the Nile. We possess the tangible evidence of peristylar temples 
and ])roto-I)(nic pillars, erected in Egypt centuries before the oldest 
known specimen in Greece. We need therefore hardly hesitate to 
award the palm of invention of these things to the Egyptians, as wo 
should probably be forced to do of most of the arts and sciences of the 
Greeks if we had only knowledge sufficient to connect them, 

EocK-cDT Tombs and Temples. 

Both in Eg;yq-)t Proper and in Nubia the Egyptians were in the 
habit of excavating monuments from the living rock, but with this 
curious distinction, that, with scarcely an exception, all the excavations 
in Egypt Projier are tombs, and no important example of a rock-cut 
temple has yet been found. In Nubia, on the other hand, all the ex- 
cavations are temples, and no tombs of importance are to bo found 
anywhere. This distmction may hereafter lead to important historical 
deductions, inasmixch as on the western side of India there are, as has 
already been pointed out, an infinite number of rock-cut temples, but 
no tombs of any sort. Ever}^ circumstance seems to point to the fact 
that, if there was any connection between Africa and India, it was 
with the provinces of the upper part of the Valley of the Nile, and not 
with Egypt Proper. This, however, is a subject that can hardly be 
entered on here, though it may be useful to bear in mind the analogy 
alluded to. 

Like all rock-cut examples all over the world, these Nubian temples 
are copies of stnictural buildings, only more or less mcnlified to suit 


182. riau and Section of Rock-cut Temple at Ipsamboul. Scale for plan 100 ft. to 1 in.; section 50 ft. to 1 in. 



the exigencies uf their situation, which did not admit of any very great 
development inside, as light and air could only be introduced from the 
one opening of the doorway. 

The two principal examples of this class of monument are the two 
at Ipsamboul, the largest of which is the finest of its class known to 
exist anywhere. Its total depth from the face of the rock is 150 ft., 
divided into 2 large halls and 3 cells, with passages connecting them. 

Externally the facade is about 100 ft. in height, and adorned by 4 
of the most magniificent colossi in Egypt, each 70 ft. in height, and re- 
presenting the King Iihamses II., who caused the excavation to be made. 
It may be because they are more perfect than any others now foiuid in 
that country, but certainly nothing can exceed their calm majest}^ and 
beaiity, or be more entirely free from the vulgarity and exaggeration 
which is generally a characteristic of colossal works of this sort. 

The smaller temple at the same place has (j standing figures of 
deities countersunk in the rock, and is carved with exceeding richness. 
It is of the same age with the large temple, but not to be compared 
with it owing to the inferiority of the design. 

Besides these, there is a very beautiful though small example at 
Kalabsche, likewise belonging to the age of Khamses II., and remark- 
able for the beauty of its sculptural bas-reliefs, as well as for the bold 
proto-Doric columns which adorn its vestibule. There are also smaller 
ones at Derri and Balagne, at the upper end of the valley. At Essabua, 
Girsheh, and Dandour, the cells of the temple have been excavated fiom 
the rock, but their courts and propylons are stnictural buildings added 
in front— a combination never found in Egypt, and very rare anywhere 
else, although meeting the difficulties of the case better than any other 
arrangement, inasmuch as the sanctuary has thus all the imperishability 
and mystery of a cave, and the temidc at the same time has the space 
and external appearance of a building standing in the open air. 

This last arrangement is found also as a characteristic of the temples 
of Gibel Barkal, in the kingdom of Meroe, showing how far the rock- 
cutting practice prevailed in the upper Valley of the Nile. 

As all these temples arc contemiiorary with the great structures in 
Egypt, it seems stiange that the eternity of a rock-cut example did not 
recommend this form of temple to the attention of the Egyptians them- 
selves. But with the exception of a small grotto, called the Specs 
Ai-temidos, near Beni Hassan, and two small caves at Silsilis. near the 
cataract, the Egyptians seem never to have attempted it, trusting appa- 
rently to the solidity of their masonic structures for that cteniity of 
duration they aspired to. 


Of the first 10 djTiasties of Egyptian kings nothing now lemainsbut 
their tcjmbs— the everlasting pyramids— and little or nothing of the 
l>eople they governed but the structures and rock-cut excavations which 
they prc])avcd for their final resting-]dacos. 

The 'i'heban kings and llieir subjects built }io pyiamids. and none 
of theii- tombs are built, — all are excavated from the living rock ; and 
from Beni Ilas.san to the cataract, the plain of the Nile is everj'whcic 

Chap. 111. 



l'ring(jd witli these sin- 
i;ul;irm()ininients. which, 
if taken in tlie aggre- 
gate, perhaps required a 
greater amount of labour 
to excavate and to adorn 
than did even all the edi- 
iices (_»f the plain. Cer- 
tain it is that there is far 
more to "be leaint of the 
ai-ts, of the habits, and of 
1 he history of Egypt f)om 
these tombs than from all 
the other monuments. 
No tomb of any king of 
the Theban dynasties has 
yet been discovered ante- 
rior to the 18th dynasty; 
but all the tombs of that 
and of the subsequent dy- 
nasty have been found, or 
are known to exist, in the 
Valley of Biban-el-Me- 
louk, on the western side 
of the plain of Thebes. 

It seems to have been 
the custom with these 
Ivings, as soon as they as- 
cended the throne, to be- 
gin preparing their final 
resting-place. The exca- 
vation seems to have gone 
on uninterruptedly year 
by year, the painting and 
adornment being finished 
as it progressed, till the 
hand of death ended the 
king's reign, and simul- 
taneously the works of 
liis tomb. All was left 
unfinished ; the cartoon of 
the painter and the rough 
work of the mason and 
plasterer weie suddenly 
broken off, as if the hour 
of the king'sdemise called 
them tooirrevocably from 
their labours. 

The tomb thus be- 
came an index of the 




R 2 


1oiii;th of a king's inij^n, as well as of liis iii igiiificeiHH!. ( )f those in the 
\ alley of the Kings, the most s])leiitli(l is that ojiened by Uelzoni, anil 
now kiiowTi a.s that of Maucpthah, the builder of the lIyi)o.stylc hall at 
Kaniac. It descends, in a sloping diiection, for about 350 ft. into the 
nioiuitain, the upper half of it being tolerably regular in plan and 
diieetion ; but after progressing as far as the unfinished hall with 2 pil- 
lars, the direction changes, and the works begin again on a lower level, 
probably because they came in contact with some other tomb, or in 
consecpience of meeting some flaw in the rock. It now terminates in a 
large and sjdendid chamber with a coved roof, in which stood, when 
opened by Belzoni, the rifled sarcophagus ; but a drift-wa}- has lieen 
carried beyond this, as if it had been intended to carry it still further 
had the king continued to reign. 

The tomb of lihamses Maiamoun, the first king of the 19th dynasty, 
is more regular, and in some respects as magnificent as this, and that 
of Amenophis III. is also an excavation of great beauty, and adorned 
with paintings of the very best age. Like all the tombs, however, they 
depend for their magiiificence more on the [laintings that adoni the 
walls than on anything which can strictly be called architecture, so 
that they hardly come properl}^ within the scope of the present work : 
and the same is true of private tondjs. Except those of lien i Hassan, 
already illustrated by woodcut No. 1(1 1, they are all either mere cham- 
bers or corridors, without architectural (unament, but with their walls 
covered with paintings and hierogly])hics of singular interest and 
beauty. Generally speaking, it is assumed that the entrances of these 
tombs were meant to be concealed and hidden from the knowledge of 
the people after the king's death. It is hardl}- conceivable, however, 
that so much pains should have been taken, and so much money 
lavished, on what was designed never again to testify to the magnifi- 
cence of its fomider. It is also very xudike the sagacity of the Egyp- 
tians to attempt what was so nearly impossible ; for though the entrance 
of a pyramid might be so built up as to be unrecognisable, a cutting in 
the rock can never be repaired or disguised, and only temporarily con- 
cealed by heaping nibbish over it. Supposing it to have been intended 
to conceal the entrances, such an expedient was as clumsy and inilikcly 
to have been resorted to by so ingenious a people as it has proved futile, 
for all the royal tombs in the Valley of Biban-el-Melouk have been 
opened and rifled in ancient times, and their sites and numbers were 
matters of public notoriety in the times of the Greeks and Romans. 
Many of the private tombs have architectural fa(;ade8, and certainly 
never were meant to be concealed, so that it is not fair to assume that 
hiding their tombs' entrances was ever a peculiarity of the Thcbans, 
though it certainly was of the earlier Memphites. 

Among the miscellaneous monuments of Egypt, the one that excited 
the greatest wonder in the minds of the Greeks, not even excepting the 
pyramids, was the great Labyrinth, erected, it was said, by Mceris, 
close to the lake bearing his name. Till recently its site was a matter 
of dispute. It is rightly placed in Sir G. Wilkinson's map of the 

CllAF. 111. 



Fiiyoom, i)ii1)Hs1kmI in 1H28; but tlio question was not entirely net at 
rust till it was alhsolutoly dctcnuinod by Mi-. Terrintj:; when cni])loyed 
by Colonel Vysc, and the whole was afterwards excavated by the officers 
ot the Prussian expedition under Lepsius. Like everything, however, 
of interest discovered by that savant, the information obtained is kept 
Itaek, and we have only imperfect sketches of its general form. From 


%. --z 

'.1 ! 

■ A^^)% 








these it appears that it was a building about lloO ft. east and west, by 
8.50 north and south, sunounding 3 sides of a courtyard 500 ft. in one 
direction by 600 ft. in the other; the fourth side was occupied by a 
small pyi-amid of rather more than 
300 ft. square (Strabo says 400). 

A number of small chambers, two 
stories in height, have been found, 
but nothing indicating that magnifi- 
cence which so excited tlie astonish- 
ment of the Greeks. The fticility of 
water-carriage may have enabled 
those who subsequently occupied 
the country to remove all the more 
precious materials, as they have 
done from Memphis. P]nougli remains to confirm to a sm-jirising extent 
the accounts of Herodotus and Strabo, at least so far as we can judge 



from the meagi'e accounts of the excavation that have been made 
l)ul)lic ; but till the whole are available, it is needless either attempting 
to reason on them, or to attempt any restoration of the whole. 

The name of Amememha, of the 12th dynasty, has been found among 
the ruins, proving what was before conjectured, that he was in reality 
the founder of the monument in question ; and if the pyramid be really 
his se])ulchre, as Strabo assei'ts, it would prove that the fashion of 
burying in pyramids was not extinct, in Lower Egypt at least, even 
after the accession of the 12th djniasty. This, however, and many 
other points of interest, must remain unsettled till the results of recent 
explorations are made public. 


Another class of monuments, almost exclusively Egj^ptian, are the 
obelisks which form such striking objects in front of almost all the old 
temples of the countr}'. 

Small models of obelisks are found in the tombs of the age of the 
Ijyramid-builders, and represented in their hieroglyphics ; but the oldest 
public monimient of the class known to exist is that at Ileliopolis, 
erected by Osortasen, the gi-eat king of the 12th djTiasty. It is, like 
all the others, a single block of beautiful red granite of Syene, cut with 
all the precision of the age, tapering slightly towards the summit, and 
of about the average proportion, being about 10 diameters in height ; 
exclusive of the top it is 07 ft. 4 in. 

The two finest known to exist are, that now in the piazza of the 
Lateran, erected by Thothmes III., 105 ft. in height, and that still 
existing at Kamac, erected by Thothmes I., 93 ft. in. in height. Those 
of Luxor, erected by Khamses the Great, one of which is now in Paris, are 
above 77 ft. in height ; and there are 2 others in Home, each above 80 ft. 

Rome, indeed, has 12 of these monuments within her walls — a 
greater number than exist, erect at least, in the country whence they 
came, though, judging fiom the niunber that are found adorning single 
temples, it is difficult to calculate how many must once have existed in 
Egypt. Their use seems to have been wholly that of UKmumental 
]>illars, recording the style and titles of the king who erected them, his 
l)iety, and the proof he gave of it in dedicating these monoliths to the 
deity whom he especially wished to hcmour. 

It has been remarked that, with scarcely an exception, all the pyra- 
mids are on the west side of the Kile, all the obelisks on the cast: with 
regard to the fonner class of monument, this ]uobably arose from a law 
of their existence, the western side of the Nile being in all ages pre- 
ferred for sepulture, but with regard to the latter it seems to be acci- 
dental. Memphis doubtless possessed many monuments of this class, 
and there is reason to believe that the western temples of Thebes were 
also similaily adorned. They are, however, momnuents easily broken ; 
and, from their form, so singularly useful for many building purposes, 
that it is not to be wondered at if many of them have di.sajjiieared 
• luring tlu" many centuries that have elapsed since the greater numbei" 
of them were erected. 

Cii.vr. ill. 




Exce])t Olio Biiiall royal pavilion at Medinet Ilalioii, no Htnictuie 
now leniains in Egypt that can fairly be claimed as a specimen of the 
domestic arcliitecture of the ancient Egyptians ; but at the same time 
we possess, in paintings and sci\l})tures, so many illustrations of their 
domestic habits, so many plans, elevations, and views, and even models 
of their dwellings of every class, that we have no difficulty in forming 
a correct judgment not only of the style, but of the details, of their 
domestic architecture. 

Although their houses exhibited nothing of the solidity and monu- 
mental character which distinguished their temples and palaces, they 
seem in their own kind to have been scarcely less beautiful. They 
were of course on a smaller scale, and built of more perishable materials, 
but they appear to have been as carefully finished, and decorated with 
the same taste displayed in the greater works. We know also, from 
the tombs that remain to us, that, although the government of Egypt 
was a despotism of the strictest class, still the wealth of the land was 
pretty equally difiused among all classes, and that luxury and splendour 
were by no means confined either to the royal family or within the 
precincts of the palace. There is thus every reason to believe that the 
cities which have passed away were worthy of the temples that adorned 
them, and that the streets were as splendid and as tasteful as the public 
buildings themselves, and displayed, though in a more ephemeral fonn, 
the same wealth and power which still astonish us in the great monu- 
ments that remain. 

No building can form a greater contrast with the temple behind it 
than does the little pavilion erected at Medinet Habou by Rhamses, the 


I'avilion at JMciiiiut. 

V'ww of i'avilion at iMclinct Habou. 

first king of the 19th dynasty. As will be seen by the annexed plan 
(woodcut No, ISO), it is singularly broken and varied in its outline, 
surrounding a small court in the shape of a cross. It is 8 stories 
in height, and, properly speaking, consists of only 3 rooms on each 
floor, connected together by long winding passages. There is reason, 
however, to believe that this is only a fragnnent of the building, and 
fomidations exist which render it probable that the whole was origin- 
ally a square of the width of the front, and had other chambers, pro- 
bably onl}'^ in wood or brick, besides those we now find. This would 
hardly detract from the playful character of the design, and when 



Book V 

l«(<. Kk'vation of a IIousp. I'Yoni an Egyptian 

coloured, as it origirically w;i8, and with its battlements or oniamenls 
complete, it must have formed a composition as pleasing as it is unlike 
(inr Tisnal conceptions of Egyptian ai*t. 

The other illustration represents in the Egyptians' own quaint style 

a ;{-storied dwelling, the uppei' 
story apparently being like those 
of the Assyrians, an open gallery 
sup])orted by dwarf colunnis. The 
lower windows are closed by shut- 
ters. In the centre is a staircase 
leading to the upper stoiy, and on 
the left hand an o^^^ling suppoiled 
on wooden pillars, which seems to 
have been an indispensable part 
of all the better class of dwellings. 
Generally speaking, these hoxises 
are shown as situated in gardens 
laid out in a quaint formal style, 
with pavilions, and fishponds, and all the other accompaniments of 
gardens in the East at the present day. 

In all the conveniences and elegances of building they seem to have 
anticipated all that has been done in those countries do^\^^ to the pre- 
sent day. Indeed, in all probability, the ancient Egyptians surpassed 
the modem in those respects as much as they did in the more important 
forms of architecture. 

Taken altogether, perhaps it may be safely asserted that the 
Egyptians were the most essentially a building people of all those A\e 
are ac(p tainted with, and the most generally successful in all they 
attempted in this way. The Greeks, it is tnie, surpassed them in 
refinement and beauty of detail, and in the class of sculpture with 
which they oniamcnted their buildings, and the Gothic architects far 
excelled them in constructive cleveiTiess; but besides these no other 
style can be put in competition with them. At the same time, neither 
Grecian nor Gothic architects understood more perfectly all the grada- 
tions of art, and the exact character that should be given to every foi-m 
and every detail. Whether it was the ])lain flat-sided pyramid, the 
erowded and massive In'postyle hall, the playful i)avilion, «^)r the luxu- 
rious dwelling — in all these the Egyptian understood perfectly both 
how to make the general design express exactly what he wanted, and 
to make every detail, and all the vanous materials, contril:)ute to the 
general effect. They understood, also, better than any other nation, 
how to iise sculpture in com1)ination with architecture, and to make 
their colossi and avenues of sphinxes gi'oup themselves into parfs of one 
great design, and at the same time to use historical paintings, fading by 
insensible degrees into hieroglyphics on the one hand, and into sculpture 
on the other — linking the whole together with the highest class of pho- 
netic utterance, and with the most brilliant colouring, thus hanuonising 
all these arts into one great whole, unsuii)assed by ajiythiug the ^^•orld 
liiuj seen during the thirty centuries of stniggle and aspiration that have 
elapsed since the brilliant days of the great kingdom of the Pharaohs. 

CiiAi'. IV. ^:TlllOriAN AUClIITECTUliK. 249 


Kingdom of Meroe — Pyramids — Invention of the Arch. 

It was long a question with tlie learned whether civilisation ascended 
or descended the Nile-r-whether it was a fact, as the Greeks evidently 
believed, that Meroe was the parent state whence the Egyptians had 
migrated to the north, bringing with them the religion and the arts 
which afterwards flourished at Thebes and Memphis, — or whether 
these had been elaborated in the fertile plains of Egypt, and oidy in 
later times had extended to the Upper Nile. 

IJecent discoveries have rendered it nearly certain that the latter is 
the correct statement of the facts — within historic times at least — that 
the fertile and easily cultivated Delta was first occupied and civilised, 
then Thebes, and afterwards Meroii. At the same time it is by no 
means improbable that the Ethiopians were of the same stock as the 
Thebans, though differing essentially from the Memphites, and that the 
former may have regarded these remote kindred with respect, perhaps 
oven with a degree of half-superstitious reverence due to their remote 
situation in the centre of a thinly peopled continent, and have in 
consequence invented those fables which the Greeks interpreted too 

If any such earlier civilisation existed in these lands, its records and 
its monuments have perished. No building is now found in Meroe 
whose date extends beyond the time of the great king Tirhakah, of the 
25th Egyptian dynasty, B.C. 724 to 680, unless it be those bearing the 
name of one king, Amoum Gori, who was connected with the intruding 
race of sim- worshippers, which broke in u];)on the continuous succession 
of the kings of the 1 8th dynasty. Their* monuments were all i)urposely 
destroyed by their successors ; and the only records we have of them 
are the grottoes of Tell el Amama, covered with their sculptures, which 
bear, it must be confessed, considerable resemblance in (style to those 
found in Ethiopia. Even this indication is too slight to be of much 
value ; and we must wait for some further confirmation before founding 
any reasoning upon it. 

The principal monuments of Tirhakah are two temples at GiVcl 
Barkal, a singular isolated mount near the great southern bend of the 
river. One is a large first-class temple, of puiely i]gyptian form and 
design, about 500 ft. in length, by 120 or 140 in width, consisting of 



liooK V. 

two j^'eat courts, with their propylons, and the intuinal halla and .sanc- 
tuaries are ananged luucli like those of the Khamession at 1'hebes 
(woodcut No. 167), and so nearly also on the same scale as to make it 
prohable that the one is a copy of the other. 

The other temple placed near this, but as usual unsymmetrically, 
consists of an outer hall, internally about 50 ft. by (30, whose ruof is 
supported by 4 ranges of columns, all with capitals representing 
figures of Typhon or busts of Isis. This leads to an inner cell or sanc- 
tuary, cut in the rock. 

There are smaller remains strewed about, indicating the existence 
of a city on the spot, but nothing of architectural imjjortance. 

The most remarkable monuments of the Nubian kingdom are 
the pyramids, of which 3 great groups have been discovered and 
described. The jjrincipal gToup is at a place called Dankelah, the 
assumed site of the ancient Meroii, in latitude 17 north. Another is 
at Gibel Barkal ; the third at Nourri, a few miles lower down than the 
last named, but probably only another necropolis of the same city. 

Fig. 1. 


Pyramids at Mcroe. From Hoskins' Travels in Ethiopia. 

Kio. 1.— Plan of Principal Group. Scale 100 ft. 
to I inch. 

Fig. 2.— Section and Elevation of that marked A. 
Scale 50 ft. to 1 inch. 

Compared with the great Memphite examples, these pyramids are 
most insignificant in size — the largest at Nourri being only 110 ft. by 
100; at Gibel Barkal the largest is only 88ft. square; at Meroe none 
exceed 00 ft. each way. They differ also in fonn from those of Egj^jt, 
being much steeper, as their height is generally equal to the width of 
the base. They also all possess the roll-moulding on their angles, and 
all have a little porch or pronaos attached to one side, generally oma- 
mented with sculpture, and forming either a chapel, or more probably 
the place where the coffin of the deceased was placed. A\'e know 
from the Greeks that, so far from concealing the bodies of their 
dead, the Ethiopians had a manner of preserving them in some trans- 


parent substance, so as to render tliem permanently visible after 

To those familiar with the rigid orientation of those of Lower 
Eg}' i)t, perhaps the most striking peculiarity of them is tlie more than 
Theban irregularity with which they are arranged, no two being ever 
placed, except by accident, at the same angle to the meridian, but the 
whole being grouped with the most picturescpie irregularity, as chance 
seemed to dictate. 

Among their constructive peculiarities it may be mentioned that 
they seem all to have been first built in successive terraces, each dimi- 
nishing from that below it, something like the great pyramid at Saccara 
(woodcut No. 158), and were afterwards smoothed over by the exter- 
nal coating. 

liike the temples of GibelBarkal, all these buildings seem to belong 
to the Tirhakah epoch of the Ethiopian kingdom. It is extremely im- 
probable that any of them are as old as the time of Solomon, or that 
any are later than the age of Cambyses, every indication seeming to 
point to a date between these two great epochs in the connection of 
African history and that of Asia. 

The ruins at Wady-elrOoatib, a little further up the Nile than Meroe, 
should perhaps be also mentioned here, if only from the importance 
given to them by Heeren, who thought he had discovered in them the 
ruins of the temple of Jupiter Ammon. They are, however, all in the 
debased style of the worst age of Ptolemaic or Roman art in this 
(Country. They are wholly without hieroglyphics, or any indication of 
sanctity or importance, and there can be little doubt that they are the 
remains of a caravanserai on the great commercial route between Egypt 
and Axoum, along which the greater part of the trade of the East 
arrived at Alexandria in the days of its magnificence. 

Invention of the Arch. 

Before leaving the subject of Egyptian architecture, it may be as 
well briefly to refer to the invention of the true arch, regarding which 
considerable misconception still exists. 

It is generally supposed that the early Egyptians were ignorant of 
the tnie principles of the arch, and only employed two stones meeting 
one another at a certain angle in the centre when they wished to cover 
a larger space than could conveniently be done by a single block. 
This, however, seems to be a mistake, as many of the tombs and 
chambers aroimd the pyramids are roofed by stone arches of a semicir- 
cular form, and perfect in eveiy respect as far as the principles of the 
arch are concerned. 

Several of these have been drawn by Lcpsius, and are engraved in 
his work, but, as no text accompanies them, and tlie drawings are not 
on a sxiflicicnt scale to make out the hieroglyphics, where any exist, 
their date cannot now be ascertained. Consequently these examples 

' Herodotus, iii. 24. Diodonis. ii. U'>. 


caimut yet be used us the fuundatiuii of any argiuuent on the siibjeet, 
tliuugh the curved furin of the roofs in the third pyramid would alone 
be sufficient to render it more than probable that during the period of 
the 4th dynasty the Egyptians were familiar with this expedient. 

At Bcni Hassan, during the time of the 12th dynasty, cui"viliiiear 
forms rea})pear in the loofs (woodcut No. 1(30), used in such a manner 
518 to render it almost certain that they are coi)ied from roofs of con- 
stniction. IJehind the Ehamession at Thebes there are a series of 
arches in l)rick, which seem undoubtedly to belong to the same age ' as 
the building itself; and Sir G. Wilkinson mentions a tomb at Thebes, 
the roof of which is vaulted with bricks, and still bears the name of 
Amenoph I., of the 18tli dynasty. 

The temple at Abydos, erected by Khamses II., shows the same 
peculiarity as the tombs at Beni Hassan, of a flat segmental arch thrown 
across between the stone architraves. In this instance it is also a copy 
in stone, but such as must have been copied from brick constniction. 
There is also every reason to believe that the apartments of the little 
pavilion at Medinet Ilabou (Woodcut No. 180) were covered with semi- 
circular vaults, though these have now disappeared.^ 

In Ethiopia Mr. Hoskins found stone arches vaulting the roofs of 
the porches of the pyramids, perfect in construction, and, what is still 
more singular, showing both circular and pointed forms. These, as 
before remarked, are probably of the time of Tirhakah, or, at all 
events, not earlier than the age of Solomon, nor later than that of 

In the age of Psammeticus we have several stone arches in the 
neighbourhood of the pyramids ; one, in a tomb at 
Saccara, has been frequently drawn ; but one of the 
most instructive is that in a tomb discovered by 
Colonel Campbell (woodcut No. 190), showing a 
\ \^ very primitive fonn of an aroh composed of 3 stones 

u_ I ^ : -z only, and above that is another arch of regular con- 

'"-' ^ struction of 4 courses. In his researches at Nim- 

roud, Layard discovered vaulted drains and cham- 
bers below the north-west and south-east edifices, 
^-^ — ' ",. ' — ^^~tj,r which were consequently as old as the 8th or Dth cen- 
•' tury before our era, and contemiiorarv with those in 

190. Soclion of Tomb near ^, '' -i rii •• rm ",. i ,^ ■ ^ 

the Pyramids of uizeb. the pyramids ot Mcroc. incy were ot both circular 
and pointed foims, and constructed apparently with 
great care and attention to the principles of the arch (woodcut No. 191). 
The great discovery of this class is that of the city gates at 
Khorsabad, which, as mentioned above (p. 173), were spanned by arches 
• if semicircular form, so perfect both in construction and in the mode 
ill v.liich they were oiTiamented, as to prove that in the time of Saigon 
the arch was a usual and well-understood building expedient, and one 
consequently which we may fairly assume to have been long in use. 

' ' l\t,7|itaiKl TliL'bes,' jip. 81 and 126. 

" Wilkinson's ' JIanners and Customs of the Egyptians,' vol. iii. p. 263. 

ClIAl'. IV. 



V "">#','.>■ ■*/'!; 

So far as wc can now uiKlcrstaiid IVoin tlic discoA'encs that have 
luH'ii nuulc, it seems tliat 
the Assyrians used the 
pointed arch for tun- 
nels, aqueducts, and gc- 
ucM'ally for underground 
work where they feared 
great superineunibcnt 
picssiu'c on the apex, and 
the round arch above 
ground where that was 
not to be dreaded; and 
in this they probably 
showed moie science and 
discrimination than we 
do in such works. 

In Europe the oldest 
arch is probably that of 
the Cloaca Maxima at 
Ivome, constructed un- 
der the early kings. It 
is of stone in 3 rims, and 
shows as perfect a know- 
ledge of the principle as 
any subsequent exam- 
ple. Its lasting imin- 

juied to the present day 191. vaulted Drain beueaih the SoutU-Kast Palace at Nimroud. 

])voves how well the art 

\vas then imderatood, and, by inference, how long it must liave been 

jiractiscd before reaching that degree of perfection. 

From all this it becomes almost certain that the arch was used as 
early as the times of the pyramid-builders of the -itli djmasty, and was 
c(ipied in the tombs of Beni Hassan in the 
1 2th ; though it may be that the earliest exist- 
ing oxam})le cannot be dated further back than 
the tirst kings of the 18th dynasty ; from that 
time, however, there can be no doubt that i ! 
was currently used, not only in Egypt, but 
also in Ethiopia and Assyria. 

It would, indeed, be more difficult to 
accoimt for the fact of such perfect builders 
as the Egyptians being ignorant of the arch if 

such were the case ; though, at the same time, it is easy to vniderstand 
why they shoidd use it so sparingly as they did in their monumental 

Even in the simplest archi, that formed of only two stones, such as 
is frequently found in the pja'amids, and over the highest chamber, 
woodcut No. 157, it will be evident that any weight placed on the apex 
has a tendency to lower the summit, and press the lower ends of the 

192. Aroli of the Cloaca Maxima, 
Koino. Scale no It. tu 1 in. 



stones oiitwiii'ds. ^Vherc there was the whole mass of the pyramid to 
abut a<;ainst, this was of no consetpience, but in a sligliter bnikling it 
would have thrust the walls apart, and brought on inevitable ruin. 

Tlie introduction of a third stone, as in the arch, woodcut Iso. 190, 
hardly remedied this at all, the central stone acting like a wedge to 
tlirust the 2 others apart ; and even the intnjductiou of 2 more stones, 

making 5, as in woodcut No. 
193, only distributed the pres- 
sure without remedying the 
defect ; and without the most 
perfect masonry every addi- 
193. Aiciir> 111 th. I yi mill- .i Aleroe. From iioskins. tioual joint was Only an addi- 
tional source of weakness. 

Tliis has been felt by the architects of all ages and in all countries : 
still the advantage of being able to cover large spaces with small 
stones or bricks is so great, that many have been Avilling to run the 
risk ; and all the ingenuity of the Gothic architects of the middle ages 
was applied to overcoming the difficulty. But even the best of their 
buildings are unstable frt)m this cause, and require constant care and 
attention to keep them from falling. 

The Indian architects have fallen into the other extreme, refusing 
to use the arch imder any circumstances, and prefen-ing the smallest 
dimensions and the most crowded interiors, rather than adopt what 
tliey consider so destructive an exi)odient. 

The Egyptians seem to have followed a middle course, using arches 
either in tombs, where the rock formed an immoveable abutment ; or 
in pyramids and buildings where the mass immensely overjiowered 
the thnist ; or underground, where the superincimibent earth prevented 

They seem also to have used flat segmental arches, of brickwork, 
between the rows of massive architraves which they placed on theii* 
pillars ; and as all these abutted one another, like the arches of a 
bridge, except the external ones, which Avere sufficiently supported by 
the massive walls, the mode of constniction was a soimd one. This is 
exactly' that which we have re-invented during the last 30 years, in 
consequence of the introduction of east-iron beams, between which flat 
segmental arches of brick are throAvn, when we wish to introduce a more 
solid and fire-])roof constniction than is possible with wood only. 

In their use of the arch, as in eveiything else, the building science 
of the Egyptians seems to have been govenied by the soundest prin- 
ciples and the most- perfect knowledge of what was judicious and ex- 
l»cdient, and what should be avoided. Many of their smaller edifices 
have no d(jubt perished from the scarcity of wood forcing the builders 
to employ luick arches, but they wisel}' avoided the use of these in 
all their larger monuments — in all, in fact, which they wished should 
endure to the latest posterity. 


West View of the Acropolis restored. From Wordswoitlis Allien: 





Historical notice — Pelasgic art — Tomb of Atreus — Other remains — Hellenic 
Greece — History of the orders — Doi-ic order — The Parthenon — Ionic order — 
Corinthian order — ( 'ai-yatides — Forms of temples — Mode of lighting — Muni- 
cipal architecture — Theatres. 



AlridiV at M}xen;v, from . . . B.C. 1207 to 1104 
Kctiini 111' the Heraclida" lo Peloponnese . 1104 

olympiads comnieneo 776 

Cvpsclida? at ('oriiilh— Building of teiiiplo 

lit Corinth, from GS.'i to .'isl 

Selinus founded, and first tcmpk' com- 

nunced G2G 

Ascendancy of .Kfdna - IJuildinp; of temple 

. at .Egina, from 508 to 409 

Battle of Marathon 490 


Battle of Salamis n.c. 480 

Theron at Agrisentuni. Commences great 

temple 480 

Cimon at Athens. Temple of Theseus built 46fl 

Pericles at Athens. I'arlhcnon finished . 43s 

Temple of Jupiter at Olynipia finished . 436 

I'lopyhea at Athens built, from . . 437 to 432 
Selinus destroyed by Carthaginians. . . 410 

Krechtheium at Athens finished . . . 409 

Jlonument of Lysicrates at Athens. . . 335 

Death of Alexander the Great .... 324 

Tiu. witliiy n very recent period the histories of (jlreeee iUiclKome have 
))een considered as the ancient histories of the world ; and even now, 
in our universities and ]niblic schools, it is scarcely acknowledged that 


a more ancient record has heen read on the nionnments of Egypt, and 
dug out of the bowels oi' the earth in Assyria. 

It is nevertheless tnic that the deeipheniicnt of the liieroglyphics 
on the one hand, and the reading of the arrow-headed characters on the 
otlier, liave disclosed to us two forms of civilisation anterior to that 
which reappeared in Greece in the 8th century before Christ. Based 
on those that preceded, it developed itself there with a degree of per- 
fection never before seen, and in its own peculiar department never 
since sui-passed. ^ 

Tliese discoveries have been of the utmost importance, not only in 
correcting our hitherto narrow views of ancient history, but also as ex- 
l)laining much that was obscure, or utterly unintelligible, in those 
histories with which we were more immediatel}^ familiar. We now, for 
the first time, compi'ehend whence the Greeks obtained their arts and 
civilisation, and how far the character of these was aifected by the 
sources from which they were derived. 

Having ali-eady described the artistic forms of Egyj)t and Assyria, 
it is not difficidt to discover the origin of almost every idea, and of 
every architectural feature, that afterwards was found in Greece. To 
comprehend her arts, it is necessary to bear in mind that (Jreece was 
inhabited by two distinct and separate races, the one aboriginal, as far 
as we know, which, for distinction's sake, may be called Telasgic, a 
race Avhich not Only spread over Greece, but Etruria and Asia Minor, 
and before the war of Troy was generally the dominant race in all these 
countries. In Greece their power became extinct with the return of the 
Heraclidte to the Peloponneso in the 11th centmy B.C. In Etruria they 
retained their supremacy till dispossessed by the Eomans ; and in Asia 
they never were, strictly speaking, superseded, though under Grecian 
iniluencc their civilisation took a form widely dift'erent from what we 
find in the earlier ages. 

The other, or Dorian race, may have existed in Greece from the 
earliest ages, but only superseded the Pelasgi politically about 10 cen- 
turies before Christ ; but their civilisation took no new artistic fonn for 
at least 3 centuries afterwards, at which time what we know as the tmc 
Grecian form of art first made its appearance. 

Architecturally these two races may be distinguished, the one as an 
Ionic, the other as a Doric race. We niay feel that the Pelasgic 
lace jirevailed wherever the Ionic order is found ; and the Doric order, 
in like manner, marks the exact dcgi'ee of prevalence of the other race 
in the places where it exists. 

S])arta may be considered as the head-quarters of the Doric, Arcadia 
of the Ionic races. In Athens they seem to have been nearly equally 
mixed, and in other states in varying proportions. 

As in all countries and in all ages down to the present day, the 
1 )oric race, which was identical with, or at least closely allied to, the 
Teutonic, set'Uis to liave been far better adapted for the arts of war 
and self-government tlian for the softer arts of poetry and i)eace. 
The Pelasgi, on tlic other hand, as connected with the Celtic or Tartar 
races, seem to have had a peculiar facility in elaborating beauty, the 

Chap. I. 



nicest iiercoi»tiaii of poetic elco-aneo, and the justest appreciation of all 
that coiislitutes true artistic beauty of form and colour. 

Tims tlic ])octry of Arcadia was unknown in the nei<i;hbouiing state 
of 8parta; hut the Doric race there remained true to their institutions, 
and sjiread their colonies and their power further than any other of the 
little principalities of Greece. The institutions of Lycurgus coidd 
never have been maintained in Athens ; but, on the other hand, the 
i'arthenon was as impossible in the Lacedemonian state. Even in 
Athens art would not have been what it was without tliat happy 
admixture of the two races, mingling the common sense of the one 
M-ith the artistic feeling of the other, so as to })roduco the most brilliant 
iutcllfctual development which has jxt dazzled the world with its 

Pelasgic Art. 

As might be supposed, from the length of time that has elapsed since 
the I'elasgic races held rule in Greece, and the numerous changes that 
have taken place in that country since their day, their architectural 
remains are few, and comparatively ijisignificant. Another cause that 
has contributed to this is, that, like the Assyrian and other cognate 
Asiatic races, they were not temjile-builders. Places of worship they 
of coTirso had, but slight and ephemeral as compared with those of their 
successors. From what we read in Homer, and should guess from 
their affinities, their palaces and dwellings, though remarkable for their 
extent and luxuriousness, w^ere principally composed of wood, which 
has perished, and of metal, wdaich afforded too tempting a bait to the 
plunderer to be allowed long to remain where it was. It thus came to 
pass that, if it were not for their tombs, their city walls, and their 
works of civil engineering, such as bridges and tunnels — in which they 
were pre-eminent — we should hardly now possess any material remains 
to prove their existence, or mark the degree of civilisation to which 
they had reached. 

195. Section and Plan of Tomb of Atreiis al i\Iy< ena?. Scale of section 50 ft. to 1 in. ; 

plan 100 ft. tol in. 

The most remarkable of these remains are the tombs of the kings of 
M3"ccna\ The Dorians described these as treasuries, as they looked 
upon such halls as far more than sufficient for the narrow dwelling 




Book VI. 

of the tomb. The most perfect aud the largest of thoiii now existing 
is kn(^^^^l as the treasury or toml> of Atreus at Mycena3, draAMi to the 
usual scales in plan and section in the annexed woodcut. The principal 
chamber is 48 ft. G in. in diameter, and is, or was when perfect, of the 
shape of a regular equilateral pointed arch, a form well adapted to the 
mode of construction, which is that <tf horizontal layers of stones, pro- 
jecting the one beyond the other, till une small stone closed the whole, 
and made the vault complete. 

As before explained (page 73 et seqq.), this was the form of dome 

afterwards adopted by the 
•laina architects in India, and 
it ])revailed wherever a Pe- 
lasgic race is found, down to 
the time when the pointed 
form again came into use in 
the middle ages, though it 
was nut then used as a hori- 
zontal, but as a radiating 

On one side of this hall is 
a chamber cut in the rock, 
the tnie sepulchre apparently, 
and externally is a hmg pas- 
sage leading to a doorway, 
which, judging from the frag- 
ment that remains (woodcut 
No. 196), must have been of a 
purely Asiatic form of art, and 
very unlike anything found 
after this age in Greece. 

Internally the dome was 
apparently lined with plates 
of brass or bronze, some nails 
of Avhich arc now ft)und there ; 
and the holes in which the nails were inserted are still to be seen all 
over the place. Another of these tombs, erected by Minyus at Orcho- 
menos, seems to have been, from the description of Pausanias, at least 
20 ft. wider than this one, and proportionably larger in everj- respect. 
All these were covered with eai-th, and many are mnv jirobably hidden 
which a diligent search might disclose. It is hardly, however, to bo 
hf.ped that an unrifled tomb may be discovered in Greece, though 
numerous examples are fcjund in Etniria. The veiy name of treasury 
must have excited the cupidity of the Greeks ; and as their real desti- 
nation was forgotten, no lingering respect for the dead could have held 
back the hand of the spoiler. 

As domes constructed on the horizontal principle, these two are 
the largest of which we have any knowledge, though there does 
not seem to ]»e any rea.s.iuable limit to the extent to which sucli 
a form of Ijuildiny; might be carried. When backed by earth, as 


Base of Pillar in front of Tomb of Atreus at 

ClIAl'. I. 



these were, it is evident, from tlie luode ef const riictidii, tli;it 
they eauuot be destroyed by any equable pressure exerted i'nun tlic; 

The only danger to be feared is, what is technically called, a li.sinji 
of the haunches ; and to avoid this it would be necessar\-, wliere larire 
domes were attempted, to adopt a form more nearly conical than that 
used at Mycenaa. This might be a less ideasing architectural feature, 
but it is constructively a far better one than the f(»rm of the radiatimr 
domes wo generally employ. 

1 1 is certainly to be regretted that more of tlu; decorative features 
of this early style have not been discovered. They differ so entirely 
from anything else in Greece, and are so jiurely Asiatic in form, that 
it would be exceedingly curious to be able to restoi-c a complete deco- 
ration of any sort. In all the parts hitherto brought to light, an Ionic- 
like scroll is repeated in every part and over every detail, rather 
rudely executed, but probably originally heightened by colour. Its 
counterparts are found in 4ssyria and at Persepolis, but nowhere else 
in Greece. 

The Pelasgic races soon learnt to adopt for their doorways the 
more pleasing curvilinear form, 
with which they were already fa- 
miliar from their interiors. The 
annexed illustration (woodcut No. 
l!»7) from a gateway at Thoricus, 
in Attica, serves to show its sim- 
plest and earliest form ; and the 
next, from Assos, in Asia Minor, 
of a far more modern date, shows 
the most complicated form it took 
in ancient times. In this last in- 
stance it is merely a discharging 
arch, and so little fitted for the purpose to which it is applied, that we 
can only suppose that its adoption arose from a strong lu'edilection in 
favour of this shape. 

Another illustration of i'elasgic masonry is found at Delos (woodcut 
No. 199), consisting of a roof formed by two ai'ch stones, at a certain 
angle to one another, as in Egypt, and is further interesting as being 
associated with capitals of pillars formed of the front part of bulls, as 
in Assyria, pointing again to the intimate connt'xion that existed 
between Greece and Asia at this early period of her history. 

In all these instances it does not seem to have been so much 
want of knowledge that led these early builders to adopt the horizontal 
in preference to the radiating principle, but a conviction of its greater 
durability, and also, pei-haps, a certain predilection for an imcienl 

In the construction of these walls they adhered, as a mere matter 
of taste, to forms which they must have known to be inferior to othei-s. 
In the example, for instance, of a wall in the rdopcmnesus (woodcut 
No. 200), we find the polygonal masoniy of an earlier age actuallv 

s 2 


Gateway at Thoricus. 

From Doilwcll b 




placed upon as perfect a specimen, built in regular courses, or what 
is techniciilly called ashlar work, as any to be found in (Jreece ; and on 
the other side of the gateway at Assos (woodcut No. 1!)8) there exists 
a semicircular arch, shown by the dotted line. It is constructed hori- 
zontally, and could only have been copied from a radiating arch. 



Gateway at Assos. From Tcxiers Asic Mitieure. 


Arch at Dclos. From Stuart's Athens. 

Their city walls arc chiefly remarkable for the size of the blocks of 
stone, and for the beauty with which their irregidar joints and courses 
are fltted into one another. Like most fortifications, they are generally 
devoid of oniament, the oidy architectural features being the openings. 
These arc interesting, as showing the stei>s by which a peculiar form of 
masonry was perfected, which, in after ages, led to important archi- 
tectural results. 

On«; of the most ])rimitive of these buildings is a nameless ruin 
existing near Missnlonghi (woodcut No. 201). In it the sides of the 
opening are striiight for the whole height, and, though making a very 

ClIAl'. I. 



stable form of opening, it is one to whicli it is extremely difficult to 
fit doors, or to close by any known means. It is this that led to the 
next ex})edient of inserting a lintel at a certain height, and making 
the jambs more perpendicular 
below, and more sloping above. 
This method is already exem- 
plified in the tomb of Atreus 
(woodcut No. 195), and in the 
gate of the Lions at My cense 
(woodcut No. 202). It is by no 
means clear whether the pedi- 
ments were always filled up 
with sculpture, as in this in- 
stance, or left open. In the 
walls of a to^vn it probably was 
always closed, in that of a 

chamber left open. In the gate at Myoenee the two lions stand against 
an altar,* shaped like a pillar of a form found in Lycia, in which the 
round ends of the timbers of the roof are shown as if projecting into 
the frieze. 

200. Wall ill Peloponnesus. From Itlouet's Voyage 
en Grece. 


Doorway at Mlssolonghi. 

202. Gate of Lions, MycOT.f. 

1 It is to be ret^retted that no cast has ever siblc to reason on them, wliilst as fypcs of a 

been taken of these, the oldest sculptures of style they are the most interesting known to 

their class in existence. The drawintjs hitherto exist anywhere- 
made of them iue so inexact that it is impos- 



Plan of tbe Acropolis at Athens. 


IT E L L E X T r G K E E (' E. 


'I'liK ciilniinatiniz; period of the I'elasgic civilisation of Greece was at 
the time of the war with Tro^' — the last great military event of this 
age, and the one which closed the long and intimate connexion of the 
Pelasgians with their cognate races in Asia. 

Sixty years later the irniption of the Thessalians, and twenty years 
after that event the return of the Ileracleidai, closed for ever that 
chapter in history, and gave rise to the Dorian civilisation, which is 
the great and true glory of Greece. 

Four centuries, however, elapsed, which may be truly called the 
dark ages of Greece, before the new seed bore fniit, at least as far as 
art is concerned. These ages produced, it is true, the laws of Lycur- 
gus, a characteristic effort of a truly Arian race, conferring on the 
people who invented them that power of self-government, and cajia- 
bility for republican institutions, which gave them such stability at 
home and such power abroad, but which were as inimical to the softer 
glories of the fine arts in Sparta as they have proved elsewhere. 

When, after this long night, art reappeared, it was at Corinth, 
under the Cypselidie, a race of strongly marked Asiatic tendencies ; 
I)ut the art had then undergone such a transformation as almost to 
startle us. It is no longer the elegant and ornate forms of M3'cena;, 
and the cognate Asiatic art, but the rude, bold proportions of Egyptian 
art, and with almost more than Egyptian massiveness. 

The age of the Doric temple at Corinth is not, it is true, satisfac- 
torily detennined ; biit the balance of evidence woiild lead us to 
believe that it belongs to the age of Cypselus, or about 650 B.C. The 
pillars are less than 4 diameters in height, and the architrave — the 

Thai-. II. 



only \r.\vi of (lie snperstnxctiuc that now remains -is proportionately 
heavy. It is, indeed, one of the most massive specimens of architec- 
ture existing, more so than even its rock-cut prototype at Beni-Hassan, 
from which it is most indubitably copied. As a work of art, it fails 
from excess of strenj;-tli, a f;iult common to most of the ell'orts of a rtide 
peo])lc, ijrnorant of their own resources, and striving, by the expres- 
sion of i)hysical strength alone, to obtain all the objects of their art. 

Next in age to this is the temple at iEgina. Its date, too, is un- 
known, though, judging from the character of its stadptnre, it probably 
belongs to the middle of the sixth century before Christ. 

204. Temple at /Egina restored. No scale. 

\\c know that Athens had a great temple on the Acropolis, con- 
tem[)()rarv with these, and the frusta of its columns still remain, which, 
after its d(3structiou by the Persians, were built into the walls of the 
citadel. It is more than probable that all the principal cities of 
Greece had temjiles commensurate with their dignity before the Per- 
sian war. Many of these were destroyed during that struggle : but it 
also happened then, as in France and England in the 12th and 13th 
centuries, that the old temples were thought unworthy of the national 
greatness, and of that feeling of exaltation arising from the successful 
result of the greatest of their wars, so that almost all those which 
remained were pulled do^vn or rebuilt. The consequence is, that nearly 
all the great temples now found in Greece were built in the 40 or 50 
years that succeeded the defeat of the Persians at Salamis and Plata^a. 

The oldest temple of this class is that best knoAvn as the Theseium, 
or temple of Theseus, at Athens, though by some believed to be more 
pi-operly that of the god Mars. It eonstitutes a link between the 
archaic and the perfect age of Grecian art, more ]ierfect than the 
temple at ^gina or any that preceded it, but falling si mil of the per- 
fection of the Parthenon, its near neighbour both in locality and date. 

Of all the great temples, the best and most celebrated is the Par- 
thenon, the only octastyle Doric temple in Greece, and in its ovni class 
undoubtedly the most beautiful building in the world. It is true it 


has noitlur tlu' ilimensions nor the womliuiis expression of power ami 
eternity inluMcnt in Ej;yj)tian temples, nor lias it the variety and 
pootr}' of the Gothic cathedral ; hut for intellectual heaxity, for perfec- 
tion of proportion, for beauty of detail, and for the exquisite perception 
of the highest and most recondite ]»rinfiples of art ever applied to 
architecture, it stands utterly and entirely alone and unrivalled — the 
glory of Greece, and the shame of tlie rest of the world. 

Next in size and in beauty to this was the great hcxastjde temple 
of .Tu])iter at ()lym])ia. finished two years later than the rarthenon. 
Its dimensions were nearly the same, but, having only G pillars in 
front instead of 8, as in the Parthenon, the proportions were different, 
tliis temple being 95 ft. by 230, the Parthenon 101 ft. by 227. 

To the same age belongs the cx(iuisite little temple of Apollo 
Epicurius at Bassai (47 ft. by 125), the tcmjile of Minerva at Suniinu, 
the greater temple at lihamnus, the Propyhvia at Athens, and indeed 
all that is gi'eatest and most beautiful in the architecture of Greece. 
The temple of Ceres at Eleusis also was founded and designed at this 
period, but its execution belongs to a later date. 


Owing, probabl}-, to some local peculiarity, which we have not 
now the means of explaining, the Dorian colonies of Sicily and Magna 
Grajcia seem to have possessed, in the days of their prosperity, a 
gi-eater number of temples, and certainly retain the traces of man^' 
more, than were or are to be found in any of the great cities of the 
mother country. The one city of Selinus alone possesses C in two 
groups, 8 in the citadel, and 15 in the city. Of these the oldest is the 
central one of the first-named group. Its sculptures, first discovered 
by Messrs. Angell and Harris, indicate an age only slightly sulisequent 
to the foundation of the colony, B.C. (33(3, and therefore probably nearly 
contemporary with the example above mentioned at Corinth. The 
most modern is the great t)ctastyle tenqde, which seems to have been 
left unfinished at the time of the destruction of the city by the Car- 
thaginians, B.C. 410. The remaining 4 range between these dates, and 
therefore form a tolerably i)eifect chronometric series at that time 
when the arts of Greece itself fail us. The inferiority, however, of 
provincial art, sis compared with that of Greece itself, prevents us from 
apjtlying such a test with t(to much confidence to the real history of 
the art, though it is undoubtedly valuable as a sec(jndary illustration. 

At Agrigentum there ai'e 3 Doric temples, 2 small hexastyles, 
whose age may be about 500 to 480 B.C., and one great exceptional 
example, the largest of all the Grecian temples of the age, being 
3(3(J ft. long by 1 73 broad. These gigantic dimensions, however, were 
beyond the legitimate powers or ])ro])ortions of the order employed; 
and the architect was consequently forced to adopt expedients which 
must always have rendered it a clumsy though a magnificent buildino-. 
Its date is ])ertectly known, as it was commenced l)y Theron, b.c. 480, 
and left unfinished seventy-five yeai-s afterwards, when the city was 
destroyed by the Carthaginians. 


At Syracuse there still exist the niins of a very hoautifnl t('m]»le of 
this age ; and at Egesta are remains of another in a nmch more perfcet 

I'ajstum, in iMagna Grsecia, boasts of the most magnificent group of 
temples after that at Agrigcntinn. One is a very beautiful hexastyle, 
belonging ])rol)ably to the middle of the fifth century b.c, built in a 
bold and very pure style of Doric architecture, and still retains the 
greater part of its internal columnar arrangement. 

The other two are more modein, and far less pure either in plan or 
in detail, one having nine columns at each end, the central pillar being 
meant to corresi)ond with an internal range of pillars, supporting the 
ridge of the roof. The other, though of a regular fomi, is so modified 
by local peculiarities, so coiTupt in fact, as hardly to deserve being 
ranked with the beautiful order which it most resembles. 


We have even fewer materials for the history of the Ionic order 
in Greece than we have for that of the Doric. The recent discoveries 
in Assyria have proved, beyond a shadow of a doubt, that the Ionic 
was even more essentially an introduction from Asia than the Doric was 
from Egypt : the only question is, when it was brought into Greece. 
]\Iy owTL impression is, that it existed there in one form or another 
from the earliest ages, but, owing to its slenderer proportions, and the 
greater quantity of wood used in its construction, the examples may 
have perished, so that nothing is now known to exist which can claim 
even as great an antiquity as the Persian war. 

The oldest example, probably, was the temple on the Ilissus, now 
destroyed, dating from about 484 b.c. ; next the little gem of a temple 
dedicated to Nike Apteros, or the 'Wingless Victory, about 15 j-ears 
later, in front of the Propyla^a at Athens. The last and most perfect 
of all the examples of this order is the Erechtheium, on the Acropolis : 
its date is apparently about 420 b.c, the great epoch of Athenian art. 
Nowhere did the exquisite taste and skill of the Athenians show them- 
selves to greater advantage than here ; for though every detail of the 
order may be traced back to Nineveh or Persepolis, all ai'c so purified, 
so imbued with purely Grecian taste and feeling, that they have 
become essential parts of a far more beautiful order than ever existed 
in their native country. 

The largest, and perhaps the finest, of Grecian Ionic temples, was 
that built about a century afterwards, at Tegea, in Arcadia — a regular 
peripteral temple, of considerable dimensions, but whose existence is 
now knoAvn only from the description of I'ausanias. 

As in the case, however, of the Doric order, it is not in Greece 
itself that we find either the greatest number of temples of this order, 
or those most remarkable for size, but in the colonies in Asia Minor, 
and more especially in ]onia, whence the order most properly takes 
its name. 

That an Ionic order existed in Asia Minor before the Persian 
wars is quite certain, but all examples perished in that memorable 


stnig};!!' ; ami when it ivappeared after it, the order had lost inueh of 
its jiiirely Asiatie eharaeter, and assumed certain forms and tendencies 
bi)rrowcd from the simpler and pnrer Doric style. 

If any temple in the Asiatic Greek colonies escaped destmction in 
the Persian wais, it was that of Juno at Samos. It is said to have 
been Imilt by IVdycrates, and appears to have been of the Doric order. 
The ruins now found there are of the Ionic order, 346 ft. by 189 ft., 
and wliich must have succeeded the first mentioned. The appaient 
archaisms in the fomi of tlie bases, itc, whicli have misled anticpiarians, 
arc merely Eastern forms retained in spitt' of (Jrecian iniluenee. 

More remarkable even than this was the celebrated temple of 
Diana at Ephesus. 425 ft. long by 220 ft. wide, consequently covering 
93,500 ft., or a larger area than any ancient temple knovm out of 
Egypt, or any media3val cathedral, except IMilan. which is slightly 
larger. Even its site, hoM'cver, is now a matter of dispute. 

Besides these, there was a splendid decastyle temple, dediciated to 
Ajwllo Didymaius, at Miletus, 105 ft. wide by 302 ft. in leng-th : an 
octastyle at Sardis, 2(U ft. by 144 ft. ; an cxquisiiely beautiful, though 
small hexastj'le, at Priene, 122 ft. by G4 ft. ; and another at Teos, 
besides smaller examples elsewhere, and many which have no doubt 


The Corinthian order is as essentially boiTowed from the bell- 
shaped capitals of Egypt, as the Doric is from their oldest jiillars. 
Like everything they touched, the CJreeks soon rendered it their own, 
by the freedom and elegance with which they treated it. The acanthus- 
leaf with which they adorned it is essentially Grecian, and we must 
suppose that it had been used by them as an ornament, either in their 
metal or wood work, long before they ado])ted it in stone as an archi 
tectural feature. 

As in everything else, however, the Greeks could not help betray- 
ing in this also the Asiatic origin of their art, and the Egyptian order 
AWth them was soon Avedded to the Ionic, whose volutes became an 
essential, thcmgh subdued ])ai't of this order. It is in fact a composite 
order, made up of the bell-shaped capitals of the Egy}>tians and the sj)ii-al 
of the Assyrians, and adopted by the Greeks at a time when national 
distinctions were rapidl}' disapiicaring, and when true and severer 
art was giving ])lace to love of variety. At that time also mere 
ornament and caning were supplanting the piner class of fonn and 
the higher aspirations of sculpture with which the Greeks oniamented 
their temples in their best days. 

In Greece the order does not appear to have been introduced, or 
at generally used, before the age of Alexander the Great; the 
oldest authentic example, and also one of the most beautiful, being the 
('horagic Monument of Lysicrates (b.c. 335), which, notwithstanding 
the smalln&ss of its dimensions, is one of the most beautiful woiks of 
art of the merely ornamental class to be found in any part of the 
world. A sirai)ler example, but by no means so beautiful, is that (»f 
the small j)orticos of the building commonly but improperly called the 

Cnw. 11. 



'J\)\vor of tlie AVinils at Athens. The largest cxaiiiph^ in CJreecc of th(> 
Corinthian order is the temple of Jupiter Olymjiius at Athens. This, 
however, may almost be called a IJouian building, thongh on Grecian 
.soil — having been commenced in its present form under Antiochns 
Epiphanes, in the 2nd eentiny B.C., by the Eoman architect Cossntius, 
and only finished by Hadrian, to whom probably we may ascribe the 
greatest part of what now remains. Its dimensions are 171 ft. by ;>54 
ft., or nearly those of the interior of the great Hypostyle Hall at 
Karnac ; and from the number of its columns, their size and their 
beauty, it may be considered as the most beautiful Corinthian temple 
of the ancient world. 

Judging, however, from some fragments found among the Ionic 
temples of Asia Minor, it appears that the Corinthian order was 
introduced there before we find any trace of it in Greece Proper. 
Indeed, d priori we might expect that its introduction into Greece 
was a pai-t of that reaction which the elegant and luxurious Asiatics 
exercised on the severei- and 
more manly inhabitants of 
European Greece, and which 
was in fact the main cause 
of their subjection, first to 
the Macedonians, and finally 
beneath the iron yoke of 
Kome. As used by the 
Asiatics, it seems to have 
arisen from the introduction 
of the bell-shaped capital of 
the Egyptians, to which they 
applied the acanthus leaf, 

sometimes in conjunction with the honeysuckle ornament of the time, 
as in woodcut No. 205, and on other and later occasions together with 
the volutes of the same order, the latter combination being the one 
Avhich ultimately pi'evailed, and became the typical form of the Corin- 
thian capital; 

Doric Order. 

The Doric was the order which the Greeks especially loved and 
cultivated so as to make it most exclusively their own ; and, as used 
in the rarthenon, it certainly is as complete and as jierfect an archi- 
tectural feature as any style can boast of. ^\hen first introduced from 
Egypt, it, as befoi-e stated, partook of even moi-e than Egyptian 
solidity, but by degrees became attenuated to the weak and lean form 
of the Koman order of the same name. Woodcut No. 20() illustrates 
the three stagt's of progress from the oldest example at Corinth to the 
order as used in the time of I'hilip at Delos, the intermediate being 
the culminating point in the age of Pericles : the first is 4-47 diameters 
in height, the next 6-025, the last 7'015 ; and if the table were filled up 
with all the other examples, the gTadual attenuation of the shaft would 
very nearly give the relative date of the example. This fact is in 
itself sufficient to refute the idea of the pillar being copied from a 

2Cj. Aiaiciit Ciiviiilhiau C;ii);Uil. Froni IJranclii(iM\ 



Book VI. 



206. Temple at Dclos. I'arthcnoii at Athens. Temple at Corinth. 

wooden post, as in that ease it would have been slenderer at first, and 
would giadually have departed from the wooden form as the style 
advanced. Tliis is the ease in all primitive styles. With the Doric 
order the contrar)' is the case. The earliei- the example the more 
unlike it is to an}- wooden orip;iiial. As the masons advanced in skill 
and power over their stone material, it came more and more to resemble 
posts or pillars of wood. The fact apjiears to be, that either in Egypt 
or in early Greece the pillar was originally a pier of brickwork, or of 
itd)ble masoniy, sujiporting a wooden n>of, of which the architraves, 
the trigly])hs, and the various ])arts of tlic cornice, all bore traces down 
to the later period. 

Even as ordinarily reiuesented, or as copied in this country, there 
is a degree of solidity combined with elegance in this oixler, and an 
exquisite ])ro]ioi-tion of the parts to one another, and to the work they 
htive to peiform, that command the admiration of every person of taste ; 
but, as used in Greece, its beauty was very much enhanced by a 

Chap. TI. 



number of refinements, whose existence was not suspected till lately, 
and oven now cannot be detected but by tlie most practised eye. 

The colnnuis were at first assumed to be bounded by straight lines. 
It is now fomid that they have an entasis, or convex profile, in the Far- 
thenon to the extent of -545 of the whole height, and are bounded by a 
very delicate hyperbolic curve ; it is true this can hardly be detected 
by the eye in ordinary positions, but the want of it gives that rigidity 
and poverty to the column which is observable in modern examples.' 

In like manner, the architrave in all temples was carried upwards, 
so as to form a very flat arch, just suificient to correct the optical delu- 
sion arising from the interference of the sloping lines of the pediment. 
This, I believe, was common to all temples, but in the Parthenon the 
curve was applied to the sides also, though from what motive it is not 
so easy to detect. 

Another refinement was making all the columns slope slightly 
inwards, so as to give an idea of strength and support to the whole. 
Add to this, that all the cim^ed lines used were either hyperbolas or 
parabolas. With one exception only, no circular line was employed, 
nor even an ellipse. Every part of the temple was also arranged with 
the most unbounded care and accuracy, and every detail of the masonry 
was earned out with a precision and beauty of execution which is 
almost unrivalled, and it ma}" be added tliat the material of the whole 
was the purest and best white marble. All these delicate adjustments, 
this exquisite finish and attention to even the smallest details, are 
well bestowed on a design in itself simjde, beautiful, and appropriate. 
The}" combine to render this order, as found in the best Greek temples, 
as nearly faultless as any work of art can possibly be, and such as we 
may dwell upon with the most unmixed and unvarying satisfaction. 

To understand, however, the Doric order, we must not regard it 
as a merely masonic form. 
Sculpture was always used, 
or intended to be used, 
with it. The metopes be- 
tween the triglyphs, the 
pediments of the porticos, 
and the acroteria or pedes- 
tals on the roof, are all un- 
meaning and useless imless 
filled or surmounted with 
sculptured figures. Sculp- 
ture is, indeed, as essential 
a part of this order as the 

acanthus-leaves and ornaments of the cornice are to the capitals and 
entablature of the Corinthian order ; and without it, or without its 
place being supplied by painting, we are merely looking at the dead 

The Purtlieiion. Scale 50 It. to 1 in. 

' These facts have all been fully ekuiilated 
by Mr. Penrose in his beautiful work contain- 
ing the results of his researches on the I'ar- 

tlit'uon and other t( mples of Greece, pub- 
lished by the Dilett-uiti Society. 


skeleton, the mere frtimework of the order, without the flesh and bk)od 
tluit guve it life and junpose. 

It is Avhen all these parts arc combined together, as in the j.oitieo 
of the I'ai-thenon (woodcut No. 207), that we can understand this order 
in all its perfection ; for though each part was beautiful in itself, their 
full value can be ajipreciated only as parts of a great whole. 

Another essential part of the order, too often overlooked, is the 
colour, which wa« as integral a part of it as its form. Till very 
lately, it was denied that Greek temples w^ere, or could be, painted : 
the unmistakeable remains of it, however, that have been discovered 
in almost all temples, and tlie gre^ator knowledge of the value and 
use of colour which now prevails, have altered the public opinion very- 
much on the matter, and most people admit that some colour was used, 
though few are agreed as to the extent to which it was earned. 

It cannot now be questioned that colour was xised even'Avhere 
internally, and on every object. Externally too it is generally ad- 
mitted that the scidpture was painted and relieved by strongly 
coloured backgiounds ; the lacunaria, or recesses of the roof, were also 
cei'tainly painted, and all the architectural mouldings, which at a later 
period wore carved in relief, have been found to retain traces of their 
painted ornaments. 

It is disputed whether the echinus or cui-^'ed moulding of the 
capital was so ornamented. I think it undoubtedly was ; and the walls 
of the cells were also coloured throughout and covered with paintin<'-s 
illustrative of the legends and attnbutes of the divinity to whom the 
temple was dedicated, or of the pui-poses for which it was erected. 
The plane face of the arcliitrave, 1 believe, was left white, or merely 
ornamented with metal shields or inscriptions, and the shafts of the 
columns seem also to have been left plain, or merely slightly stained 
to tone down the crudeness of the white marble. Generally speaking, 
all those parts which from their fonn or jjosition were in any degree 
protected from the rain or atmospheric influences seem to have been 
coloured; those particularly cx])osed, to have been left plain. To 
whatever extent, however, it may have been carried, these coloured 
ornaments were as essential a part of the Doric order as the cai^ved 
ornaments were of the Corinthian, and made it, when jjcrfect, a richer 
and more ornamental, as it was a more solid and stable, order than the 
latter. The colour nowhere interfered with the beauty of its fomis, 
but gave it that richness and amount of oniamentation which is iiidis- 
l)ensable in all except the most colossal b\iildings, and a most valuable 
adjunct even to them. 


The Ionic order, as we now find it, is not without some decided 
advantages over the Doric. It is more complete in itself and less 
dependent on scidpturc. Its frieze was too small for much display of 
human life and action, and was probably usually ornamented with lines 
of animals ' like the friezes at Persepolis. But the frieze of the little 

It was called Zoophorus {life or figure bearer). 



toiuplo of Nike Aptcros is brilliantly ornamented in the same style as 
those of the Do'/ic order. It also happened that those details and orna- 
ments wliich were only painted in the Doric, are carved in the Junie 
order, and remain therefore visible to the present day, which gives to 
this order a completeness in onr eyes which the other cannot boast of. 
Add to this a certain degree of Asiatic elegance and grace. All this 
when pnt together makes np a singularly pleasing architectnral object. 
But notwithstanding these advantages the Doric order will probably 
always be admitted to 
be superior, as belonging 
to a higher class of art, 
and because all its forms 
and details are better and 
more adapted to their 
purpose than these are. 

The })rincipal cha- 
racteristic of the Ionic 
order is the Pelasgic or 
Asiatic spiral, here call- 
ed a volute, which, not- 
withstanding its ele- 
gance, forms at best but 
an awkward capital. The 
Assyrian honeysuckle be- 
low this, carved as it is 
with the exquisite feel- 
ing and taste which a 
Greek only knew how to 
impart to such an object, 
forms as elegant an archi- 
tectural detail as is any- 
where to be found ; and 
wliether used as the 
necking of a column, or 
on the cro waring member 
of a cornice, or on other 
parts connected with the 
order, is everywhere the 
most beautiful ornament 
connected with it. Com- 
paring this order with 
that at Persepolis (wood- 
cut No. 1-10), the onl}^ 

truly Aijiatic protot;>^e wo have of it, we see how much the Doric 
feeling of the Greeks had done to sober it down, by abbreviating the 
capital and omitting the greater part of the base. This process was 
carried much farther when the order was used in c(mjunctit»n with the 
Doric, as in the Propyhca, than when used by itself, as in the Erech- 
theinm; still in every case all the parts found in the Asiatic style ai'e 


"jDuuuu u uuyii 



Ionic order of Krcchtheium at Athens. 



Book VI. 

found in tlic Greek. The same form and feelings pen^ado both ; and, 
excejit in beanty of execution and detail, it is not quite clear how far 
even the (Jreek order is an improvement on the Eastern one. 1'hc 
rersepolitan base is certainly the more beautiful of the two ; so are 
many parts of the capital. The perfection of the whole, however, 

depends on the mode in 

1 ^ II ^ ^ '@ II 

which it was employed ; and 
it is perfectly evident that 
the Persian order could not 
])e combined with the Doric, 
nor applied with nmch pro- 
l»riety as an external order, 
which was the essential use 
of all the Grecian forms of 

NotM'ithstanding the 
amount of car^•ing which 
the Ionic order displays, 
there can be little doubt but 
Ihat it was also ornamented 
with colour to a considerable 
extent, but probably in a dif- 
ferent manner from the Doric. 
My o-wTi impression is, that 
the carved ]iarts were gilt, or 
picked out with gold, relieved 
by coloured grounds, varied 
according to the situation in 
which they Avere found. The 
existing remains ]>rove that 
colouis were used in juxtapo- 
sition to relieve and height- 
en the architectui-al effect of 
the cars'ed oniaments of this 

In the Ionic temples at 
Athens the same exquisite 
masonry was used as in the 
Doric; the same mathema- 
tical precision and care is 
bestowed on the entasis of 
the columns, the drawing of 
the volutes, and the execu- 
tion of even the minutest de- 
tails ; and much of its beauty 
and effect are no doubt owing 

209. Order of the Cliuragic Muminiciit of>icrales. 

to tliis circumstance, which we miss so painfully in nearly all modem 

Chap. II. 




As l)cfovo mentioned, the Corintliian order was only introduced 
into Greece in the decline of art, and never rose during the purely 
Grecian ago to the dignity of a temple order. It most pioLably, how- 
ever, was used in the more ornate s})ecimens of domestic architecture, 
and in smaller works of art, long before any of those examples of it 
were executed which we now lind in (ireece. 

The most typical specimen we now know is that of the Choragic 
Monmxient of Lysicrates (woodcut No. 209), which, notwithstanding 
all its elegance of detail and execution, can hardly be pronounced to 
be perfect, the Eg3^)tian and Asiatic features being onlj^ very indif- 
ferently united tcj one another. The foliaged part is rich and full, but 
is not carried up into the upper or Ionic portion, which is in compari- 
son lean and poor ; and though separately the two parts are irreproach- 
able, it was left to the Romans so to blend the two together as to make 
a perfectly satisfactory whole out of them. 

In this example, as now 



existing, the junction of the 
cohimn with the capital is 
left a })lain sinking, and so 
it is generally copied in 
modern times ; but there 
can be little doubt that this 
Avas originally filled by a 
bronze wreath, which was 
probably gilt. Accordingly 
this is so represented in the 
woodcut as being essential 
to the completion of the 
order. The base and shaft 
have, like the upper part of 
the capital, more Ionic feel- 
ing in them than the order 
was afterwards allowed to 
retain ; and altogether it is, 
as here practised, far more 
elegant, though less com- 
plete, than the IJoman form 
wliich su])erseded it. 

The other Athenian ex- 
ample, that of the Tower of 
the Winds (woodcut No. 
210), is remarkable as be- 
ing almixst purely Egyptian 
in its types, Avith no Ionic 
admixture. The columns 
have no bases, the ca])itals no volutes, and the water-leaf clings as 
closely to the bell as it does in the Egyptian exami)les. The result 








210. Older of the Tower of the Winds, Atluns. 



]$00K VI. 

altogether wants richness, and, tliough appropriate on so small a scale, 
would hardly he })loasin<;" on a larger. 

The great exanjjde of tlu- tL'iu]>]e of Jupitur Olynipins difters in no 
essential part from the Eonuin older, exei'})t that the comers of the 
abacus are not cut oif ; and that, being executed in Athens, there is a 
degree of taste and art disjdayed in its execution which we do not find 
in any Ifoman exani])les. It strictly s]>ealviiig. however, belongs to 
that school, and should be enumerated with tlicm, and not as a Gieeian 


It has been already explained that the Kgvptians never used cary- 

atide figures, jiropeily so called, to su}ti)ort tlie entablatures of theii' 

arehitectixre, their figures being 

always attached to the front of 

the columns or piers, which were 

the real l)earing mass. At l*erse])o- 

lis, and elsewhere in the East, we 

find figures everywhere employed 

supporting the throne or the plat- 

foiin of the palaces of the kings ; 
not, indeed, on 
their heads, as 
the Greeks used 
them, but rather 
in their uidifted 

The name, 
however, as well 
as their being 
only used in con- 
junction with 
the Ionic order 
;nid Avith Io- 
nic details, all 
})ointtoan Asia- 
tic origin for 
this very ques- 
tionable form of 
art. As used in 
the little ]ior- 
tico attached to 
the Erechthei- 
um, these figures 

211. Caryalidc' Kiifurt^ 

from the KRciiiii<iiiii). are used with 

Carjaliile Figure in tliu liriiifh Musiuin. 

SO much taste, 
and all the ornaments are so elegant, that it is diificult to criticise 
or fintl fault ; but it is nevertheless cei-tain that it Avas a mistake 
which even the art of the (jlrecks could hardlv conceal. To use 

CllAl-. 11. 



213. ToUuiiuiR'S III Atrns'entuni. 

human figures to Nupjiort a coraico is unpardonable, unless it is done 
as a mere secondary adjunct to a building. In the Ercchtheium it is a 
little too prominent for this, thcjugh used 
with as much discretion as was perhaps 
])()ssiblc under the circumstances. An- 
other example of the sort is shown in 
woodcut Mo. 212, which, by employing 
a taller cap, avoids some of the objections 
to the other ; but the figure itself, on the 
other hand, is less architectural, and so 
errs on the other side. 

Another form of this class of suppuit 
is that of the giants or Telamones, instances 
of which are found supporting the roof of 
the great temple at Agrigentum, and in 
the baths of the semi-Greek city of Pom- 
peii. As they do not actually bear the 
entablature, but only seem to relieve the 
masonry behind them, their employment 
is less objectionable than that of the 
female figure above described ; but even 

they hardly fulfil the conditions of true art, and their place might be 
bettor filled by some more strictly architectural feature. 

Forms of Temples. 

The arrangements of Grecian D(_)ric temples show almost less 
variety than the forms of the pillars, and no materials exist for tracing 
their gradual development in an historical point of view. The temples 
at Corinth, and the oldest at Selinus, are both perfect examples of the 
liexastylc arrangement to which the Greeks adhered in all ages ; and 
though there can be little doul)t that the pei'ipteral arrangement, as 
well as the order itself, was borrowed from Egypt, it still was so much 
modified before it appeared in Greece, that it would be intei'esting, if 
it could be done, to trace the steps of the change. 

In an architectural point of view this is by no moans difficult. The 
simplest Greek temples were mere cells, or small scpiare a})artments, 
suited to contain an image — the front being what is technically called 
distyle in antis, or with 2 pillars between aidce, or square i)ilaster-like 
piers tenninating the side walls. Hence the inlerior enclosure of 
Grecian temples — the temple itself as op})Osed to the peristyle or system 
of external columns — is called the cell, however large and splendid it 
may be. 

The next change was to separate the interior into a cell and porch 
by a wall with a large doorway in it, as in the small temple at 
Ehamnus (woodcut Ko. 21-t), where the opening however can scarcely 
be called a doorway, as it extends to the roof. A third change was 
to put a porch of 4 pillars in front of the last arrangement, or, as 
appears to have been more usual, to bring forwai'd the screen to the 
position of the pillars as in the last example, and to place the 4 jullars 

T 2 



Book VI. 

in front of this. Xone of these plans admitted of a poristylc, or pillars 

on the flanks. To obtain this it was necessary 
to increase the numlier of pillars of the portico 
to G, or, as it is termed, to make it hexastyle, 
the 2 outer pillars being the first of a range of 
13 or If) cohimns, extended along each side of 
the temple. Tlic cell in this arrangement Ava.s 
a complete temple in itself — distyle in antis, 
n\ost frequently made so at both ends, and the 
whole enclosed in its onveloiio of columns, as 
in woodcut No. 215. Sometimes the cell was 
tetrastyle or with 4 pillars in front. 

In this foi-m the Greek temple may be said 
to be complete, verj' few exceptions occurring to 
the rule, though the Parthenon itself is one of 
these few. It hua a hexastyle portico at each 

214. Small Temple at iihamniis. end of the Cell ; bcyoud this is an octastyle por- 
tico at each end, and 17 columns on eacli flank. 
The great temple at Sclinus is also octastyle, but it is neither 

so simple nor so beautiful in its arrangement ; and, from the decline 


1 ' ' 1 

ft * * 1 

» • • • 

\ ^•'\l 


W ft ff 

215. Plan of Temple of Apollo 
at Bassa-. Scale 100 ft. to I in. 

216. I'lan of rarlbciion at Athens. 
Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 

217. rian of Great Temple at Agrigentum. 
Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 


of stylo in the art wlieii it was built, is altogether a very inferior 

Another great exception is the great temple at Agrigentinn (wood- 
cut Ko. 21 ii), where the architect attempted an order on so gigantic a 
scale as to he unable to constnict the j^illars with their architi'aves 
standing free. The interstices of the columns are theiefore built up 
witli walls pierced with windows, and altogether the architecture is so 
bad, that even its colossal dimensions must have failed to render it at 
any time a pleasing <jr satisfactory work of art. 

A fourth exception is the temple at Passtum before referred to, with 
51 })illars in fiont, a clumsy expedient, but which arose from its having 
a range of cohimns down the centre to sujiport the ridge of the roof 1 »y 
a simpler mode than the triangular truss usually employed for carrying 
the ridge between two ranges of columns. 

^^■ith the exception of the temple at Agrigentum, all these were 
peristylar, or had ranges of columns all round them, enclosing the cell 
as it were in a case, an arrangement so apparently devoid of ])ur])osc, 
that it is necessary to say a few words to account for its universality. 
It will not suffice to say that it was adopted merely because it was beau- 
tiful. The forms of Egyptian temples, which had no pilhirs externally, 
were as peifect, and in the hands of the Greeks would have become as 
beautiful, as the one they adopted. Besides, it is natural to suppose 
they would rather have copied the larger than the smaller temples, if 
no motive existed for their preference of the latter. The peristyle, 
too, was ill suited for an ambiilatory, or place for processions to circu- 
late round the tem}»le ; it was too narrow for this, and too high to 
protect the procession from the rain. Indeed, I know of no suggestion 
except that it was adapted to protect the paintings on the walls of the 
cells from the inclemenc}' of the weather. I think it hardly admits of 
a doubt that the walls were painted, and that without protection of 
some sort this would very soon have been obliterated. It seems also 
very evident that the peristyle was not only practically, but artistically, 
most admirably adapted for this puri)ose. The paintings of the Greeks 
were, like those of the Egyptians, composed of numerous detached 
grou])s, connected only by the story, and it almost required the inter- 
vention of pillars, or some means of dividing into compartments the 
surface to be so painted, to separate these groups from one another, and 
to prevent the whole sequence from being seen at once ; while, on the 
other hand, nothing can have been more beautiful than the white marble 
columns relieved against a richly coloured plane surface. The one 
seems so necessary to the other, that it can, I think, hardly be doubted 
but that this Avas the cause, and that the eftect must have been most 
surpassingly beautiful . 

MooE OF Lighting Temples. 

The arrangement of the interior of Grecian temples necessarily de- 
pended on the mode in Avhicli they were lighted. Xo one will, I 
believe, now contend, as was once done, that it was by lamplight alone 
that the beauty nf their interiors could be seen: and as light certainlv 



Book VI. 

was not introduced through the side walls, nor could be in Ruflficicnt 
quantities tlirougli the doorways, it is only from the roof that it t-ould 
be admitted. At the same time it coiild not have been by a large hori- 
zontal opening in the roof, as has been suggested, as that would have 
admitted the rain and snow as well as the light ; and the only alterna- 
tive seems to bo one I suggested some years ago — of a clerestory,' 
similar internally to that found in all the great Egyptian temples,* but 
externally recpiiring such a change of arrangement as was necessary to 
adapt it to a sloping instead of a flat roof. This seems to have been 
effected by countersinking it into the roof, so as to make it in fact 8 
ridges in those parts where the light was admitted, though the regular 
slope of the roof was retained between these openings, so that neither 
the ridge nor the continuity of the lines of the roof was interfered 

with. This would effect 
.,-^,,. all that was required, 

and in the most beauti- 
ful niamiM', besides that 
it agrees with all the re- 
mains of Greek temples 
that now exist, as well 
as with all the descrip- 
tions that have been 
handed dowoi to us from 

. antiquity. 

This arrangement 
will be understood from 
the section of the Parthenon (woodcut No. 218), restored in accord- 
ance with the above explanation, which agrees perfectly with all 


Section of the rartliciion. Scale 50 ft. to 1 in. 


Part Section, part Elevation, of Great Temple at Agrigeutum. Scale 5U fu to i in. 

' For full (lctail.«; of this see ' True Principles of Beauty in Art,' p. 385 et seq. 
* See Woodcuts Nos. 108, 170, 172. 

CiiAr. II. 



that ivmains mi the spot, as well as with all the accounts we have of 
that tvlcbiated temple. The same .system applies even more easily to 
the great hexastylo at Pjestimi, ami to the beautiful little temple of 
Apollo at IJassai, in riiioalia (Avoodeut No. 215), and indeed to all 
re_i;-n 1 a r Greek temples; and Avliat is a more important point in the 
examination of this theory, it applies equally to the exceptional ones. 
The side aisles, for instance, of the great temple at Agrigentum were, 
as before mentioned, lighted by side windows; the central one coidd 
only be lighted irom the roof, and it is easy to see how this could be 
ott'ected by introducing it between the telamones, as shown in the 
woodcut No. 21i». 

Another exceptional temple is that at Elcusis, which we know to 
have had windows and shiitters 
above, used in admitting or ex- 
cluding the light during the cele- 
bration of the mysteries. The ar- 
rangements of this temple lend 
themselves admirably to this mode 
of inti-oducing light, as shown in 
the plan and section annexed (Nos, 
220 and 221). 

The great temple of Jupiter 
Olympius (Avoodcut No. 222) was 
apparently lighted according to an- 
other system, owing probably to its 
immense height, and other pecu- 
liarities of con.struction. The light 
seems to have been introduced into 
what may be considered a C(mrt, or 
hypoethnim, in front of the cell, which 
was lighted throuo-h its inner wall. 

This seems to have been the temple mentioned by Vitruvius,' whose 
description has given rise to such confusion on this subject. It is the 
only one to Avhich his words apply, or to which it is possible to adapt 
sucli a mode of lighting as he describes. 


Plan of Tcniple of Ceres at Eleusis. 
Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 


Section of 'I'emplc of Ceres at Kleusis. Scale 50 ft. to 1 in. 

' Vitruvius, lili. i. cli. 



Book VI. 


n o 

!^ W 

The Ionic temples of Asia are all too much ruined lu enable lus to 
say exactly in what manner, and to what extent, this mode of ligliting 

was applied to them, though I have 
OOOOOOOSl® no doubt that the mode was very simi- 
O O O O O O O ffl H a 1^1* in all its main featuies. 

The little temple of Nike Apteros, 
and the temple on the Ilissus, were 
both too small to require any compli- 
cated arraiigcincnt of the sort, and the 
Ereclilliciuiii was lighted by windows 
which still remain at the west end, so 
that we can hardly feel sure that the 
same expedient was not adopted to at 
least some extent in the Asiatic exam- 
l)les. The latter, however, is almost 
the only instance of windows in any 
European Greek temple, the only 
other exam]dc being in the A'ery ex- 
cepticmal temple at Agi-igentum. It 
is valuable, besides, as showing how 
little the Greeks were bound by mles, 
or by any fancied laws of synimetiy. 

As is sliown in the i)l;in, elevation, 
and view (woinlcuts Nds. 22:5, 224, 
225), the Erechtheium consisted, pro- 
perly speaking, of •) temples gi-ouped 
together ; and it is astonishing what 
pains the architect took to prevent 
their being mistaken for one. The 
porticos of 2 of them are on different 
levels, and the third or caryatide jxircli is of a different height and 
different style. Every one of these features is jierfectly symmetrical 
in itself, and the grouj) is beautifully l)alanced and arranged; aiul 
vet no Gothic architect in his wildest moments coidd have conceived 

rian of Temple of Ju]iitcr Olympius at 
Athens. Scale iOU ft. to 1 in. 

'J23. I'l;in of Krcclitlieium. 
Sciik- Km ft. to I in. 

224. .Section of Kreclitheium. 
Scale 50 ft. to 1 in. 

aiiytbing moie jjicturesfpiely irregular than the whole becomes. In- 
deed there can be no greater mistake than to suppose that (ireek 
architecture was fettered b}^ any fixed laws of formal symmetry : each 
detail, every feature, every object, such as a hall or ttMnjdc, which 
could be considered as one complete and separate whole, was perfectly 

ClIAl'. II. 



■^25. View of Kiechilieiuiii. 

symmetrical and regular ; but no two Lnildings — no two apartments— 
if f(jr different purposes, were made to look like one. On the contrary, 
it is quite curious to observe what pains they took to arrange their 
buildings so as to produce variety and contrast, instead of formality or 
singleness of effect. Temples, Avhen near one another, were never 
placed parallel, nor were even their propylasa and adjuncts ever so ar- 
ranged as t(j be seen at once or in one line. The Egyptians, as before 
remarked, had the same feeling, but carried it into even the details of 
the same building, which the Greeks did not. In this, indeed, as 
in almost eveiy other artistic mode of expression, they seem to have 
hit exactly the happy medium, so as to produce the greatest harmony 
with the greatest variety, and to satisfy the minutest scrutiny and the 
most lefined taste, while their buildings i)roduced an immediate and 
striking effect on even the most careless and casual beholders. 

Municipal Architecture. 

Very little now remains of all the various classes of municipal and 
domestic buildings which once must have covered the land of Greece, 
and tVom what we know of the ex(pnsite feeling for art that ])e7-va(li"(l 
that people, were certainl}' not less beautiftd, though more ejilu'iuenil, 
than the sacred buildings whose ruins still remain to us. 

There are, however, two buildings in Athens which, though small, 
give us most exalted ideas of their taste in such matters. 'J'hc liist, 
already alluded to, usuallj^ known as tlie Tower of the \\'iuds, is a j)laiu 
octagonal building about 45 ft. in height by 24 in width, ornamented 
by 2 Miiall pnichcs of 2 [lillars cacli, of the Coilnthian order. 



15r.oK VI. 

capitals are ro|ircsente(I in woodcut No. 210. Its roof, like the rest of 
the Imihliii;:;. is of white iiiarlde, and of simple hut very elegant design, 

and below this is a frieze of 8 large figures, 
s^Tiibolical of the 8 winds, from Avhich the 
tower takes its name, they in fact l)eing the 
princi])al objects and ornaments of the 
building, the most important use of which 
appears to have been to contain a clepsydra 
or water-clock. 

The other building, though smaller, is 
still more beautiful. It is known a.s the 
Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, and con- 
sists of a square bfise 12 ft. high by 9 ft. 
wide, on which stands a circular temple 
adorned by G Corinthian columns, Avhich, 
with their entablature, and the roof and 
pedestal they support, make up 22 ft. more, 
so that the whole height of the monument 
is only 34 ft. Notwithstanding these insig- 
nificant dimensions, the beauty of its co- 
bunns (woodcut No. 209) and of their enta- 
blature, above all, the beauty of the roof, 
and of the finial ornamont designed to com- 
jilete the building, which is unrivalled for 
elegance even in Greek art, together make 
up a composition so perfect that nt) thing in 
any other style or age can be said to sur- 
pass it. If it is a fair index of the art that 
was lavished on the smaller objects, the 
temples hardly give a just idea of all that 
have perished. 





Choragic Monuninnt of Lysi- 
crates. No scale. 


In extreme contrast with the buildings last described, which were 
among the sniallcst, came the theatres, which were the largest of the 
monuments the Greeks seem ever to have attempted. 

The annexed plan of one at Dramyssus, the ancient Dodona, will 
give an idea of their forms and aiTangemcnts. Its dimensions may bo 
said to be gigantic, being 443 ft. across; but even this, though perhaps 
the largest in Greece, is far sur])aissed by many in Asia Minor. \\ hat 
remains of it, however, is merely the auditorium, and consists only of 
ranges of seats an-anged in a semicircle, but without architectural orna- 
ment. In all the examples in Europe, the proscenium, which was the 
only part architecturally ornamented, h;us perished, so that, till we can 
restore this with something like ceiiainty, the theatres hardly come 
within the chuss of architecture as a fine art. 

In Asia Minor some of the theatres have their proscenia adorned 
with niches and coluiinis, and friezes of great richness, but all these 

Chap. H. 




Plan of Theatre at Dramj'ssus. Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 

belong to the Eoman period ; and though probably copies of the mode 
in which the Greeks ornamented theirs, are so coriixpt in style as to 
prevent their being used with safety in attempting to restore the earlier 

Many circumstances would indeed induce us to believe that the 
proscenia of the earlier theatres may have been of wood or bronze, or 
both combined, and heightened by painting and carving to a great 
degree of richness. This, though appropriate and consonant with the 
origin and history of the drama, would be fetal to the expectation of 
anything being found to illustrate its earliest forms. 


Like the other Indo-Germanic races, the Greeks never were tomb- 
builders, and n(jthing of any importance of this class is found in Greece, 
except the tombs of the early Pelasgic races, which were cither tumuli 
or treasuries, as they are popularly called. There are, it is true, some 
headstones and small pillars of great beauty, but they are nioni)lithic, 
and belong rather to the department of sculpture than of architecture. 
In Asia Minor there are some important tombs, some built and others 
cut in the rock. Some of the latter have been described before in 
speaking of the tombs of the Lyeians. The liuilt examples which 
remain almost all belong to the lioman pei'iod, though the must mag- 
nificent mausoleiuu of the ancient world, in the eyes of the Greeks, 
was that which the Queen Artemisia erected at Halicarnassus to the 


Tnomory of her ImshaiKl, Munsolns, which gave its name to all sul).se- 
qiU'iif exfimj)k's of it.s cliusx. It ))eloii<^cd to the great period of Greek 
art, and must have been a si)lendid building, though our possessing only 
verbal descriptions of it prevents our being able to judge for ourselves 
how far it confonned witli the rules of gdod taste. 

We have nothing left but imperfect verbal desciiptions of the do- 
mestic, and even of the ])alatial architecture of Greece, and, conse- 
(luently, can only jtidge imperfectly of its fonns ; and Pompeii, though 
half a Greek city, belongs to too late and too cormpt an age to enable 
us to use it even as an illustration ; but we may rest assured that in 
this, as in everything else, the Greeks disi)layed the same exquisite 
taste which pervades not only their monumental ai'chitecture, but all 
their works in metal or clay, down to the meanest object, which have 
been preserved to our times. 

It is ])robable that the forms of their houses Avere much more irre- 
gular and picturesque than we are in the habit of supposing they were. 
They seem to have taken such pains in their temples — in the Erech- 
theium, for instance, and at Eleusis — to make every part tell its i)wn 
tale, that anything like forced regularity must have been offcnsiAc to 
them, and they would probably make every ajjartment exactly of the 
dimensions required, and grou}) them so that no one should imder any 
circumstances be confoimded with another. 

This, however, with all the dotiiils of their domestic arts, must now 
remain to us an men; speculation, and the architectural history of Gi'eece 
must be contined to her temples and moninnental erections. These 
suffice to explain the nature and fonns of the art, and to assign to it the 
rank of the purest and most intellectual of all the st3des which have 
yet been invented in any part of the weald. 


BOOK Vll. 



Historical notice — Temples — Rock-cut tombs — Tombs at Castel d'Asso — Tumuli. 


Migration from Asia Minor about 12tli cent. u.c. 

Toml) of Porsenna about u.c. 500 

Etiuiia becomes subject to Rome „ 300 

( )iiii .subject again carries us back to a vcrj' early period — that of the 
first introduction of art into Italy, fur tlie traces of which it is neces- 
sary to direct our attention to Etruria. In describing the remains 
found in this country we shall come to nothing very remarkable for 
its bearing upon merely architectural questions. The study of the 
monuments of Etruria derives the greater part of its interest fi-om its 
historical importance. In this point of view there are perhaps few 
parts of the world whose remains of art are more instructive than 
those of Etruria. ^Vithout the lessons which we learn from them, the 
architectural history of Rome is an unintelligible maze ; and the con- 
nection between the arts of Greece and Italy, from the earliest time, 
equally inexplicable. 

Without attempting to enter into the many controversies that have 
of late years been raised with regard to the origin and early history 
of the Etruscans,' it will be necessary to state thus much :■ — They were 
an Asiatic people who 12 or 13 centuries before the Christian era emi- 
grated from Lydia, driven from their home either by the pressure of a 
long famine or by the rising power of some neighbouring nation, 
most probably that of the Assyrians. lianded in Italy, they dis- 
possessed of some of their cities the I^mbrians, a people of similar 
origin to themselves, and settled themselves between the valleys of 

' Tliese questions are discussed at considerable length in tlie ' True rrincijiles of Beauty 
in Art,' [>. 42G et seqq. 


the Tiber and tlie Anio. In tlii.s foi-tile district tlicy foianded 12 cities, 
and estaljlislied a federal iiniun of 12 states, which is the pecnliar 
institution of the race. 

Here they appear to have flourished for 7 or 8 centuries, receiving 
the expatriated Trojans and other similar accessions from their native 
shores, and l\ce])ino' ii]i a ccjnstant communication of commerce and 
art witli the cognate Pelasgic races of Greece and other parts. 

When Home was first founded, her kings, laws, and institutions 
were Etniscan, and conse({ucntly of Asiatic origin, though the mass of 
the inhahifants wei'ti prohahly of the old Italian stock. About 5 cen- 
turies Ijcfore Christ the Komans threw off the Etruscan yoke, and esta- 
blished the peculiar municipal institutions of the Indo-Germanic races. 
Eventually, after a contest of 2 centuries' duration, they conquered in 
succession the several states of the then old and decrepit Union, and 
based their colossal empire on the iiiins of the parent nation of Etruria. 

Until the very latest time, however, l\onie retained, both in her 
institutions and her arts, many peculiarities derived from her original 
rulers ; and it is only by studying what remains of the older race that 
we can understand either the origin or meaning of those pecidiar 

The origin of Etruscan art is beyond all doubt Asiatic, and its ori- 
ginal seat was some part of the countries between the Tigris and the 
western coast of Asia Minor. The same art, and from the same source, 
prevailed in Greece under the Pelasgi. In that country, as has been 
already explained, it ceased to exist as a separate style of art in very 
early times. It was there amalgamated with Egyptian and iVssyrian 
foiTUs under the Dorians during the 4 or 5 centuries that elapsed be- 
tween the extinction of the pure Pelasgic style and the rise of tnie 
Hellenic art. The united style thus slowly ripened into that noble 
and chastened art which we have described in the last chapter. 

In Etruria the old Asiatic style enjoyed no such advantages. It 
there was left without a rival or associate, to luxui-iate in its own 
natural wildn ess ; but it remained an exotic unsuitcd to the climate. 
It never blended itself with the art of the people among whom it was 
planted. Perhaps there was nothing with which it coidd blend itself. 
It thus bore no such fruit as in Greece, and could not maintain itself 
after the peo}»le which had introduced it had succumbed beneath the 
superior energy of their Italian conquerors. 


As might bo expected of a people of Asiatic origin, the Etruscans 
had no tem})les worthy of the name. At least no remains of any are 
now to be found, and those we read of were small, though probably 
highly oniamented, wooden fiibrics, which of course perished early. 
On the other hand, the Etruscans were an cs.sentially tomb-building 
race. Their religion took Aciy much the character of ancestral wor- 
shi]), and it was this particular feature of it which left so strong an 
imjinss on the mythology of Greece and Kome. It was not an idolatry, 

ClIAl". I. 



iiov li;ul it a di.stinct and privileged priesthood ; consequently it was 
devoid of all tendency to the feelings Avhich tiiid tluir utterance in 
architectural splendour. 

We know from Vitruvius that there were two classes of temples in 
Etruria : the first circular, like their tombs, and dedicated to one god 
or demigod ; the other rectangular, with 3 cells sacn^d to 3 deities. 
The ap]H'arance and arrangement of the rectangular temples is scarcely 
moic than a nu^re an titpiarian question. The restoration of the eleva- 
tion from the description in Vitruvius is by no means easy or certain. 
My own belief is that it resembled that given in the annexed woodcut 
(No. 228). but it is not worth while here to enter into all the reasons 


Plan and Secliuii uf ;\n Ktrustaii TcniiiU'. 

for this impression, which I have given elsewhere.' In fact, these 
temples, as architectural objects, are so insignificant as hardly to de- 
serve much consideration. The restoreel ground-plan explains their 
general arrangements, as commonly admitted by those who have studied 
the subject. 

The original Etmscan circidar temple I believe to have been a 
mere circular cell with a porch. The Komans surrounded it with 
a peristyle, which probably did not (jxist in the original style. They 
magnified it afterwards into the most characteristic and splendid of all 
their temples, the rantheon, Avhose portico is Etruscan in arrangement 
and design, and whose cell still more distinctly belongs to that style. 
The temple of Capitoline Jupiter was in all respects an Etruscan 
liuilding ; and most of the other temples of the Romans, though affect- 
ing a peristylar form, returned to the arrangements whicli luid been 
adopted in the first instance from their neighbours and oi-iginal nders. 
There can be little doubt that the simpler Koman tem])les of circular 
form are derived from Etruscan origiuMls. Tt would tlicrefore be of 
great importance if we were able tt) illustrate the later buildings from 
existing remains of the older ; but the fact is that such deductions as 
we may draw from the copies are our only source of information re- 
specting the originals. 

We know little of any of the civil buildings with Avliich tlie cities 

I'luo rriiiciiiks ul' Jkauty in Art, ji. -I4tj cl saj'j. 


of Etniria were adoniod, oxcopt tlio remains of their theatres and 
aniiihitheatres. The form uf the hitter wa.s essentially Etrnsean, and 
was adopted by the Komans, with whom it became their most charac- 
teristic and grandest architectural object. Of the amphitheatres of 
ancient Etrni-ia only one now remains in so perfect a state a.s to enable 
Tis to judge of their fonus. It is that at Sutri, which, however, being 
entirely cut in the rock, neither aftords the means of judging of the 
mode of construction, nor enables us to determine the age. The general 
dimensions are 295 ft. in its greatest length, by 265 in breadth, and 
consequently much nearer a circle than those of the Eomans usually 
were ; but in other respects the ai'rangemcnts are such as were usually 
found in after times. 

Besides these we have numerous worlcs of utility, Imt these belong 
more strictly to engineering than to architectural science. The city 
walls of the Etruscans sui"p; those of any other ancient nation in 
extent and beauty of workmanship. Their works of diainagc and their 
bridges, as well as those of the kindred Telasgians in Greece, still 
remain monuments of their industrial science and skill, which their 
successors never suiiiassed. 

On the Avhole perhaps avc are justified in asserting that the Etruscans 
Avere not an architectural people, and had no temples or palaces worthy 
of attention. At all events it is certain that nothing of the sort is now 
to be found even in niins, and, W"re it not that the study of Etniscan 
art is a necessary introduction to that of Ifomc, it would hardly be wf)rth 
while to try to gather together and to illustrate the few fragments and 
notices of it that remain. 


The tombs now found of the Etruscans may be divided into two 
cla.sses : — First, those cut in the rock, and resembling dwelling-houses ; 
secondly, the circular tumuli, which latter are by far the most nume- 
rous and important class. 

Each of these may be again STibdivided into two kinds. The rock- 
cut tombs include, firstly, those with only a facade on the face of the 
rock, and a sepulchral chamber within ; secondly, those cut quite out 
of the rock, and standing free all rouiid. To this class probaljly once 
belonged an innncnsc number of tombs built in the ordinary way; but 
all these have totally disappeared, and consc(p;ently the class, as now 
under consideration, consists entirely of excavated examples. 

The second class m.ay be divided into those tumuli erected over 
<'hambers cut iu the tufaceous rock which is foinid all over Etruria, and 
those which have chaml)c)s built above ground. 

In the present state of our knowledge it is imi)0ssible to say which 
of these classes is the older. We know that the Egyptians buried in 
caves long l)eforo the Etruscans landed in Italy, and at the same time 
raised ]n"rajnids over rock-cut and Imilt chambers. We knoAv too that 
Abraliam was buried in the cave of J\lachpelali in Syria. On the other 
hand, the tombs at Smyrna (woodcut No. 148), the treasuries of Mycenai, 
the sepulchre of Alj'attes, and many others, are proofs of the antiquity 

CiiAr. I. 



of the tumuli, which moreover are found all over Euro|)e and Asia, and 
appeal- to liave existed tVom the eaidiest ages. 

The eoniparative aiiti(piitj of tlie dittereiit kinds of tonil)s heing thus 
doubtful, it will he sulKeient for the purposes of the pi-esi'ut work to 
classify them architecturally. It may be assumed, I believe, with safety, 
that all the modes which have been enumerated were i)ractised by the 
Etruscans at a period very sliohtlv subsequent to tlieir migration into 

Of the first class of the rock-ciit tombs — those with merely a faq-ade 
externally — the most remarkable groixp is that at C'astel d'Asso. At 
this place there is a perpendicular clift" with hiuidi'cds of these tombs 
ranged along its face, like houses in a street. A similar arrangement 
is found in Egypt at Beni Hassan, and atPetra, and aroinid all the more 
ancient cities of Asia Minor. 

In Etruria they generally Consist of one chamber lighted by the 
doorway only. Their internal arrangement appears to be an imitation 
of a dwelling chamber, Avith furniture, like the apartment itseK, cut 
out of the rock. Externally they have little or no pretension to archi- 
tectural decoration. It is true that, executed at a much later period, 
and under Eoman domination, some tombs are found adorned with 
frontispieces of a debased Doric or Ionic order ; but such cannot be 
taken as specimens of Etruscan art, but rather of that corruption of 
style sure to arise from a conquered people trying to imitate the arts 
of their rulers. 

The general appearance of the second class of rock-cut tombs will 
be understood from 
the woodcut No. 229, 
representing two mo- 
numents at Castel 
d'Asso. Unfortunately 
neither is complete, 
nor is there any com- 
plete example known 
to exist of this class. 
I'erhaps the apex was 
added structurally ; 
and these, like all 
such things in Etru- 
ria, have perished. 
Perhaps, if cut in the 
rock, the tenninals 
were slender carved 
ornaments, and con- 
sequentl>' liable to in- 
jury. They are usually restored by antiquaries in the shape of recti- 
linear pyramids, but there is no authority for this as fai- as I know. 
On the contrary, it is more in accordance -sAath what we know of the 
style and its affinities to suppose that the termination of these monu- 
ments, even if added in masonry, was curvilinear. 

n ' 

229. Tombs at Castel U'Asso. From the Annalc del Inslituto. 


One romavkable thing ahont the rock-eut tomhs is the fonn of their 

nionl (lings, wliicli diiVer tVoni any found 
elsewhere in J]uropc. Two of these arc 
shown in the annexed woodcut (No. 230). 
Tliey are verj' numerous and in great vari- 
ety, hut do not in any instance show the 
slightest trace of a coniice, nor of any ten- 
dency thereto. Jn place of this, on the con- 
ti-aiy, we find only a reverse moulding alto- 
gether. It is probable that similar fomis 
Avill be found in Asia IVIinor, and something 
230. Mouldings from Tombs at resembling them occTirs at Persepolis and 
castei d'Asso. elscwhcro. It is remarkable that this feature 

did not penetrate to Rome, and that no trace of its influence is found 

there, as might be expected.' 


The simplest and therefore perhaps tlie earliest monument which 
can be erected, by a people who reverence their departed relatives, 
over the graves of the dead, is a mound of earth or a caini of sto;ies, 
and such seems to have been the fonn among the Tai-tar races of man- 
kind from the earliest days to the present hour.* It is scarcely neces- 
sary to remark how uniA'crsal such moninnents were among the nider 
tribes of Morthcrn Europe. The Etruscans seem to have improved 
upon this by surroundiiig the base with a. podium, or supporting wall of 
masonry. This not only defined its limits and gave it dignity, but 
enabled entrances to be made in it, and othei'wise converted it fronx a 
mere hillock into a monumental structure. It is usually supposed that 
this basement was an invariable part of all Etniscan tinnuli, and Avhen 
it is not found it is assimied that it has been removed, or that it is 
hui-ied in the mbbish of the mound. Ko doubt such a stone basement 
may easily have been removed by the peasantry, or buried, but it is by 
no means clear that this wa.s invariably the It seems tliat the 
enclosure was frequently a circle of stones or monumental steles, in the 
(icntrc of which the tumulus stood. The monuments have hithei'to 
been so carelessly examined and restored, that it is difficult to arrive 
at anything like ceiiainty with regard to the details of their structure. 
Nor can avc draw any certain conclusion from a comparison with other 
tumuli of cognate, races. The description by Herodotus of the tomi) 
of Alj-attes at Sardis, that by Pausanias of those of Epytus in Arcadia, 
and the ai)]>earances of those at Myceme and Orchojuonus, might be 
interpreted either way ; but those at Smyrna, and a great number at 
least of those in Etruria, have the circle of stones an a supporting b:use 
to the mound. 

' llveii in more moilern times I know of as will be seen fai-ther on. 
no btiildine: showin;r a trace of these forms ex- * Sue woodcut No. 90, which might almost 

cept tlie tomb of 'i'hcocloric at iJaveinia. This, be taken for a representation of an Etruscan 

however, is Ktruscaii Imtli in fonn and dft.-iil, tomb. 

CllAl'. I. 



These tumuli are found existing" in immense numbers in every 
necropolis of Etiuria. A largo space is generally set apart for the ]»ur- 
pose outside the walls of all the great cities. In these cemeteries the 
tumuli are arranged in rows, like houses in streets. Even now we can 
count them by hundreds, and in the neighbourhood of the largest 
cities — at Vulci, for instance — almost by thousands. 

Most of them are now worn do^vn by the eifect of tinu; to nearly 
the level of the ground, though some of the larger ones still retain an 
imposing appearance. Nearly all have been rifled at some early period, 
though the treasures still discovered 
almost daily in some places show 
how vast their extent was, and how 
much even now remains to be done 
before this vast mine of antiquity 
can bo said to be exhausted. 

One of the most remai'kablo 
among those that have been opened 
iu modern times is at Cervetere, the 
ancient Caere, known as the Eegu- 
lini Galeassi tomb, from the names 
of its discoverers. 

Like a Nubian pyramid or Bud- 
dhist tope, it consists of an inner 
and older tumulus, around and over 
which another has been added. In 

the outer mound arc 5 tombs either of dependent or inferior personages. 
These were rifled long ago ; but the outer pyramid having effectually 


I'liin of Regulini Galeassi Tomb. 
Scale 1 00 ft. to 1 in. 


Sections of negulini Galeassi Tomb. From Caniim's Etniria ,\tilica. 
Scale for large section, 50 ft. to 1 in. 

u 2 



Book VII. 

•233. tieciiuii of a Tomb at 
Ca.Te. No Scale. 

concealed tlie entrance to the prineijtal tomb, it remained nntonched 
till very lately, Avhen it yielded ttt it.s dieeoveiers a I'iclier culleetiun ol" 
ornaments and utensils in gold and bronze than have ever been found 
in one place before. 

The dimensions and arrangements of this tnnnilus Avill be luider- 
stood from woodcuts Nos. 2^1 and 2;52, and fiom the two sections of 

the principal tomb which are annexed to them. 
These last displa}- an ii-ix-gularity of constniction 
very xinusual in such c;u»cs, for which no cause 
can bo assigned. The usual section is perfectly 
regular, as in the annexed woodcut (No. 233), 
taken from another tomb at the same place. 

These chambers, like all those of the early 

Etruscans, are vaulted on the horizontal principle, 

like the tombs at Mycena? and Orchomenus. None 

found in Italy arc at all equal to those of Greece in 

dimensions or beauty of construction. 

Woodcut Xo. 234 is a perspective view of the principal chamber in 

the Eegulini Galeassi toml), showing the position of the furniture found 

in it when hrst opened, consisting of bii>rs t)r bedsteads, shields, arrows, 

and vessels of various soi-ts. 
A number of vases are hung 
in a curious recess in the 
roof, the form of which 
would be inexplicable but 
for the utensils found in it. 
AN ith this clue to its mean- 
ing we can scarcely doubt 
that it represents a place 
for hanging such vessels in 
llic houses of tlie living. 

All the treasures found 
in this tomb are in the old- 
est style of Etruscan art, 
and are so similar to the 
1 )ronzes and ornaments 
brought by Lay art! from 
Assyria <as to lead to the 
belief that they had a com- 
mon origin. The tomb, 
with its contents, probably 
dates from the 9th or 10th 
century l)cfore the Chris- 
tian era. 

The largest tomb hi- 
therto discovered in Etruria is now kno^vn as the Coeumella, in the 
necropolis at A'ulci. It is rather more than 240 ft. hi diameter, and 
originally could not have been less than 115 or 120 ft. in height, though 
now it only rises to 50 ft. 


'IM. View of priacipal Chamber in UeguUni Galeas8i Tomb. 

ClIAl'. 1. 



Near its centre are the remains of two solid lowers, one eirenlar, 
the otlier wjuare, iieitlier of them actually ei'utral, nor are tliey phieed 
in sneh a way that Ave can nnderstand liow they can have foimed a 
part of any symnictrieal 

desin;n. A phm and a view 

of the present appearance 
of this monnmont are o'iven 
in tlie woodcuts, Mos. 235 
and 2;{(). 

Tills tumulus, with its 
principal remaining fea- 
tures thus standing on one 
side of the centre, may 
possil)ly assist iis to under- 
stand the curious descrip- 
tion found in Pliny ' of the 
tomb of Porsenna. This 
description is quoted from 
Varro, being evidently re- 
garded by ITiny himself as 
not a little apocryphal. 
According to this account 

it consisted of a square basement 300 ft. each way, from which arose 5 
pyramids, united at the summit by a bronze circle or cupola. This was 
again sunnounted by 4 other pyramids, the summits of which wei'e 
again united at a height of 300 ft. from the ground. From this point 
rose still 5 more pyramids, whose height Varro (from modesty, as Pliny 
suiTuises) omits to state, but which was estimated in Etniscan tradi- 
tions at the same height as the rest of the monument. This last state- 
ment, which does not rest on any real authority, may well be regarded 
as exaggerated; but if we take the total height as about -iOO ft., it is 
easy to understand that in the ago of Pliny, when all the buildings weie 
low, such a structure, as high as the steeple at Salisbur}-, would appear 
fabidous ; but the vast piles that have been erected l)y tond)-l»uilding 
races in other parts of -the earth render it by no means imprubal)le that 
Varro was justified in what he assorted. 

235. Plan of Cdcumella, Vulci. Seal' liiiift. ki 1 in. 


View of Cocumella, Vulci. 


' Plin. Hist., xxxvi. 13. 



Book VII. 

Scale 30 (k. ro lin. 

Scale leu It. to 1 in 

237. Tomb of Aruns, All>aiio. 

Near the i;ate of Albuno is found a small tomb of 5 pyramidal pillars 
rising from a sqmxro btiso, exactly corresponding with Varro's descnp- 
tion of tho lower part of the tomb of Torscnna. It is called by traili- 
tion the tomb of Anins, the son of Torsenna, though the cbiractor of 

tho mouldings with whicli it is adorned 
Nvould lead us to assign to it a more mo- 
dem date. It consists of a lofty podium. 
i>n which ;ire placed 6 pyramids, a large 
one in the centre and 4 smaller ones at 
tlio angles. Its present appearance is 
sllo^\^l in the annexed woodcut (No. 237). 
There are not in Etniria any features 
sufficiently marked to characterise a stylo 
of architecture, nor any pillars with their 
accessories which can bo considered to 
constitute an order. It is true tliat in 
some of the rock-cut tombs square piers 
support the roof; and in one or two in- 
stances rounded pillars are found, but 
these are either without mouldings or 
ornamented only with Roman details, be- 
traying the lateness of their execution. 
The absence of built examples of the class 
of tombs found in tho rock prevents us from recogiiising any of those 
peculiarities of construction which sometimes arc as characteristic of the 
style and as worthy of attention as the more purely ornamental parts. 
From their city gates, their acpieducts and bridges, wo know that 
the Etruscaiis used tho radiating arch, with deep voussoirs and elegant 
mouldings, at an early age, giving it that character of strength which 
tlxe Romans afterwards imparted to their works of the same class. The 
Cloaca Maxima of Rome (woodcut No. 192) must be considered as a 

work executed under Etnis- 
can superintendence, and a 
veiy perfect specimen of the 

At the same time the 
Etniscans used the pointed 
arch, constnicted horizon- 
tally, and seem to have had 
tho same predilection for it 
which characterised the cog- 
nate Telasgian race in Greece. 
A gateway at Aaiiino (wood- 
cut No. 238) is almost iden- 
tical with that at Thoricus, 
but larger and more elegant; 
and there arc many .s])oci- 
niens of tho siiine chuss found in Italy. Tho jiortion of an a<jucduct at 
Tusculum, sho\vii in woodcut No. 239, is a curious transition specimen. 


Gateway at Arpino. 

Chap. I. 

THE AliCli. 

wlioro tliu two stones lucoting uL tiiu apex (usually culled the E}j;y|)ti;ui 
t'onu, beinu; the lirst stop 
tuwarils ilu^ true arch) arc 
combined witli a substruc- 
ture ofhurizonfcvl cunvergini;- 

In either of those in- 
stances the horizontal arch 
is a legitimate mode of con- 
struction, and may have 
been used long after the 
principle of the radiating 
arch was known. The great 
tionvenienco of the latter, as 
enabling largo s])aces to be 
spanned oven with brick or 
the smallest stones, and thus 

dis})ensing with the necessity for stones of very largo dimensions, led 
ultimately to its universal adoption. Subsequently, when the pointed 
form of the radiating arch was introduced, no motive remained for the 
retention of the horizontal method, and it was entirely abandoned. 


Aquciluct at Tusculuni. 


H O M E. 


Wp: now approach the last revolution that completed and closed the 
great cycle of the arts and civilization of the ancient world. We have 
seen Art spring Minerva-like perfect from the head of her gi-eat parent, 
in Egypt. We have admired it in Assyria, nch, varied, but unstable ; 
aiming at everything, but never attaining maturity or perfection. We 
have tried to trace the threads of early rela*ig-ic art in Asia, Greece, and 
Etruria, spreading its influence over the world, and laying the founda- 
tion of other arts which the Pelasgi were incapable of developing. We 
have secTi all these elements gathered together in Greece, the essence 
extracted from each, and the whole combined into the most peifect and 
beautiful combinations of intellectual power that the world has yet 
%vitnessed. We have now only to contemplate the last act in the great 
drama, the gorgeous but melancholy catastrophe by which all these 
styles of architecture were collected in wild confusion in Kome, and 
perished beneath the luxury and crimes of that mighty i)eople. 

View them as we will, the arts of Kome were never an indigenous or 
natural production of the soil or people, but an aggregation of foreign 
stylos in a state of transition from the old and time-honoured forms of 
I'agan antiquity to the new development of Christian arts. We can- 
not of course suppose that the Komans foresaw the result to which 
their amalgamation of previous styles was tending, still they advanced 
as steadily towards that result as if a prophetic spirit had guided them 
to a well-defined conception of what was to be. It was not however 
permitted to the Romans to complete this task. Long before the ancient 
methods and ideas had been completely moulded into the new, the 
power of Kome sank beneath her corruption, and a long pause took 
jilafc. during which the Christian arts did not advance beyond the 
point they had readied in the age of ( Vmstjintine. Indeed in many 
respects they receded from it during tlu- dark ageti. \\ hen they re- 
ajipeared in the 10th and 1 1th centuries it was in an entirely new garb, 
and with scarcely a trace of their origin — so distinct indeed that it 
appears more like a reinvention than a leproduction of fonns long since 
familial- to tlie Koman world. Thus had Kome ret^iined her power 
and pre-eminence a centniy or two longer, a style might have been 
elaborated as distinct from that of the ancient world, and as complete 
in itself, as owr pointed Gothic, and perhaps more beautiful. Such was 

CiiAi'. 11. INTRODUCTION. 2'J7 

Jiut the destiny of the world ; and what we have now to do is to ex- 
amine this stvh' (if transition as we find it in ancient Konic;, and fami- 
liarise ourselves with the forms it took during the throe eeutnries of its 
existence, as without this knowledge all the arts of the Gothic era would 
for ever remain an inexplicable niystor3\ The chief value of the Koman 
style consists in the fact that it contains the germs of all that is found 
in the middle ages, and afibrds the key by which its mysteries may be; 
unlocked, and its treasures rendered available. Had the transition been 
carried through in the hands of an art-loving and artistic peoi)le, the 
architectural beauties of Eome mnst have em-passed those of any other 
city in the world, for their buildings surpass in scale those of Egypt, 
and in variety those of Greece, while they pretend to combine the 
beauties of both. In constructive ingenuity they far surpass anything 
the world had seen up to their time, but this cannot I'edeem their 
ottences against good taste, nor enable any of their productions to com- 
mand our admiration as works of art, nor entitle them to rank as models 
to be followed either literally or in spirit. 

During the first two centuries and a half of her existence, Eome 
was virtually an Etrascan city, wholly under Etruscan influence ; and 
during that period we read of temples and palaces being built, and of 
works of immense magnitude being undertaken for the embellishment 
of the city ; and we have even now more remains of kingly than we 
have of consular Eome. 

After expelling her kings, and shaking off Etruscan influence, she 
existed as a republic for 500 years, and during this long age of bar- 
barism she did nothing to advance science. Literature was almost 
wholly unknown "^ithin her walls, and not one monument has come 
down to our time, even by tradition, worthy of a city of a tenth part of 
her power and magnitude. There is probably no instance in the his- 
tory of the world of a capital city existing so long, populous and ^leace- 
ful at home, prosperous and powerful abroad, which at the same time 
was so utterly devoid of any monuments or any magnificence to dignify 
her existence. 

AVhen, however, Carthage was conqiiered and destroyed, when 
Greece was overrmi and plundered, and Egypt, with her long-treasured 
art, had become a dependent province, Eome was no longer the city of 
the Eomans, but the sole capital of the civilised world. Into her lap 
were poured all the artistic riches of the Avorld ; to Eome flocked all 
who sought a higher distinction or a more extended field than their 
own provincial capitals cotild then afford. She thus became the centre 
of all tlu^ aits and all jlic science then known ; and so far at least as 
(piantity is concerned, she amply }"edeemed her previous neglect. It 
seems an almost indisputable fact, that during the thi-ee centuries of the 
Empire moi'e and larger buildings were erected in Eome and her de- 
pendent cities than ever were erected in a like period in any part of 
the world. 

For centuries before the establishment of the Eoman Empire, j>i-o- 
gressive development and increasing jiopulation, joined to com])aratiA-e 
peace and security, had accumulated around the shores of the Mediter- 


ranean a mass of peoplo enjoying material prosperity greater than had 
ever been known before. All this culminated ui the first centuries of 
the Christian era. The greatness of the ancient world was then full, 
and a more overwhelming and gorgeous spectacle than the lioman 
em})Li'e then displayed never dazzled the eyes of mankind. From the 
banks of the Eujihrates to those of the Tagnis, every city vied with its 
neighbour in the erection of temples, baths, theatres, and edifices for 
public use or private luxury. Jn all ciises these display far more 
evidence of wealth and power than of taste and refinement, and all 
exhibit traces of that haste to enjoy, which seems incompatible with 
the correct elaboration of anything that is to be truly gi'cat. Notwith- 
standing all this, there is a greatness in tho mass, a grandeur in the 
conception, and a certain expression of powei" in all these Koman re- 
mains which never fail to strike the beholder Avith awe, and force him 
to admire in spite of his better judgment. These qualities, coupled 
with the associations that attach themselves to every brick and eveiy 
stone, render the study of them irresistibly attractive. It was -with 
imperial Kome that the ancient world perished : it was in her domi- 
nions that the new and Christian world was born. All that was great 
in Heathendom was gathered within her walls, tied, it is time, into an 
inextricable knot, which Avas cut by the sword of the barbarians, who 
moulded for themselves out of the fragments that polity and those arts 
which will next occupy OTir attention. To Kome all previous histor\' 
tends ; from Rome all modem history springs : to her therefore, and 
to her arts, we inevitably turn, if not to admire, at least to leani, ami, 
if not to imitate, at least to wonder, to contemplate a phase of art as 
unknown to previous as to subsequent histoiy, and, if pi-operly mider- 
stood, more replete with instmction than any other form hitherto 
kno\\ai. Though tho lesson we learn from it is fixr oftener what to 
avoid than Avhat to follow^ still there is such wisdom to be gathered 
from it as should guide us in the onward path, and might lead us to a 
far higher gi'ade than it was given to liome herself ever to attain. 

ClIAl'. III. 




l.'OMAN AK('H]TF;('TniJK 


Origiu of stj'le — The arch — Orders : Doric, louic, Coriuthiau, Composite — Temples 
— The I'uutheou — Koiiian teiiiplea at Atlieus — at Baalbec. 



I'^oumlatioii of Rome n.u. 753 

Tarquiriiiis lYisciis —Cloaca Maxima, found- 
ation ol'l'i^inplt.' of Jupiter Capitoliuus . 616 
Templo of Jiipitur Capitiilinusdodicatetl . 507 
Scipio — tomb at Lilerium ..... 184 
Augustus— temples at Rome .... 31 
Marcellus— theatre at Rome — died. . . 23 
Agrippa — portico of Pantheon — died . . 13 
Nero — burning and rebuilding of Rome — 

died A.D. 68 

Vespasian— Flavian Amphitheatre built . 70 

Titus— arch in Forum 79 

Oostruction of Pompeii 

'I'ngan — Ulpian Basilica and Pillar of Vic- 

Hadrian builds temple at Rome, Temple 
of Jupiter Olympius at Athens, &c. . 

Septimius Scverus— arch at Rome . . 

Caracal la— baths 

Diocletian — palace at Spalatro .... 

Maxentius— Basilica at Rome . . . . 

Constanline — transfer of Empire to Cmu- 

A.D. 7S) 




The earliest inhabitants of Eome were an Indo-Germanic race who 
cstablislietT themselves in a conntiy previously occupied Ly TehLsgians. 
Their principal neighbour on one side was Etruria, a Pelasgian nation. 
On the other hand was Magna Gra3cia, which had been colonised in 
very early ages by Hellenic or Indo-Germanic settlers. It was there- 
fore impossible that the architecture of the Komans should not be in 
fact a mixture of that of these two people. As a style of transition, it 
was only a mechanical juxtaposition of the two styles. The real fusion 
took place many long centuries afterwards. Throughout the Eoman 
period they remain distinct, and there is no great difficulty in referring 
almost every feature to its origin. 

From the (jrreeks they borrowed the rectangular peristylar temple, 
Avith its columns and horizontal architraves, though they seldom if ever 
used it in its perfect purity, the cella of the Greek temples not being 
sufficient for their purposes. The principal Etruscan temples, as we 
have already shown, were square in plan, and the inner half occupied 
by one or more cells, to the sides and back of which the portico never 
extended. The Roman rectangular temple is a mixture of these two : 
it is generall3% like the Greek examples, longer than its breadth, but 
the cohmnade never, I believe, entirely suiTounds the building. Some- 
times it extends to the two sides as well as the front, but more gene- 
rally the cella occupies the whole of the inner i)art, though frequently 

300 HUMAN AUCtllTECTL'KK. Book Vll. 

unmiUfiitcJ by u falsu peristyle uf three-ipiuiter colunins uttaclied to 
its walls. 

Besides this the IJomans boiTowed from the Etniscans a circular 
fonii of temple unknown to the Greeks, but which to their tomb-bnild- 
ing predecessors nnist have been not only a familiar but a favourite 
form. As used by the liomans it was generally encircled by a peristyle 
of columns, though it is not clear that the Etruscans so used it. Perhaps 
this is an improvement adopted from the Greeks on an Etruscan form. 
In early times these circular temples were dedicated to Vesta, Cyliele, 
or some god or goddess either unkno'vvu or not generally worshipped 
by the Indo-Gennanic races ; but in latter times this distinction was 
lost sight of. 

A more important characteristic which the Eomans bon-owed from 
the Etruscans was the cii'cular arch. It was kno-\\ni, it is tnie, to the 
Egj'ptians, Assyrians, and Greeks ; yet none of those people, perhaps 
excepting the Assyrians, seem to have used it as a feature in their 
ornamental architecture ; but the Etniscans seem to have had a pecu- 
liar predilection for it, and from them the Eomans adopted it boldly, 
and introduced it into almost all their buildings. It was not at first 
used in temples of Gieciau I'orm, nor even in their peristylar cii'Cular 
ones. In the civil buildings of the Komans it was a universal feature, 
but generally placed in juxtaposition with the Grecian orders. In 
the Colosseum, for instance, the whole construction is arched ; but a 
useless network of ill-designed and ill-aiTanged Grecian columns, 
with their entablatures, is sjjread over the whole. This is a curious 
instance of the mixture of the two styles, and as such is veiy charac- 
teristic of Homan art; but in an artistic point of view the place of these 
columns would have been far better sujiplied by buttresses or panels, 
or some more correctly constructive expedient. 

After having thoroughly familiarised themselves with the forms of 
the arch as an architectural feature, the Eomans made a bold stride in 
advance by applying it as a vault both to the ch'cular and rectangular 
foims of buildings. The most perfect examples of this are the Basilica 
of iMaxentius, commonly called the Temple of I'eace, and the liotunda 
of the Pantheon, both, probably, of nearly the same age. In these 
buildings the Eoman architects so completely emanciijated themselves 
from the tiajinnels <-)f former styles as to entitle tlu-m almost to claim 
the invention of a new stylo of architecture. It would have required 
some more practice to invent details appropriate to the purpose ; still 
these two buildings are to this hour imsnrpassed for boldness of con- 
ception and just appreciation of the mode in which the new invention 
ought to be ajiplied. This is almost universally acknowledged as far 
as the interior of the Pantheon is concerned. In simple grandeur it 
is aa yet unequalled ; its faults are those of detail only. It is not so 
easy to judge of the Temple of Peace, from its mined state ; but in so 
far as wo can judge from what remains, in boldness ;md majesty it must 
have been quite equal to the other example, though it must liave re- 
quired more familiarity with the style to manage so complicated a fonn 
as appropriately as the simpler dome of the Pantheon. 

(UAr. 111. OEDEKS. 301 

These two bnildings may bo considered as marking the progress the 
lionians wore able to make in the invention of a new style of arehi- 
teeture, and tlic state in which they left it to their successors. It is 
worth remarking how, in transplanting Koman architecture to the new 
capital, the semi-Oriental nation seized on their own circular form, 
and, modifying and moulding it to their purpose, wrought out the 
liyzantine style. There the dome is the great feature, almost wholly 
to the exclusion of the rectangular foim Avith its intersecting vaults. 
( hi the other hand, the rectangular form was appropriated by the 
Teutonic nations of the West with as distinct a rejection of the circular 
and domical forms, except in so f;ir as an Eastern people still were 
mixed up with them. Thus in Italy both continued long to be used, 
the one as a baptistery, the other as a church, but always distinct as in 
Home. In France they were so completely fused into one that it re- 
quiii;s considerable knowledge of architectural analysis to sepai'ate them 
again into their component parts. In England we rejected the circular 
form altogether, and so they did in Germany, except when under 
French influence. Each race reclaimed its own among the spoils of 
IJoiue, and used it with the improvements it had acquired during its 
employment in the imperial city. 


The first thing that strikes the student in attempting to classify the 
objects of Roman architectiire is the immense variety of their appli- 
cation, as compared with other styles. In Egypt there are onl}^ palaces 
and tombs. In Greece architecture was almost wholly confined to 
temples and theatres ; in Etiuria to tombs. In Eonie we have temples, 
basilicas, theatres and amphitheatres, baths, palaces, tombs, arches of 
triumph and pillars of victory, gates, bridges, and aqueducts, all equally 
objects of architectural skill. The best of these, in fact, are those 
which other countries neglected. They would have been noble works 
indeed had it not been that the Romans sought to apply to them the 
orders and details which were meant only for the temples in other 
nations. In the time of Constantino these orders were nearly dying 
out, or were at lefist reduced to mere subordinate ornaments. The next 
step would have been their entire abolition, when the h'oman would 
have been a new and complete style ; but, as before remarked, this last 
step was denied them, and the orders therefore are still an essential 
part of Roman art. These are most important in the age of Augustus, 
and gradually die out as we approach that of Constantino. 

The Doric. 

Adopting the usual classification, the first of the Roman orders is 
the Doric, which, like everything else in this style, takes a place 
about half-way between the Tuscan wooden posts and the nobly simple 
order ^)f the Greeks. It no doubt was a great improvement on the 
former, but for monumental purposes infinitely inferior to the latter. 
It was, however, more manageable ; and for forums or court-yards, or 



Book VII. 


Doric Order. 

as a threo-quartcr column between arcades, it was bettor adapted to 
their purposes than the severer Greek, which, when so emiiloyod, not 

only loses almost all its beauty, but be- 
comes more unmeaning than the Koman. 
This was ap]iarcntly felt ; for there is 
not, so far as I know, a single Doric 
temple throughout the Koman world ; 
and it would in consequence bo most 
unfair to institute a comparison between 
a mere utilitarian prop and an order 
wliioh tho most refined artists in the 
world spent all their ingenuity in ren- 
dering the most perfect of architectui-al 

The addition of an independent ba*;e 
made the order much more generally 
useful, and its adoption brought it much 
more into harmony with the other two 
orders, which seems to have been the 
princijKil object of its introduction. The 
key-note of Roman architecture w^as the 
Corinthian order ; and as, from the ne- 
cessities of their tall many-storied buildings, they were fcjrced to use 
tlie three orders together, often one over the t)ther, it was indispensable 
that tlio three should be reduced to something like hanuony. This was 
accorduigly done, but at the expense of the Koman Doric order, which, 

except Avhen thus used in combination, 
must be confessed to have very little claim 
to our admiration. 


The Komans were much more unfortu- 
nate in their modifications of the Ionic 
order than in those which they introduced 
into the Doric. They never seem to have 
either liked or understood it, nor to have 
em[)loyed it except an a mezzo tennine be- 
tween the other two. In its own native East 
this order had originally only been used 
in porticos between piers or (t)if(v, where of 
course only one face was sho\m, and tliere 
were no angles to bo turned. \\ hen the 
Greeks adopted it they used it in temples 
of Dt»iic form, and in consequence were 
obliged to introduce a capital at each angle, 
■until two volutcd faces in juxtaposition at right angles to one another. 
^Vhcn the Romans took it up, impatient of control, they turned all the 
volutes angidarly, makin^^ them mere honis, and destrojnng all the 


luiiic Order. 

ClIAI'. Ill 




f'-*y rr 


nicaninf? and all the ^rnco of the order. This was not cfFocted at onco, 
lint was the result of a great many attempts to got over the diflicnltics 
inherent in the employment of this order. 

AVhen nscd as a threo-qnartor colnmn these alterations were not 

required, and tli( n 

the order looked ^^^ 
more like what it 
t)riginally was ; 
bnt even in this 
state it was never 
eqnal to the Greek 
examples, and gradually dete- 
riorated to the corrnpt fomi 
as seen in the Temple of Con- 
cord in the Forum, which is 
the most degenerate example 
of the order now to be found 
in Eoman remains. 


The fate of this order in 
the hands of the Komans was 
ditferent from that of the other 
two. The Doric and Ionic 
orders had reached their acme 
of perfection in the hands of 
the Grecian artists, and seem 
to have been incapable of 
further improvement. The 
Corinthian, on the contrary, 
was a recent invention ; and 
althougli nothing can surpass 
the elegance and grace with 
which the Greeks adorned it, 
this new capital never ac- 
(piired with them that fulness 
and strength requisite to ren- 
der it an appi'i:)priat(! archi- 
tectural ornament. These 
wore added to it by the Ko- 
mans, or rather jierhaps by 
Grecian artists acting under 
their direction, who thus, as 
shown in the woodcut No. 
242, produced a column which 

for richness combined Avith proportion and architectural fitness has 
hardly been surpassed. The base is elegant and appropriate : the shaft is 
of the most pleasing proportion, and the fluting gives it just the requisite 
degree of richness and no more ; and the capital, though bordering on 



242. Corintliian Order. From the Temple of Jupiter Stutor. 


;}<'-t ROxMAN AHCHITECTUKE. Book Vll. 

uvcr-orn;iiueiit;iti()ii, is so well ariaugoil as to appear just suited to the 
work it has to do. Tlie .acanthus-leaves, it is tnie, j^o to the very verge 
of that degree of direct imitation of nature which is allowable in archi- 
tectural ornaments ; but they are disposed so fonnally, and there still 
remains so much that is conventional in them, that, though an extreme 
example, they are not perhaps justly open to criticism on this account. 

The entablature is not so admirable as the column. The architrave 
is t90 richly carved. It is evident, however, that this arose from the 
artist having copied in calling what the Greeks had only painted, and 
thus produced a complexity f;ir from pleasing. 

The frieze, as we now find it, is peifectly plain ; but this undoubt- 
edly was not the case when originally erected. It either must have 
been painted (in which case the whole order of course was also 
painted), or ornamented with scrolls or figures in bronze, which may 
proltably have been gilt. 

The cornice is perhaps open to the same criticism as the architrave, 
of being over rich, though this evidently arose from the same cause, of 
repeating in cars-ing what ought only to be painted : and to our 
northern eyes at least it looks more appropriate for internal than foi' 
external architecture, but, under the purer skies where it was invented 
and used, this remark is perhaps hardly applicable. 

The order of the portico of the ranthoon is, according to our notions, 
a nobler specimen of what an external pillar should be than that of 
the Temple of Jupiter Stator. The shafts arc of one block, imfluted ; 
the capital plainer ; and the whole entablature, though as coiTcctly 
prt)portional, is far less ornamented, so as to suit the greater simplicity 
of the whole. 

The order of the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina is anothei- 
example intennediate between these two. The columns are in this 
instance very similar to those of the Pantheon, and the architrave is 
plain. The frieze, however, is ornamented with more taste than any 
other in Kome, and is a very pleasing exanqilc of those conventional 
rei)resentuti(;ns of plants and animals which are so well suited to archi- 
tectural purposes — more like nature than those of the Greeks, but still 
avoiding direct imitation sufficiently to prevent the affectation of the 
Dniamcnt })retending to appear what it is not and cannot be. 

The ]Maisou Quarree atNismcs presents an example of a frieze orna- 
mented with exquisite tiiste, while at Baalbec, and in some other cx- 
am[)les, we have friezes so over-ornamented that the effect is far more 
offensive, from utter want of repose, than even the baldness of the 
fiieze of the Temple of Jupiter Stator in its present state is, fi'om the; 
opposite extreme. 

Besides these there are at least 50 varieties of Corinthian capitals 
to be found either in Home or in various parts of the Koman Empire, 
all executed within the three centuries during which Eome ccmtinued 
to be the Imperial city. 8omc of these are remarkable for an elegant 
siuiplieity, evidently betraying the hand of a Grecian artist, but some 
of them show a lavish exuberance of ornament, too characteristic of 
Koman art in general. Many of them contain, however, the germs of 

('HAl'. III. 













243. (Joniposite Onler. 

.suiucthiug better tluui was accoiu])lislied in that age; ami a collection 
of them would ail'ord more useful su_i;";j;csti(iiis foi- desiguiup; capitals tlian 
have yet hceu availalile to modeiu ai'tisls. 


Among their vavioiis attempts to im- 
prove the order which has jiist been 
described, the Eomans hit upon one which 
is extremely characteristic of their whole 
style of art. This is known by the dis- 
tinguisliing name of the Composite order, 
though virtually it is more like the typical 
examples of the Corinthian order than 
many of those classed under the latter 

The greatest defect of the Corinthian 
capital is the weakness of the small volutes 
supporting the angles of the abacxis. A 
true artist would have remedied this by 
adding to their strength, and carrying up 
the fulness of the capital to the top. The 
Romans removed the whole of the upper part, and substituted an Ionic 
capital instead. Their onl}^ original idea, if it may be so called, in art, 
was that of the putting two dissimilar things together to make one 
which should combine 
the beauties of both, 
though in fact the one 
only sen'es to destroy 
the other. In the Com- 
posite capital they never 
could hide the junction ; 
and consequently, though 
rich and in some respects 
an improvement on the 
order out of which it 
gi"ew, this capital never 
came into general use, 
and has seldom found fa- 
vour except amongst the 
blindest admirers of all 
that the Komans did. 

In the latter days of 
the Empire the Komans 
attempted another inno- 
vation Avhich promised 

fiir better success, and with very little mort.' elaboration would have 
been a great gain to the principles of architectural design. This was 



Corinthian Base, now found in Cliurcli of St. I'laxcde 
in Home. 



Book VII. 

the introdnction of tlio Pcvsijin or Assyrian base, modified to suit the 
details of the Corinthian or Composite orders. If they had always used 
this instead of the s(j[uare pedestals on which they nu)unted their 
columns, and had attenuated the pillars slightly when used with 
arcades, they would have avoided many of the errors they fell into. 
The invention, however, came too late to be generally used ; and the 
forms already introduced continued to prevail. At the same time it is 
evident that a Persepolitan base for an Ionic and even for a Corinthian 
column would be among the greatest improvements that could be intro- 
duced, especially for internal architecture. 

Composite Arcades. 

The true Eoman order, however, was not any of these columnar 
ordinances we have been enumerating, but an arrangement of 2 pillars 
placed at a distance from one another nearly equal to theii' own height, 
and having a very long entablature, which in consequence required to 
be supported in the centre by an arch springing from jiiers. This, as 

will be seen from the annexed wood- 
cut, was in fact merely a screen of 
Grecian architecture placed in front 
of a construction of Etruscan design. 
Thongh not Avithout a certain richness 
of eifect, still, as used by the Komans, 
these two systems remain too distinctly 
dissimilar for the result to be pleasing, 
and their use necessitated certain sup- 
plemental arrangements by no means 
agreeable. In the first place, the co- 
lumns had to be mounted on pedestals, 
or otherwise an entablature proi)or- 
tional to their si/e Avoxild have been 
too heavy and too important for a thuig 
so useless and so avowedly a mere orna- 
ment. A projecting key-stone was also 
introduced into the arch. This was unobjectionable in itself, but, when 
projecting so far as to do the duty of an intermediate capital, it over- 
powered the arch without being equal to the work required of it. 

The Romans used these arcades with all the 3 orders, frequently 
one over the other, and tried various expedients to harmonise the con- 
struction with the ornamentation, but Avitlunit much efi'ect. They seem 
always to have felt the discordance as a l)kinish, and at last got rid of 
it, but whether they did so in the best way is not quite clear. The 
most obvious mode of eftecting this would no doubt have been by 
omitting the ])illars altogether, bending the architrave, as is usually 
done, round the arch, and then inserting the frieze and cornices into 
the wall, using them as a string-course. A slight degree of ])ractice 
would soon have enabled them — by panelling the pier, cutting off its 


Doric Arcade. 

('MAP. 111. COMPOSITE AllCADES. 307 

angles, or some such expedient— to liavc obtained tlie dej^Tce of light- 
ness or of ornament they recpiircd, and so leally to have invented a 
new order. 

This, however, was not the course that the Komans ptirsned. ^^ hat 
they did was to remove the pier altogether, and to substitute in its 
plaee tlic pillar taken down from its pedestal. This of course was not 
I'tlected at once, but was the result of many trials and expedients. One 
of the earliest of these is observed in the Ionic Temple of Concord 
before allnded to, in Avhich a concealed arch is thrown from the head 
of each pillar, but above the entablature, so as to take the whole weight 
of the supei'structure from off the cornice between the pillars. When 
once this was done it was perceived that so deep an entablature was no 
longer required, and that it might be either wholly omitted, as was 
sometimes done, in the centre intercolumniation, or at all events very 
much attenuated. There is an old temple at Talavera in Spain, which 
is a good example of the former expedient ; and the Church of the Holy 
Sepulchre, built by Constantine at Jerusalem, is a remarkable example 
of the latter. There the architrave is cut oif so as merely to form a 
Idock over each of the pillars, and the frieze and cornice only are car- 
lied across from one of these blocks to the other, while a bold arch is 
thrown from pillar to pillar over these, so as to take any weight from 
off a member which has at last become a mere ornamental part of the 

In the preceding reign we find all these changes already introduced 
into domestic architecture, as shown in the woodcut on the next i)age, 
representing the great court of Diocletian's palace at Spalatro, where 
at one end the entablature is wholly omitted for the central inter- 
columniation, and at the sides the arches spring directly from the 
capitals of the columns. 

Had the Eomans at this period been attempting to improve tlieii' 
external architecture, there is little doubt but that they would have 
adopted the expedient of the entire omission of the entablature ; Init at 
this time almost all their efforts were devoted to internal improvement, 
often at the expense of the exterior. Indeed the whole history of 
Eoman art, from the time of Augustus to that of Constantine, is a trans- 
ition from the external architecture of the Greeks to the intenial archi- 
tecture of the Christians. At first we see the cells of the temple gra- 
dually enlarged at the expense of the peristyle, and at last, as in the 
Pantheon, entirel}' overpowering them. Their basilicas and halls be- 
come more important than their porticos, and the exterior is in almost 
every instance sacrificed to the internal arrangements. For an interior, 
an arch resting on a circular column is obviously far more appropriate 
than one resting on a pier. Exteinally, on the contrary, the stjuare 
pier is most suitable, because a pillar cannot support a wall of sufficient 
thickness. This defect was not remedied until the Gothic architects 
devised the plan of coupling two or more pillars together ; but this 
point had not been reached at the time when IJome fell, and all pio- 
gress in art was eftectuallj' checked f<u- a time. 

X 2 



Book VII. 




Chap. III. TKMI'LES. .'<»>!» 


ThiMc> is perhaps notliini:; that striki's thv imiuirer into the archi- 
tectural hifstory of the Imperial city moiv than the extreme insignifi- 
cance of her temples, as compared with the other buildings of Konie 
itself, and with some temples fnind in the provinces. The only tcni]de 
which remains at all worthy uf sucli a capital is the I'antheoii. All 
others are now mere fragments, from which we can hardly restore even 
the ]»lans of the buildings, much less judge of their effect. We have 
now no means of judging what the great national temple of the Capi- 
toline .love may have been, no trace of it, nor any intelligible descrip- 
tion, having lieen presei-ved to the present tune. Its being of Etruscan 
origin, and retaining its original form to the latest day, would lead us 
to suppose that the temple itself was small, and its mag^lificence, if 
any. confined to the enclosure and to the substructure, which may have 
been innncnse. 

Of the Augustan age we have nothing but the remains of 3 temples, 
consisting of only 3 columns of each ; and the excavations that have 
been made around them have not sufficed to make even their ])lans 
tolerably clear. 

The most beautiful was that of Jupiter Stator in the Fonim, the 
beauty of whose details has been already alluded to and described. 
This temple was octastyle in front. It was raised on a stylobate 22 ft. 
in height, whoso extreme width -was 98 ft., which corresponds as closely 
as possible with 100 Koman ft. The angular columns are 8.') ft. from 
centre to centre. The height of the pillars was 48 ft., and that of the 
entablature 12 ft. 6 in.' It is probable that the whole height to the 
apex of the pediment was nearly etpial to the extreme width, and 
meant to be so. 

The pillars certainly extended on both flanks, and generally it is 
restored as peristylar, but I believe without any authority. Frtmi tlu" 
analogy of the other temples it seems more proliable that there wei-e not 
more than 8 or 10 pillars on each side, and that the apse of the cclla 
formed the termination opposite the portico. 

The temple nearest to this in situation and style is that of Jupiter 
Tonans.- The order in this instance is of slightly inferior dimensions 
to that of the temple just described, and of very inferior ex(H'ution. 
The temple too was Yorj much smaller, having only ctdiimns in 
front, and from its situation it could not well have had more than that 
number on the flanks, so that its extreme dimensions were probably 
about 70 ft. by 85 ft. 

> Those (linionsions, with all those that by the lloni.-m or ratiier (iornian .iiiticiiiarinns. 

follow, unless otherwise speeified, are taken Tlie Jujiiter Ti>nans is now llie 'reni])le of 

from Taylor and Creasy's ' Architectural An- Saturn, and the .lujiiter Stator is decreed to 

tiquities of Rome,' London, 1821. Theyseem have been a Temple of Minerva. 1 have j)re- 

more to be depended upon than any others ferred the nan)es by which they arc currently 

I am acquainted witli. known, as the architecturo is of more im])ort- 

* These two temples, like almost all tin- ance here than the archa-ology. 
others of Home, have recently been re-named 



Book V 


Temple of Mars Ullur. From 
Creasy's Hour'. 

Thf tliird is the Tom]ile of Mars Ultov, nf whicli a plan is ainiexcd ; 
lor tliuugli iiuw us coiupletclj ruinous as the other two, in the time of 

Ant. Sabacco and Palladio there Kcem to 
have been sufficient remains to justify a 
restoration. As ^vill be seen, it is nearly 
square in plan (112 ft. by 120). The 
eella is here a much more important part 
than is usual in Greek temples, and ter- 
minates in an ajjse, which afterwards 
became characteristic of all i)laces of 
worship. Behind the cella, and on each 
side, was a lofty screen of walls and 
arclies, part of which still remain, 
which certainly formed quite a new ad- 
junct to anything we know (if in a temple 
The next class of temples, called pseudo-peripteral (or those in 
which the cella occupies the whole of the after part), are generally 
more niodern. certainly more completely lioman, than these last. 
One of the best sjjccnmens at Home is the Temple of Antoninus and 
Faustina, a small building measuring 72 ft. by 120. There is also a 
very elegant small Ionic temj)le of this class called that of Fortuna 
A'iiilis; and the Ionic Temple of Concord, built by Vesiiasian, above 
alluded to, seems also to have been of this class. So was the temple 
in the forum at I'ompeii ; but the finest specimen now remaining to 
us is the so-called Maison QuaiTce at Nimes, which is indeed one of 
tlie most elegant temples of the ii'oman world, owing probably a great 
deal of its Ix'auty to the taste of the Grecian colonists long settled in 
its neighbourhood. It is hexastyle, with 11 columns in the Hanks, 8 
of which ,si and free, and belong to the portico; the remaining S aie 
attached to the Avails of the cella. The temple is small, only 45 ft. by 
85 ; but such is the beauty of its proportions and the elegance of its 
details that it strikes every beholder with admii'ation. 

The date of this temple has not been satisfactoiily ascertained. Froju 
the nail-holes of the inscription on the frieze it has been attempted tn 
make out the names of Caius and Lucius Caesar, but it much moie 
jtrobably belongs t(j the time of Trajan or of Hadrian, when >\imesAvas 
in the height of its prosjierity. 

Not far from the Colosseum, in the direction of the forum, are still 
to be seen the remains of a great double temple built by the Emperor 
Hadrian, and dedicated to Venus and Kome. Nothing of this is now 
to be found but the remains of the 2 cells, each altout 70 ft. scpiare, 
covered with tunnel vaults, and placed back to back, so that their 
apses touch one another. These stand on a ])latform 480 ft. long by 
330 wide; and it is generally supposed that on the edge of this stood 
5() great culunnis, 05 ft. in height, thus moulding the whole into one 
great ])eripteral temple. Some fragments of such pillars are said to be 
found in the neighhouihood, but not one erect, — not even a base in its 
place,— nor can any of its cohnnns be traced as transpoi-ted to any 

CllAl'. Ill 



other lmiMiiii;-s : so that T am afraid this pai-1 ul' the arraiigcuiciit is 
very i)robk'matical, ami I shcmkl bo rather iuclinctl to restore it, as 
ralladio and the older arcliitects have dene, with a corridor of 10 small 
columns in front of each of the cells. If we could assume the plan of 
this teniiile to have been really peripteral, as sup]->osed, it must have 
been a building worthy of the Imperial city, and of the magnificence 
of the emperor to whom its erection is ascribed. 

More perfect and more interesting than any of these is the Tantheon, 
which is undoubtedly one of the 
finest temples of the ancient world. 
Externally its effect is very much 
destroyed by its two parts, the round 
and the rectangular, being so dissi- 
milar in style and so incongruously- 
joined together. The portico espe- 
cially, in itself the finest which 
liome exhibits, is very much in- 
jured by being prefixed to a mass 
which overpowers it and does not 
harmonise with any of its lines. The 
pitch, too, of its pediment is perhaps 
somewhat too high, but, notwith- 
standing all this, its 1 (5 columns, the 
shaft of each composed of a single 
block, and the simple grandeur of 
the details, render it perhaps the 
most satisfactory example of its 

The pillars are disposed in the Etruscan fashion, and it is probable 
that originally they formed the portico to a 3-celled temple. ' The 
])ortico, as we know, not only from the inscription, but from the style, 
lielongs to the age of Augnistus, and it is generally supposed that it 
was at that time added by Agrippa to the pre-existing rotunda. I feel 
convinced that the contrary was the case, and that the rotunda is very 
much more modern than the portico, ^^'e know from history that the 
building was frequently damaged by fire, and restored first by Iladi-ian 
and afterwards by Septimitis Sevcrus in the year a.d. 202. If the 
interior of the building, as originally erected, consisted of rectangulai' 
cells of the Etruscan form, constructed of wood — at any rate with a 
wooden roof — which I believe to have been the case, such disasters 
were not only possible, but probable : but no fire could damage such a 
building as we now find. Besides this, Ave know of no attempt at 
vaulting on anything like such a scale as this in the Augustan age, and 
the temples at that time all affected the Greek peristylar form. Thence- 
forward the cells were gradually enlarged, and gradually, too, the 
exterior was sacrificed to the interior, which characteristics arc here 
carried to excess. Besides this, the masoniy of the rotunda is full of 
useless discharging arches, and shows other peculiarities of the latest 
age. All these considerations put together would incline me to place 


I'kui of I'antlicon at Rome. 
Scale 1 00 ft. to 1 in. 



Book VII. 

it very near the a<:;c of Consfantine, coixld I find aii}' trace of a later 
restoration than that above alluded to ; but, under any circumstjmces, 
I do ntit think it can have been erected before the age of Hadrian. 


Half Elevation, half Section, of the Pantheon at Rome. Scale 50 ft. to i in. 

Internally perhaps the greatest defect of the building is a want of 
height in the pei*pendicular part, -which the dome appears to overpower 
and cnish. This mistake is aggravated by this lower part being cut 
uj) into two stories, an attic being placed over the lower order. The 
fonner defect may have arisen from the architect wishing to keep the 
walls in some proportion to the portico. The latter is a peculiarity 
of the age in which 1 suppose tliis temple to have been erected, when 
two or more stories seem to have become indispensable retpiisites of 
architectui'al design. We must ascribe also to the practice of the age 
the method of cutting through the entablature by the arches of the 
great niches, as shown in the sectional part of the last woodcut. It 
has already been pointed out that this w^as becoming a characteristic 
of the style at the time when the circular part of this temple appears 
to have been erected. 

Notwithstanding these defects and many others of detail that might 
be mentioned, tlicrc i.s a grandeur and a simplicity in the proportions 
of this gi-eat temjde that render it still one of the very finest and most 
sublime inteiiors in the world; and though it is deprived of its bronze 
covering and of the greater part of those ornaments on which it mainly 
depended fur cft'ect. ;i lid though these have been replaced by tawdry 

Chai'. III. 




Plan of Temple at Tivoli. 
Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 

aiul inooiignums niodornisms, still notliiiip; onii flostvoy the offoct of a 
design so vitst ami of a form so siiu})!}' grand. Jt possesses jinotlier 
clement of architectural sublimity in having only one window, and 
that placed high up in the hnilding. I know of no other temples 
which possess this feature except the great rock-cut Buddhist basilicas 
of India. In them the light is introduced even more artistically than 
here ; hut, nevertheless, that one great eye opening upon heaven is 
by far the noblest conception for lighting a building to be found in 

Besides this great rotunda there are two other circular temjilcs 
in or near Kome. The one, at Tivoli, shown 
in plan and elevation in the annexed wood- 
cuts (Nos. 250 and 251), has long been known 
and admired ; the other, near the mouth of 
the Cloaca Maxima, has a cell surromided by 
20 Corinthian columns of singularly slender 
proportions. Both these probably stand on 
Etruscan sites, and certainly were Etruscan in 
form, and probably sacred to Pelasgic deities, 
either Vesta or Cybele. 

Both in dimensions and design they form a 
perfect contrast to the Pantheon, as might be 
expected from their both belonging to the 
Aug-ustan age of art : consequently the cella is 
small, its interior unornamented, and all the 
art and expense lavished on the external fea- 
tures, especially the peristyle, show more 
strongly than even the rectangular temple the 
still i-emaining predumiuance of Grecian taste, which had disappeared 
before the erection of the Pantheon. 

It is to be regretted that the exact date of both these temi)les is 
unknown, for, as that at Tivoli shows the 
stoutest example of a Corinthian column 
known, and that in Eome the slenderest, 
it might lead to some important deduc- 
tions if we could be certain which was 
the older of the two. It may lie, how- 
ever, that this diiierence of style has no 
connexion with the relative age of the 
two buildings, but that it is merely an 
instance of the good taste of the age to 
which thoy belong. The Ponian example, 
being placed in a low and fiat situation, 
required all the height ihat could be 
given it; that at Tivoli, being placed on 
the edge of a rock, recpiired as much 
solidity as the order would admit of to 
prevent its looking poor and insecure. A 
Gothic (u- a Greek architect would certainly have made this distinetion. 

251. Kestored Klevation of 
Temple at Tivoli. 
Scale 5IJ ft. to 1 in. 

252. Plan and Klevaiimi ot I eniim' iii 
Diocletian's Palace at Spalatm. 

Scnlc for Plan lon ft. t<i I in. ; for EU'\.iti,in 
50 II. to 1 in. 


One muro Ktcp tuwaids the luodeni style of luiirnl temples was 
taken before the fall of the Western Empire, in the temple whieh 
Dioeletian built in lii.s jtalace at Spalatro, Internally the temple is 
circular, 28 ft. in diameter, and the heij;ht to the dome, or peii>endi- 
eulai- i)art, is about equal to its widtli. This is a much more pleasing 
propoition than we find in the Pantheon, perhaps the veiy best that 
has yet been employed. Externally the building is an octagon, sur- 
roinided by a low dwarf peristyle, very unlike that employed in the 
older examples. This angularity is certainly a great improvement, 
giving expiession and character to the building, and all'ording Hat 
faces for the entrances or porches ; but the peristyle is too low, and 
mars the dignity of the whole.' 

To us its ])rincipal interest resides in its being so extremely similar 
to the Christian baptisteries which were erected in the following centu- 
ries, and which were copies, but very slightly altered, from buildings 
of this class. 


Even assuming that Hadrian completed the great temple of Venus 
and Home in the manner generally supposed, it must have been very 
fai- surjiassed by the great temple of Jupiter Olympius at Athens, 
which, thongh probably not entirely erected, was cei-tainly finished, by 
tliat emperor. It was decastyle in front, with a double range of 20 
columns on each flank, so that it could not well have had less than 
120 columns, all about 58 ft. in height, and of the most elegant 
(^orinthian order, presenting a group of more extended magnificence 
than any other temple we are actpiainted with of its class in the an- 
cient world. Its lineal dimensions also, as may be seen fiom the 
l>lan (woodcut No. 222), were unrivalled, as it was 171 ft. wide by 
o54 in length, or, as nearly as may be, the same as those of the great 
Hypostvle Hall at Kaniac, from which, however, it difTers most mate- 
rially, that being an interior, this de})ending fur all its magniliceuce on 
tlie external arrangement of its columns. Nothing now remains to 
enable us to restore its internal arrangement with anything like cer- 
tainty; but there seems reason to believe that the outer part of the 
cella was arranged as a peristylar court oi)cn in the centre, itrobably 
in two stories, so as to admit light into the interior. This arrangement 
became so common in the early Christian world that there must have 
Ijcen some precedent for it which, besides (.)ther reasons,* strongly 
incline me to believe that the arrangement shown in the plan is 


The temples of Talmyra and Kangovar have l)een already men- 
tioned in speaking of that of Jerusalem, to which class they seem to 

' This huildins is commonly called a of some sort. 
tcm))Ie, thmi^'li it is iu>t known to what deity ■' See ' True l'iincii>Ies of 15cauty in Ait,' 

it was dedie.ited. My own inii>iession is that ]i. iSO'J, where the reasons for this arrange- 

it was a tomh, or at least a funeial monument nient will be found stated at length. 




belont;- in tlicir gcnoral aiTangeiucnts, thoiigli iliciv ili^tnils arc hnrrowcfl 

from h'oiuau avi-hitocturo. This, liowcvcr, is nut the case witli the 

teiui)les at r)aall)ee, Avhich, taken together and with their accompani- 
ments, form the most magnificent temph^ group now left to ns of their 

cUiss and age. The great temple, if completed (which, however, it 

probably never was), would have been about 

IGO ft. by 2l>0, and therefore only inferior to 

that of Jupiter Olympius at Athens, Only 9 of 

its colossal columns are now standing, but the 

bases of most of the others are in situ. Scarcely 

less magnificent than the temple itself was the 

court in which it stood, above 380 ft. square, 

and sin-rounded on 3 sides by recessed porticos 

of most exuberant richness, though ]ierhaps 

rather questionable taste. In front of this was 

a hexagonal court of very great beauty, with a 

noble portico of 12 Corinthian columns, with 

2 square blocks of masonry at each end. The 

whole extent of the portico is 260 ft., and of its 

kind it is perhaps unrivalled, certainly among 

the buildings of so late a date as the period to 

which it belongs. 

The other, a smaller temple, stands close to 

the larger. Its dimensions, to the usual scale, 

are shown in the plan (woodcut No. 253). It 
is larger than any of the Konian peripteral 

temples, being 117 ft. by 227 ft., or rather exceeding the dimensions 

of the rarthenon at Athens, and it is both wider and higher than the 

portico of the runtheon 
at Kome. Had this por- 
tico been applied to 
that building, the slope 
of its pediment would 
have coineided exactly 
with that of the upper 
sloping cornice, and 
would have been the 
greatest possible im- 
provement to that edi- 
fiee. As it is, it cer- 
tainly is the best pro- 
portioned and the most 
graceful Koman portico 
of the first class that 
remains to us in a state 
of sufticient comi)lete- 
ness to allow us to 
judge of its eftcct. 

The interior of the cella was richly ornamented with niches and 

253. Plan of Small Temple al 
D.ialbcc. Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 


Elevation of Snuill U \ny\'^ at Baalbec. 
Scale 50 ft. to 1 in. 


pilasters, and covered with a ribbed and coU'ered vault, remarkable, like 
every part of this edifice, rather for the ])rofnsioii than for the good 
taste of its ornaments. 

One of the ])nncii)al ])ecidiaritics of this gron]) of buildings is, Iho 
immense size of some of the stones used in the substructure of the 
great temple : tliree of these average about 03 ft. in length, 10 ft. 5 in. 
in breadth, and 13 ft. in height. A fourth is lying i:i the quany of similar 
dimensions, which it is calculated must weigh alone more than 1100 
tons in its rough state, or nearly as much as one of the tubes of the 
Piiitannia bridge. It is not eas}' to see of what use STich masses were ; 
but ill many places in the Bible and in Josephus nothing is so much 
insisted upon as the immense size of the stones used in tht; btiilding 
of the temi>le and the walls of Jerusalem, which seems to have been 
thought far more im])ortant than the architecture. Tt juobably was 
some such feeling that led to their cm]»loyment here, though, had they 
been set upright as the Egyptians would have done, it would he 
easier to understand why so great an expense should have been in- 
curred oil tlioir account. 

CiiAi'. IV. I'.ASiiJCAs. ;:i' 



IJasilica.s of Tnijan ;iml Maxentius — Provincial basilicas — Theatre at Orange 
C"olos.soiuu — Provincial amphitheatres — Baths of Diocletian. 


Wk luive already secai that in size and magnificence the temples of 
liume were amono; tlic least remarkahle of her public Imildings. It 
may be doiilited whether, in any respect, in the eyes of the L'omans 
themselves, the temples were as important and venerable as the basi- 
licas. That people cared for government and justice more than for 
I'eligion, and consequently paid more attention to the affaii's of the 
basilicas than to those of the temples. Our means for the restoration 
of this class of buildings are now but small, owing to their slight eon- 
stniction in the first instance, and to their mateiials having been so 
suitable for the building of Christian basilicas as to have been exten- 
sively used for that purpose. It happens however that the remains 
which we do possess comprise what we know to have been the two 
most splendid basilicas of Home, and aie sufficiently complete to en- 
able us to I'estore their plans with considerable confidence. It is also 
fortunate that one of these, the Ulpian or Ti ajan's basilica, is the typical 
specimen of those with Avooden roofs ; tlie other, that of Maxentius. com- 
monly called the Temple of Peace, is the noblest of the vaulted class. 

The rectangular part of Trajan's basilica was 180 ft. in width and 
a little more than twice that in length, but, neither end having yet 
been excavated, its exact longitudinal measurement has not been ascer- 
tained. It was divided into 5 aisles by 4 rows of columns, each aboTit 
35 ft. in height, the centre being 87 ft. wide, and the side aisles 23 ft. 
4 in. each. The centie was covered by a wooden roof of semicircular 
form, covered apparently with lironze plates richly oinamcnted and 
gilt. Above the side aisles was a gallery, the roof of whic;h was su])- 
portcd by an upper row of columns. Fiom the same columns also 
sprang the arches of the great central aisle. The total internal height 
was thus probably about 120 ft., or higher than any English cathedral, 
though not so high as some (Jenuan and French ones. 

At one end was a great semicircular apse, the back pait of which 
was raised, being approached by a semicircular range of ste])s. In 
the centre of this platform was the laiscd scat of the ipia'stor or other 
magistrate who picsidcd. On each side, upon the steps, were jtlaccs 



Book VI 


TS 8 6 n^ 

I'laii of Tijyiin's Basilica at Rome. Scale liiii fl. |o i in. 

fteciiun ol Inyun's Hasilica. Scale 100 ft. t<i l in. 


for tlie assessors or others engaged in the business being transacted. 
\n fiont of the apse was placed an altar, where sacriti(!e wius performed 
before commencing any important public business.' 

Externally this basilica could not have been of much magnificence. 
Jt was entered on the side of the Forum (on the left hand vi' the plan 
and section) by one triple doorway in the centre and two single ones 
on each side, covered by shallow porticos of columns of the same 
height as those used internally. These supported statues, or rather, to 
judge from the coins representing the building, rilievos, which may 
have set off, but could hardly have given much dignity to, a building 
designed as this was. At the end opposite the apse a similar arrange- 
ment seems to have prevailed. 

1'his mode of using columns only half the height of the building must 
have been very destructive of their effect, and of geneial gTandeur, 
but it became about this time rather the rule than the exception, and 
afterwards was adopted for temples and every other class of buildings, 
so that it certainly was an improvement when the arch took the ])lace 
of the horizontal architrave and cornice, which always suggested a 
roof, and became singularly incongruous when applied as a mere 
ornamental adjunct. The interior of the basilica was, however, the 
important element to which the exterior was entirely sacrificed, this 
transition, which we have before alluded to, taking place much faster 
in basilicas, which were an entirely new mode of building, than in 
temples, whose form had become sacred from long tradition. 

The Basilica of Maxentius, which was probably not entirely finished 
till the reign of Constantine, was rather broader than that of Trajan, 
being 195 ft. between the walls, but it was 100 ft. less in length. The 
central aisle was very nearly of the same width, being 83 ft. between 
the columns, and 120 ft. in height. There was, however, a vast differ- 
ence in the construction of the two ; so much so, that we are startled 
to see how rapid the progress had been during the interval of less 
than two centuries that had elapsed between the construction of the 
two basilicas. 

In this building no pillars are used except 8 great columns in front 
of the piers, employed merely as ornaments, or as vaulting shafts were 
in Gothic cathedrals, to support in a2)pearancc, though not in construc- 
tion, the springing of the vaults. The side aisles are roofed by .'{ 
great arches, each 72 ft. in span, and the centre by an innnense inter- 
secting vault in 3 compartments. The form of these will be under- 
stood from the annexed sections, one taken longitudinally, the other 
across the building. As will be seen from tlicni, all the thrusts are 
collected to a point and a buttress placed there ti> receive them: 
indeed almost all the peculiarities afterwards found in (iothic vaults 
are here employed on a far grander and more gigantic scale than the 
Gothic architects ever attempted ; but at the same time it must be 

' Tliis bnsilica is e;onerally ruiircsentod ns logy would lead us ratlier to infi'r tliat it was 
having an apse at either end ; hut there is no not tlie ease. 
authority whatever tor tliis, and ■jcui lal ana- 



I'...(.K VII. 

n&n of Basilica of Maxentius. Scale lOU ft. tx) 1 in. 


Longitudinal Section of Basilica of Maxentius. Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 


I'ran.svcrso Section of Basilica of Ma.\cntius. Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 

C'liAr. IV 



allowed that the hitter, with smaller dimensions, often contrived by a 
more artistic treatment of their materials to obtain as gTand an ott'ect, 
and far moi'e actnal beauty, than ever were attained in the great transi- 
ti(tual halls of the Romans. The largeness of the parts of the Eoman 
Imildings was indeed their principal defect, as in conseqnence of lliis 
they must all have looked smaller than they really were, whereas in 
all (Jothic cathedrals the repetition and smallness of the component 
pai-ts gives them the appearance of being larger than their leal 

The roofs of these halls had one pecnliarity Avhich it would have 
been well if the mediaeval architects had coi)ied, inasmuch as they 
were all honestly used as roofs without the necessity of being covered 
with others of wood, as all Gothic vaults unfortunately were. It 
is true this is perhaps one of the causes of their destruction, for, 
being only covered with cement, the rain wore away the surface, as 
must be inevitably the case Avitli any composition of the sort expot-:ed 
horizontally to the weather, and, that being gone, the nudsture soon 
penetrated through the crevices of the masonry, and the stability of 
the vault inevitably became impaired. Still some of these have in 
l\omc resisted for 15 centuries all the accid(,'nt8 of climate and decay, 
while there is not a Gothic vault of half their dimensions that would 
exist for a century after the removal of its wooden protection. It 
therefore still remains a problem for modem times to construct a vault 
capable of resisting the destructive effects of exposure to the atmos- 
phere. Until this is accomplished we must regard honest wooden 
roofs as preferable to the false stone ones which were such faA'ourites 
in the middle ages. 

The provincial basilicas of the Roman empire have nearly ;ill 
perished, probably from their having been con- 
verted, first into churches, for which they were 
so admirably adapted, and then rebuilt to suit 
the exigencies and taste of subsequent ages. 
One example, however, still exists in Treves of 
sufficient completeness to give a good idea of 
what such stnictures were. As will be seen by 
the annexed plan it consists of a great hall 90 ft. 
in width inteirially, and as nearly as possible 
twice that length. The walls are about JOG ft. 
in height and i)ierced with two rows of win- 
dows, but whether they were originally sepa- 
rated by a galler}' or not is now by no means 
clear. At one end was the aj)se, rather more 
than a semicircle of 60 ft. in diameter. The 
floor of the apse was raised considerably above 
that of the body of the building, and was no 
doubt adorned by a hemicycle of seats raised 
on steps, with a throne in the centre for the 
judge. The building has been used for so many purposes since the 
time of the Romans, and has been so much altered, that it is not easy 


I. I'laii .■! 111.- ItiUMlic.i .11 

Seale 100 ft. to 1 in. 



i5ooK vn. 

now to speak with certainty of any of its minor an-angeiuents. lt« 
iuleiiuil and external appearanee, as it now stands, are weU expi'esscd 
in the annexed woodcuts ; and, ruined though it appears, it is still 



External View of tlie Risiliai at Tifeves. 

\ \ ■• \' A^l^,.:>;:^^ 

il 1 1 

the most complete example of a Roman basilica to be found anywhci-e 
out of the capital. A building of tliis descnption has been foxuid at 

Pompeii, which may be consi- 
dered a fair example of a provin- 
cial basilica of the second class. 
Its plan is perfectly preserved, 
as shown in the woodcut. 
Xo. 2(38. The most striking 
diti'erence existing between it 
and those previously described 
is the square termination in- 
stead of the circular ajise. It 
must however be obsen'ed that 
Pompeii was situated nearer to 
Magna Graicia than to Pome, 
and was indeed far more a 
(Jreek than a Koman city. Very 
slight traces of any Etruscan 
forms have been discovered 
there, and scarcely any build- 
ings of the circular plan, whicli 
was so much in vogue in the 
capital. Though the ground- 
plan of this basilica remains 
perfect, the upper parts of this building are entirelj' destroyed, and 
we do iKtt even know for certain whether the central pait was roofed 
or not ; my o\vn impression is. howevei-. that it certainly was so, 

262. Internal View of the UoaiiK-a at I'rfeves. 

ClIAl'. IV. 






and liglitod by ;i clerestory like the cella- of (Jroek temples ; 
liuwever, it luid no peristyle, it may also have had 
windows in the upper gallery, and the clerestory 
windows were probably not countersunk like those 
ill the (h'cek temples. 

Tliere is a small square building at Otrieoli, 
which is generally supposed to be a basilica, but its 
object as well as its age is so uncertain that nothing 
need bo said of it here. In the woiks of Vitruvius, 
too, there is a description of one built by him at Faiio, 
the restoration of which has occupied the ingenuity 
of the admirers of that worst of architects. Even 
taking it as restored by those most willing to make 
the best of it, it is difficult to understand how 
anything so bad could have been erected in such 



an age. 

® m 


■ Basilica 


It is extremely difficult to trace the origin of 
these basilicas, owing principally to the loss of all 
the earlier examides. Their name is Greek, and they 263. I'Uui of na 

Till • T 1 11 1 f 1 "' I'omiieii. 

may probably be considered as the descendants oi the ,scaie looa. to lin. 
Grecian Lesche, or perhaps as amplifications of the 
cellte of Greek temples, appropriated to the purposes of justice rather 
than of religion ; but till we know more of their earlier form and their 
antecedents, it is useless speculating on this point. The greatest in- 
terest to us arises rather from the use to which their plan was after- 
wards applied than from the source from which they themselves sprang. 
All the earlier Christian churches were copies, more or less exact, of 
the basilicas of which that of Trajan is an example. The abundance 
of pillars, suitable to such an erection, that were found ovcr^-where in 
Eome, rendered their construction easy and cheap ; and the w^ooden 
roof with which they were covered was also as simple and as inex- 
pensive a covering as coidd well be designed. The very uses of the 
Christian basilicas at first were by no means dissimilar to those of 
their heathen originals, as they were in leality the assembly halls of 
the early Christian republic, before they became liturgical churches of 
the catholic hierarchy. 

The more extensive construction of the bold vaults of the Maxentiau 
basilica went for beyond the means of the early Church, established in 
a declining and abandoned capital, and this form therefore remained 
dormant for 7 or 8 centuries before it was revived by the mediEeval 
architects on an infinitely smaller scale, but adorned with a degree of 
taste to which the Ixomans were strangers. It was then used with a 
completeness and unity which entitle it to be considered as an entirely 
new style of architecture. 


The theatre was by no means so essential a paii of the economy of 
a Koman city as it was of a Grecian one. ^^'ith the latter it was quite 
as indispensable as the temple; ami in the semi-Greek city of ller- 

Y 2 



Book VII. 

cnlancum there was one. and in I'ojnpeii two, on a scale <iui1e equal to 
those of Greece when conipaied with the importance of the town itself. 
In the capital there appears only to have been one, that of Marcellns. 
built during the reign of Augustus. It is very cpiestionable whether 


rian of the Thealre at Orange. Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 


View of the Theatre at Orange. 

CiiAi". IV. THEATliES— AMI'llI'l'JlKA'J'iniS. ;j25 

what wo now see — especially tlio outer arcades — belong to that age, or 
whether the theatre may not have been rebuilt and these arcades added 
at some later period. It is so eompletel}- built over by modern houses, 
and so ruined, that it is extremely difficult to state anything positively 
about it. Its dimensions were worthy of the capital, the audience 
part l)oing a semicircle of 410 ft. in diameter, and the scena being of 
great extent in proportion to the other part, which is a characteristic 
of all Eoman theatres, as compared with Grecian edifices of this class. 

One of *he most striking Eoman provincial theatres is that of 
Orange, in the south of France. Perhaps it owes its existence, or at 
all events its splendour, to the substratum of Grecian colonists that 
preceded the Eomans in that country. Its auditorium is o-tO ft. in 
diameter, but much ruined, in consequence of the princes of Orange 
having used this part as a bastion in some fortification the}'' were 

The stage is very tolerably preserved. It shows well the increased 
extent and complication of arrangements required for the theatrical 
representations of the age in which it was constructed, being a 
considerable advance towaixls the more modem idea of a play, as dis- 
tinguished frcim the stately semi-religious spectacle in which the Greeks 
delighted. The noblest part of the building is the great wall at 
the back, an immense mass of masonry, 340 ft. in extent, and IIG ft. 
in height, without a single opening above the basement, and no orna- 
ment except a range of blank arches, about midway between the 
basement and the top, and a few projecting corbels to receive the 
footings of the masts that supported the velarium. Nowhere does 
the architecture of the Eomans shine so much as when their gigantic 
buildings ar^e left to tell their own tale by the imposing grandeur of 
their masses. AVhenever ornament is attempted, their bad taste comes 
out. The size of their edifices, and the solidity of their construction, 
were only sui"passed by the Egyptians, and not always by them ; and 
when, as here, their mass stands unadorned in all its native grandeur, 
criticism is disarmed, and the spectator stands awe-struck at its 
majesty, and turns away convinced that truly " there were giants in 
those days." This is not, it is trixe, the most intellectual way of 
obtaining architectural effect, but it is the easiest and the most certain 
to secure the desired result. 


The deficiency of theatres erected by the Romans is far more 
than compensated by the number and s])lcndour of their amphithe- 
atres, which, with their baths, ma}' be considered as the true types 
of Eoman art. It seems almost certain that they dei ived this class of 
public buildings from the Etruscans. At Sutri there is a very noble 
one cut out of the tufa rock, which was no doubt used by that people 
for festal representations long before Eomo attempted anything of the 
kind. It is uncertain whetlier gladiatorial fights or combats of wild 
beasts formed any part of the amusements of the arena in those days, 


tliniijj;li boxiui;". wrostliiip;. and coiitrsts uf tliat ilescrijitidii rcitainly 
did ; but wlietlior tlie Ktniscan.s actually proceeded to the slicddiug of 
blood and slaughter is more than doubtful. 

Even in the remotest parts of Britain, in Germany, and fJaid. 
wherever we find a l\oman settlement, avo find the traces of their 
aiiiphitheatres. Their soldiery, it seems, could not exist without the 
enjoyment of seeing men engage in doubtful and mortal combats — either 
killing one another, or torn to jiieces by wild beasts. It is not to be 
Wondered at that a people who delighted so much in the liloody scenes 
of the arena should feel but very little pleasure in the mimic soitows 
and tame humour of the stage. It fitted them, it is true, to be a nation 
of conquerors, and gave them the empire of the world, but it brought 
with it feelings singularly inimical to all the softer arts, and was 
perhaps the great cause of their debasement. 

As might be expected, the hirgcst and most splendid of these 
buildings is that which adorns the capital ; and of all the ruins which 
Home contains, none have excited such universal admiration as the 
Flavian umphithoati-e. Poets, painters, rhapsodists, have exhausted 
all the resources of their ai-ts in the attempt to conA-e^^ to others the 
overpowering impiession this Imilding produces on their oaa'u minds. 
\N'ith the single exception, perhaps, of the Hall at Karnae, no ruin has 
met with such universal admiration as this. Its association with the 
ancient mistress of the world, its destruction, and the half-prophetic; 
destiny ascribed to it, all contribute to this. Still it must be confessed 


"The gliuliator.i' Moody cii-cus stands 
A noble wreck in ruinous perfection," 

and worthy of all or nearly all the admiiation of which it has been the 
object. Its interior is almost wholly- devoid of ornament, or anything 
that can be called architecture — a vast inverted pj'ramid. The 
exterior does not possess one detail which is not open to criticism, and 
indeed to positive blame Notwithstanding all this, its mass, its form, 
and its associations, all conil)ine to produce an cft'ect against which 
the critic stniggles in vain. Still all must admit that the pilhu's and 
their entablature are useless and added incongniously, and that the 
upper story, not being arched like the lower, but solid, and Avith ugly 
pilasters, is a painful blemish. This last defect is so striking that, in 
spite of the somcAvhat dul)ious evidence of medals, 1 should feel 
inclined to suspect that it AA-as a subsequent addition, and meant wholly 
for the purpose of supporting and Avorking the great A-elarium or 
aAvning that coA'cred the arena during th(^ representation, Avhich may 
not have been attem])ted AA-hen the amjihitheatre was first erected. 

Be this as it may, it certainly noAv mars very much the effect of 
the building. The loAver stories are of bad design, but this is Avorse. 
Notwithstanding these defects, there is no building of liome Avhcre the 
l)rineiple of reduj)li(iition of parts, of which the (Jothic architects 
afterwards made so jnuch use, is earned to so great an extent as in 
this. The (_^olosseura is jirincipally indebted to this featuie for the 
effect Avhich it produces. Had it. for instance, been designed with only 

CiiAP. TV. 




one stoiy of the lieig;ht of the 4 now existin*;, jind every aicli ((.u- 
sequently as wide as 4 of the present ones, the buikling- wouhl have 
scarcely a|)})eaic(l half the size it now is seen to be. Jt is true that 
when close nncler it, in comparing it with figures moving about or 
other objects, we might eventually have been able to realize its 
dimensions. In that case, a true sense of the vast size of the building 
would have had to be acquired, as is the case with the fa(;adc of St. 
Peter's. Now it forces itself on the mind at the first glance. It is the 
repetition of arch beyond arch and story on story that leads the mind 

266. Elevation and Section of part of the Flavian Amphitheatre at Rome. Scale 50 ft. to 1 in. 

267. Quarter-plan of the Seats and quarter-plan of the Basement of the Flavian Amphithpalre. 

Scale 100 ft. to 1 in. 


on, .111(1 gives to this ainj)liitlieatie its iin]iosii)g grandeur, wliich all 
aeknoAvk'dgc, though few give themselves tlie trouble to ask how it is 

Fortunately, too, though the face of the building is much cut iiji 
by the order, the entablatures are unbroken throughout, and cross the 
building in long vanisliing lines of the most graceful cui"vatures. 
Tho oval, also, is certainly more favourable for ettect than a circular 
form would be. A building of this sha]ie may perhaps look smaller 
than it really is to a jierson standing exactly opposite either end ; 
but in all other positions the tlatter side gives a variety and an 
a]i])eaiance of size which the monotonous equality of a circle would 
ncAcr produce. 

The length of the building, measured along its greatest diameter, is 
(520 ft., its breadth 513, or nearly in the ratio of 6 to 5, which may be 
taken as the general proportion of these buildings, the variations from 
it being slight, and apparently either mistakes in setting out the Avork 
in ancient times, or in measuring it in modern days, rather than an 
intentional deviation. The height of the 3 lower stories, or what I 
believe to have been the original building, is 120 ft.; the total height 
as it now stands 157 ft. The arena itself measures 287 ft. in length 
Ity 180 in breadth, and it is calculated that the building would contain 
80,000 spectators, though I am inclined to think this number exagge- 
rated. 50,000 or 60,000 would be much nearer the ti-uth, at least 
according to the data by which space is calculated in our theatres and 
public places. 

Next in extent to this great metropolitan amphitheatre was that 
of Capua ; its dimensions were 558 ft. by 460 ; its height extemally 
95 feet. It had 3 stories, designed similarly to those of the Colos- 
.seum, but all of the Doric order, and used Avith more purity than in 
the Eoman example. 

Next in age, though not in size, is that at Nismes, 430 ft. l)y 378, 
and 72 in height, in 2 stories. Both these stories are more profusely 
j-ind more elegantly ornamented Avith ])illars than those of either of tlie 
amphitheatres mentioned above. The entablature is hoAvever broken 
over each column, and pediments are introduced on each front. All 
these arrangements, though shoAving more care in design, and sufficient 
elegance in detail, make this building very inferior in grandeur to the 
two earlier edifices, whose simplicity of outline makes up, to a great 
extent, for their faults of detail. 

A more beautiful example than this is that at Verona. Its dimen- 
sions are 502 ft. by 401, and 98 ft. high, in 3 stories beautifully pro- 
portioned. Here the order almost entirely disappears, to make way 
for rustication, showing that it must be considerably more modem than 
either of the three examples above quoted, though hardly so late as the 
time of 31aximiauus, to Avhom it is fiequently ascribed.' The arena of 
this amphitheatre is very nearly perfect, oAving to the care taken of it 
during the middle ages, Avhen it was often used for tournaments and 

' MattVi, 'Verona Illustrata,' vol. vii. p. 84 ct seq. 

Chap. IV. 



26S. Elevation of Aniphilbcatre at Verona. Scale 50 ft. to 1 in. 

tether .spectacles ; but of its outer arcliitectural enclosure only 4 bays 
remain, sufficient to enable an architect to restore the whole, but not 
to allow of its effect being compared with that of more entire 

The amphitheatre at Tola, which is of about the same age as tliat 
of Verona, certainly be- 
longing to the last days 
of the Western Empire, 
presents in its ruin a 
curious contrast to the 
other. That at Yerona 
has a perfect arena, 
and only a fragment of 
its exterior decoration, 
while the exterior of 
Tola is perfect, but not 
a trace remains of its 
arena, or of the seats 
that sitrrounded it. 
This is probably owing 
to their having been of wood, and consequently having either decayed 
or been burnt. Like that at Verona, it presents all the features of the last 
stage of transition ; the order is still seen, or rather is everywhere 
suggested, but so concealed and kept subordinate that it does not at all 
interfere with the general effect. But for these faint traces we should 
possess in this am])hitheatre one specimen entirely emancipated from 
incongnious Grecian forms, but, as before remarked, Eome perished just 
on the threshold of the new stj'le. 

The dimensions of the amphitheatre at Pola are very nearly the 
same as of that at Nismes, being 436 ft. by 346. It has, however, 
3 stories, and thus its height is considerably greater, being 97 ft. 
Owing to the inequality of the ground on which it is built, the lower 
story shows the peculiarit}' of a sub-basement, which is very pleasingly 
managed, and seems to emancipate it more from conventional forms 
than its contemporary at Verona. The third story, or attic, is also more 
pleasing than elsewhere, as it is avowedly designed for the support of the 
masts of the velarium. The pilasters and all Greek forms are omitted, 
and thei'e is only a groove over every column of the middle story to 
receive the masts. There is also a curioxis sort of open battlement on 
the top, evidently designed to facilitate the working of the a-oniing, 
though in what manner is not quite clear. There is still one other 
peculiarity about the building, inasmuch as the curvature of its lines 
is broken by 4 projections, intended apparently to contain staircases. 
They appear, however, to have been subsequent additions, the stones 
of which they are built being of a different colour from those of the 
body of the building. In a building so light and open as this one is 
in its present state there can be no doubt but that the projections give 
expression and character to the outline, though such additions would 
go fiir to spoil any of the greater examples above quoted. 


At Otiicoli thoro is a small amphitlicatre, 312 ft. by 230, in 
2 stories, from which the onlei- has entirely disappeared ; it is there- 
fore possibly the most modcni of its class, but the gi'eat flat pilasters 
that replace the i)illars are ungraceful and somewhat clumsy. Perhaps 
its ]H'culiaritios ought raihor to be looked on as provincialisms than as 
genuine specimens of an advanced style. Still there is a }tleasing 
simplicity about it that on a larger scale would enable it to stand com- 
parison with some of its greater rivals. 

Besides these, which are the typical examples of the style, there 
are the Castrensc at Home, nearly circular, and possessing all the faults 
and mnw of the beauties of the Colosseum ; one at Aries, very much 
ruined ; and a great number of provincial ones, not only in Italy and 
(Janl, T)ut in Germany and Britain. Almost all these were principally 
if not wholly excavated from the earth, the part above ground being 
the momid fojmed by the excavation. If they ever possessed any ex- 
ternal decoration to justify their being treated as architectural objects, 
it has disappeared, so that in the state at least in which we now find 
them they do not belong to the ornamental class of works of which we 
are now treating. 


Next in splendour to the ami)hitheatres of the Romans were their 
great thermal establislimcnts. In size they were jierhaps even more 
rcmarkalile, ami theii- erec-tion must certainly have been more costly. 
The amphitheatre, however, has the great advantage in an architectural 
point of view of being one object, one hall in short, whereas the baths 
were composed of a great number of smaller parts, not perhaps very 
successfully groTi])ed together. They were wholly built of brick covered 
with stucco (except perhaps the pillars), and have, therefore, now so 
completely lost their architectural features that it is with difficulty 
that even the most practised architect can restore them to anything 
like their original forms. 

In speaking of the great Tlicrmai of Imperial Eome, they must not 
be confounded with such establishments as that of Pompeii for instance. 
The latter was very similar to the baths now found in Cairo or Con- 
stantinople, and indeed in most eastern cities. These are moie estab- 
lishments for the convenience of bathers, consisting generally of one 
or two small circular or octagonal halls, covered by domes, and one or 
two others of an oblong shape, covered with vaults or wooden roofs, 
used as reception rooms, or places of repose after the bath. These 
have never any exteraal magnificence beyond an entrance-porch ; and 
although those at Pompeii are decorated internally with taste, and are 
well worthy of study, their smallness of size and inferiority of design 
do not admit of their being placed in the same category as those of the 
capital, which arc as characteristic of h'ome as her amphitheatres, and 
are such as could only exist in a capital where the bulk of the ])eople 
were able to live on the spoils of the conquered world rather than by 
the honest gains of their own industrs'. 

Agrippa is said to have built baths immediately behind the Pan- 

r'liAP. IV. BATHS. ;5:n 

tluMiii, and T'alliulid and otiiois liavo aiinised llll•lnselve^^ hy restoring 
them, assuming" that 1 mi Ming to have been the entranee-hall. Nothing, 
however, conkl, I believe, be more unfoinided than such an assumption, 
and no ruins exist sufficiently perfect to enable us to ascertain the 
exact site of these baths, if indeed they ever existed at all in this 

Nero's baths, too, are a mere heap of shapeless ruins, and those of 
\'espasian, Domitian, and Trajan in like manner are too much ruined 
foi' their form, or even their dimensions, to be ascertained with any- 
thing like correctness. Those of Titus are more perfect, but the very 
discrepancies that exist between the different systems upon which 
their restoration has been attempted show that enough does not re- 
main to enable the task to bo acco]n])lished in a satisfactory manner. 
They owe their interest more to the beautiful fresco paintings that 
adoni their vaults than to their architectural character. These paint- 
ings are invaluable, as being almost the only relics of the painted 
decoration of the most flourishing period of the Empire, and give a 
higher idea of Roman art than other indications would lead us to 

The baths of Constantino are also nearly wholly destroyed, so that 
out of the great Thermae two only, those of Diocletian and of Caracalla, 
now remain sufficiently perfect to enable a restoration to be made of 
them with anything like certainty. 

The great hall belonging to the baths of Diocletian is now the 
Church of Sta. Maria degli Angeli, and has been considerably altered 
to suit the altered circumstances of its use ; and the modem buildings 
attached to the church ha^•e so overlaid the older remains that it is not 
easy to follow out the complete plan. This is of less consequence, as 
both in dimensions and plan they are exti'emely similar to those of 
Caracalla, which seem to have been among the most magnificent, as 
they certainly are the best preserved, of these establishments.' 

The general plan of the whole enclosure of the baths of Diocletian 
was a square of about 1 1 50 ft. each way, with a bold but graceful cur- 
vilinear projection on two sides, containing porticos, gymnasia, lecture- 
rooms, and other halls for exercise of mind or body. In the rear were 
the j-eservoirs to contain the requisite supply of water, and below them 
the hj-pocaust or furnace, by which it was warmed with a degree of 
scientific skill we hardly give credit for to the Romans of that age. 
Opposite to this and facing the street was one great portico extending 
the whole length of the building, into which opened a range of apart- 
ments meant apparently to be used as pi-ivate baths, which extend also 
some way up each side. In front of the hypocaust, facing the north- 
east, was a semicircus or theatridiiim, 530 ft. long, where youths performed 
their exercises or contended for prizes. 

These parts were, however, merely the accessories of the establish- 

' These baths have been carefully iiiea- certainly the best account we have of any of 
sured by M. IMouet, who Juis also jjublisliod these establishments, 
a restoration of them. This is, on the whole, 



Book VII. 

meut isunonnding the jijardon, in wliich the p7inci]ial huildinf:; was 
placed. This was a reetangle 730 ft. by 380, witli a i)rojectiuu euvered 
by a dome on the south-western side, Avhich was 167 ft. in diameter 
extemally, and 1 1 o ft. internally. There were two small courts (a a) 
included in the block, but the whole of the rest appears to have laeen 
roofed over, and though, therefore, with about the same dimensions, 
it virtually covered far more ground, and, looking at the size and 
grandeur of the parts, it was a building on a far more magnificent 
scale than our new Houses of Parliament. 


Baths of ft o c letiau, as restored by A. Blouet. 

In the centre was a great hall (b), almost identical in dimensions with 
the central aisle of the Basilica of Maxcntius already described, being 
82 ft. wide by 170 in length, and roofed in the same manner by an in- 
tersecting vault in three compartments, sjjringing from 8 great pillars. 
This opened into a smaller apartment at each end, of rectangular form, 
and then again into 2 other semicircular halls, fonning a i-plendid suite 
4C}0 ft. in length. This central room is generally considered as the 
tepidirinm, or warmed apartments, having 4 warm baths opening out of it. 
On the side was the natatio, or plunge bath (c), probably tejjid, 
a room of nearly the same dimensions and design as the central one. 
On the side f»])posite to this was the circular apartment (d), covered by 
the dome abovi- mentioned, Avhieh. from its situation and the openness of 
its an-angements, must have contained a cold bath or baths. There ai e 

CnAi>. IV. BATHS. 333 

4 otlicr rooms on this side, wliieli seem also to have been cold batlis. 
None of these points have, however, yet been satisfactorily settled, 
nor the nses of the smaller subordinate rooms ; every restorer giving 
them names according to his own ideas. For onr purjiose it suffices 
to know that no groups of state apailmcnts in such dimensions, 
and wholly devoted to purj)oses of dis])lay and recreation, were ever 
before or since grouped together under one roof. The taste of 
many of the decorations would no doubt be faulty, and the archi- 
tecture shows those incongruities inscpaial)le from its state of transi- 
tion ; but such a collection of stately halls must have made up a 
Avhole of greater splendour than Ave can easily realize from their bare 
and Aveather-beaten ruins, or from anything else to which we can com- 
pare them. Even allowing for their being almost wholly of brick, 
and being disfigured by the bad taste inseparable from everything 
Koman, there is nothing in the worhl Avhich for size and grandeur can 
compare with these imperial places of recreation.' 

' St. George's Hall at Liverpool is the cnJ, it makes up a suite of apartments very 

most exact copy in modern times of a part similar to those found in the Roman examples, 

of these Baths. The Hall itself is a repro- The whole building, however, is less tliaii 

duction both in scale and design of the central one-fourth of the size of the central mass ot' a 

hall of Caracalla's Baths, but improved in Roman bath, and therefore gives l)ut little 

detail and design, having five bays instead idea of the magnificence of the whole, 
of only three. With the two courts at each 



Book VI 1. 



Ai-clies at Rome ; in Fi-iince — Arch at Treves — Pillai-s of Victory — Tnmh.s — 
Minerva Medica — Provincial tombs — Eiustern tombs — Domestic arcliitecture 
— Spalatro — Pompeii — Bridges — Aqueducts. 

Triumphal arclieK were among the most peculiar of the various funus 
nf art whicli the Komans borrowed fi-om those around them, and used 
with that strange mixture of splendour and bad taste which charac- 
terises all their works. 

These were in the first instance no doubt borrowed from the Etrus- 
cans, as was also the ceremony of the triumph with which they were 
ultimately associated. At first they seem rather to have l)een used a« 
festal entrances to the great public roads, whose coustructi(»n was con- 

• sidered as one of 

the most import- 
ant benefits a 
ruler could con- 
fer on his coun- 
try. There was 
one erected at 
liimini in honour 
of an imjKirtant 
restoration of the 
Flamiuian Way 
1>v Augustus; an- 
other at 8usa in 
I'iedmont, to com- 
memorate a simi- 
lar act of the same 
Em]K'ror. Trajan 
built one on the 
pier at Ancona, 
when he restored 
that harbour, and 
another at Bene- 
ventum, when he 
repaired the Via 
Api>ia, represented in the woodcut here given (No. 270). It is one ol 
the best preserved as well as most graceful ( f its class in Daly. The arch 


Arch of Trfljan at lienevenliiin. From a plate in Gailabaud's 

Chai'. V. 



271. Arch of Titus at, Home. 
Scale 50 ft. to 1 in. 

uf the Sergii at Tola in Istria seems also to have been ereeted Tor a likt- 
pvirjiose. That of Hadrian at Athens, and another built by him at Antin< »e 
in Ki;ypt, were monuments merely commemorative of the benefits whith 
he had conferred on those cities by the arehiteetnral works he had 
erected within their walls. By far the most im])ortaiit ap|)lication of 
these gateways, in Kome at least, was to commemorate a trium})li which 
may have passed along the road ovei- which the arch was erected, and 
perhaps in some instances it may have been erected beforehand, for 
the triumphal procession to pass through, of which it would remain a 

The Arch of Titus at Kome is well known for the beauty of its de- 
tail, as well as from the extraordinary interest 
which it derives from having been erected to 
commemorate the conquest of Jerusalem, and 
consecpiently representing in its bassi-rilievi 
the spoils of the Temple. From the annexed 
elevation, drawn to the usual scale, it will be 
seen that the building is not large, and it is not 
so well proportioned as that at Beneventum, 
represented in the last woodcut, the attic being 
overpoweringly high. The absence of sculpture 

on each side of the arch is also a defect, for the real merit of these 
buildings is their being used as frameworks for the exhibition of sculp- 
tural representations of the deeds they weie erected to commemorate. 

In the later days of the Empii'e 
2 side-arches were added for foot- 
passengers, in addition to the car- 
riage-way in the centre. This added 
much to the splendour of the edifice, 
and gave a greater opportunity for 
sculptui'al decoration than the single 
arch afforded. The Arch of Septi- 
mius Severus, represented to the 
same scale in woodcut Ko. 272, is 
perhaps the best specimen of the 
class. That of Constantine is very 
similar and in most respects equal to this — a merit which it owes to 
most of its sculptures being borrowed from earlier monuments. 

More splendid than either of these is tlie arch at Orange. We do 
not know by whom it was erected, or even in what age : it is, however, 
certainly very late in the Koman period, and shows a strong tendency 
to treat the order as entirely subordinate, and to exalt the plain masses 
into that importance which characterises the late transitional period. 
Unfortunately its scidptures are so much destroyed by time and violence 
that it is not easy to speak with cei-taiuty as to their age ; but more 
misht be done than has hitheiio been effected to illustrate this im- 
portant monument. 

At Eheims there is an arch which was probably much more mag- 
nificent than this. "When in a [)erfect state it was 1 10 ff. in width, and 


Arch of Septimiiis Severus. Scale 50 ft. 
to 1 ill. 



Book VII. 

had 3 oponini:^s, the cn-ntral one 17ft. \\'i>\v by 40 ft. liip;li, ami those 
on eacli side l»» ft. in Midtli, euch separated b}- 2 Corinthian cuUnuns. 
From tho styh> of the .sculpture it certainly was of the last age of the 
Roman Empire, but, having been built into the walls of the city, has 
been so much iixmed that it is difficult to say what its original form 
may have been. 

Besides these there is in France a very elegant single-arched gate- 
way at St. liemi, similar to and probably of the same age as that at 
Beneventum ; another at Cavallon, and one at Carpentras, each with 
one arch. There is also one Avith two similar arches at Langres ; and 
one, the Porta Nigra, at Besan^'on, wliieh shows so complete a transition 
from the Koman style that it is difficult to believe that it does not 
belong to the renaissance. 

There still remains in France another class of arches, certainly not 
trimnphal, but so similar to those just mentioned that it is impossible 
to sei)anite the one from the other. The most important of these are 
two at Autun, called respectively the Porte Aitoux and the Porte St. 
Andre, a view of which is given in woodcut No. L'71. Each of these 




'JP^..- ;- 

Porte St. Aiidrd at Autun. From Labonie'g Monumens di- 1:> l-'rniice. 

has two central large archways for cairiages, and one on each side for 
foot-passengers. Their most remarkable peculiarity is the light arcade 
<»r gallery that runs across the top of them, replacing the attic of the 
lionian arch, and giving a degree of lightness combined witli height 
that those never possessed. These gates were certainly not meant for 
defence, and the apai-tment over them could scarcely be applied to utili- 
tarian purposes; so that we may, I believe, consider it as a mere 
ornamental appendage, or as a balcony foi- disiday on festal occasions. 
It appears, however, to offer a better liint for modern arch-builders 
than any other example I know of. 

Chap. V. 




Plan of Porta Nigra at Trevps. 
Scale, 100 ft. to 1 ill. 

Even more intoresting; than these gates at Autuii is tliat called the 
Porta Nigra at Treves; lur though fur ruder hi style and coarser in 
detiiil, iis might be expected from tlic re- , 
moteness of the province where it is tonnd, j^ 
it is far more complete. Indeed it is the 
only example of its class which we possess 
in anything like its original state. Its front 
consists of a donhle archway snrnioinited 
by an arcaded gallery, like the Fiench 
examples. AMthin this is a rectangular 
court Avhicli seems never to have been roofed, and beyond this a second 
doTible archway similar to the first. At the ends of the court, project- 
ing each way beyond the fac;c of the gateway and the gallery surmoinit- 
ing it, are 2 wings 4 stories in height, containing a series of a]iartnionts 
in the fonu of small 

basilicas, all similar -^- j ■■■■jx 

to one another, and __ -.-*,_ k/--' 

measuring about 55 ~-;:^jCZL>- ■ --^-^^=-*^^^~ 

ft. by 22. It is not 
easy to understand 
how these were a})- 
proachcd, as there 
is no stair and no 
place for one. Of 
course there must 
have been some 
mode of access, and 
perhaps it may have 
Ijcen on the site of 
the apse, shown in 
the })lan (woodcut 275. 
K 0.274), which was 
added when the building was converted into a chuieh in the middle 
ages. These apartments were probably originally used as courts or 
chambers of justice, thus realising, more nearly than any other Euro- 
pean example I am acquainted with, the idea of a gate of justice. 

Notwithstanding its defects of detail, there is a variety in the out- 
line of this building and a boldness of profile that render it an ex- 
tremely pleasing example of the style ; and though exhibiting many of 
the faults of the desig-n of the Colosseum, it possesses all that repetition 
of parts and Gothic feeling of design Avhich give such value to its dimen- 
sions, though these are far from contemptible, the building being 1 1 5 ft. 
wide by 95 in height to the top of the wings. 

There probably w^ere many similar gates of justice in the province, 
but all have perished, unless we except those at Autmi just described. 
I am convinced that at that place there were originally such wings as 
those at Treves, and that the small church, the apse of which is seen 
on the right hand (woodcut 273), stands upon the foundations of one 
of these. A slight excavation on the opposite side would settle this 


View of the Porta Nigra at Trfeves. 




point at once. If it coulil ho proved that these pjateways at Antiin 
had such hatoral adjuncts, it would at once exphiin the use of the 
gallery over the arch, as a passage connecting the 2 wings together, 
which otherwise looks so unmeaning. 

Another fonn also is that of an arch at the entrance of a bridge, 
generally hearing an inscription coinnieniorative c)f its building. Its 
purpose is thus closely connected with that i)f the arches before men- 
tiitncd, which commemorate the execution of roads. Most of the great 
bridges of Italy and Spain were so adorned ; but imfoiiunately thej' 
have either been used as fortifications in the middle ages, or removed 
in raodeiTi times to make Avay for the increased circulation of traffic. 
That built by Trajan on his noble bridge at Alcantara in Spain is well 
known ; and there exists a double-arched bridge at Saintes, in the south 
of France. The most elegant and most perfect specimen, however, of 
this class is that of St. Chamas in Provence, represented in the woodcut 
Ko. 276. It consists of 2 arches, one at each end of the bridge, of 


Bridge at Chamas. From Lubui'de's Monunn'ns de la Kraiice. 

singular elegance of form and detail. Although it bears a still legible 
inscription, it is micertain to what age it belongs, ])robably that of tJie 
Autonincs ; and I should account for the })urity of its details by the 
Greek element that pei-vades the south of France, ^\'hetller this is so 
or not, it is impossible not to admire not only the design of the whole 
bridge with its 2 arches, but the elegance with which the deta.ils have 
been executed. — 

Used in this mode as commencements of roads, or entrances to 
bridges, or as festal entrances to unfoiiified towns, there are perhaps 
no monuments of the second class more ap])ropriate or more capable 
of architectural ex]iression than these arches, though all of them have 
been more or less spoiled by an incongiuous order being applied to tluiin. 
Used, however, as they were in Rome, as monuments of victory, with- 



out oven ;m excuse for a pass!\c;e Iln'(iiia;li tliein, not only i.s tln.^ taste of 
such erections more than (picstionablo, but tlic mode in wliicli tliey 
were cut up hy broken cornices anil Tiseless columns, on tall pedestals 
and otlier trivial details, deprived them of that largeness of design 
which is the true merit and groat characteristic of Konian art, while 
they totally missed that exquisite elegance with which the Cjijceks 
knew so well how to dignify even the most trivial objects. 

Pillars oi-' Victory. 

The pillars of Victory are a class of monuments which have been 
already mentioned in speaking of Buddhist architecture, and to 
which we must again revert when treating of the .Sai'acenic art, for 
they seem to have been adopted by Romans and Moslems whenever 
they settled in coimtries where the}^ had been used by the earlier 
inhabitants. No people ever used them so clumsily as the Eomans, 
or with so little true appreciation of the purpose for which they were 

The " Columna liostrata," or that erected to celebrate naval vic- 
tories, was, so far as we can judge from representations (for no perfect 
specimen exists), one of the ugliest and clumsiest forms of pillar it is 
possible to conceive. 

Of those of Victory, one of the most celebrated is that erected by 
Diocletian at Alexandria. A somewhat similar one exists at Arsinoe, 
erected b}^ Alexander Severus ; and a third at Mylassa in Caria. All 
these are- mere Corinthian pillars of the usual foi-m, and with the details 
of those used to support entablatures in porticos. However beautiful 
those may be in their proper place, they are singularly unappropriati; 
and ungraceful when used as minarets or single columns. 

There are two in Eome not quite so bad as these, both being of the 
Doric order. Had the square abacus in these been cut to a round form, 
and ornamented with an appropriate railing, we might almost forget 
theii" original, and fancy that they really were round towers with bal- 
conies at the top. The great object of their erection was to serve as 
vehicles for sculpture, though, as we now see them, or as they are cari- 
catured at Paris and elsewhere, they are little more than instances of 
immense labour bestowed to very little pm-pose. In the original use 
of these pillars they were placed in small courts surrounded by open 
porticos, whence the spectator could at two or perhaps at three dif- 
ferent levels examine the sculpture at his leisure and at a convenient 
distance, while the absurdity of the pillar supjxtrting nothing Avas not 
apparent, fi'om its not being seen from the outside. This arrangement 
is explained in woodcut No. 256, which is a section thi'ough the basilica 
of Trajan, showing the position of his column, not only with reference 
to that building, but to the surrounding colonnadi^ The same was almost 
certainly the case with the pillar of Marcus Aurolius, wiiioh, with slight 
modifications, seems to have been copied from that of Trajan ; but even 
in the most favourable situations no momnnents can be less Avorthy <if 
admiration or of being copied than these. 

z 2 



Book VII. 

A far better spc^cinii-ii <ii" this elass is thiit at Cnssi, near Beanne, in 
France. It probably belongs to the time of Anvdian, but it is not 

known eitlier by ^\honl it was erected 
or what victory it was designed to 
celebrate ; still that it is a pillar of 
vi(;torv is nndonbted ; and its resem- 
blance to jiillars raised with the same 
object in India is quite striking.' 

I'lie aiTangement of the base serv- 
ing as a pedestal for 8 statues is not 
only elegant but appropriate. The 
ornament which coveis the shaft takes 
off from the idea of its being a mere 
pillar, and at the same time is so sub- 
dued as not to break the outline or 
interfere with constnictive i)ropriety. 
The capital, of the Coi inthian order, 
is found in the neighbourhood nsed as 
the mouth of a well. In its original 
position it no doubt had a hole through 
it, which being enlarged suggested its 
application to its present ignoble pur- 
" pose, the hole being no doubt intended 
either to receive or support the statue 
or emblem that originally crowned the 
monument, but of that no trace now 

There cannot be a more natujal 
mode of monumental expi-ession than 
that of a simi»le upright sbme set up 
by the victors to commemorate their 
prowess and success. Accordingly 
steles or pillars erected for this ])ur- 
posc are found eveiywhere, and take 
shapes as various as the countries 
Avhere they stand, or as the peo])le who 
erected them ; but nowhere was their 
tnic architectural exjnession so mis- 
taken as in liome, wlii'ie, by pervert- 
ing a feature designed for one purpose to a totally different use, an 
example of bad i-iste was given till then unknown, 1 hough in our days 
it has become not inicommon. 


In that strange collection of the styles of all nations which, mingled 
togdlK-r, makes up the siun of Ifoman art, nothing strikes the architec- 
tural student with more astonishment than the number and importance 
of their tombs. If the Romans are of Indo-Gcnnanic origin, as is 

■ »^,., a'k' \ii 'i '^?^Aiii-l W>''''":''''- 

277. Column at C'ussi. From Laborde's 
]Monumens de la France. 

Supposed Capital ut ('uluMin at Cussi. 

' Compare woodcut No. 77. 

Chap. V. 






gouerally ;issuiuetl, tlicv arc the only puoj)lc ui that liieu among whom 
toiub-hiiihling was not utterly neglected. The iinj)ortanco of the 
toml)s among the Eoman remahis proves one of two things. Either a 
consiilerable proportion of Etruscan blood was mixed np with that of 
the dominant race in Kome, or the fierce and nncivilized I'omans, 
having no art of their own, were led blindly to copy that of the people 
among whom they were located. 

Of tlie tombs of Consular l^)me nothing remains except perhaps 
the sarco])hagns of Scipio ; and it is 
only on the eve of the Emi)ire that 
Ave meet with the well-known one of 
Ca3eilia Metella, the wife of Crassus, 
which is not only the best specimen 
of a Roman tomb now remaining to 
us, but the oldest building of the 
imperial city of which we have an 
authentic date. It consists of a bold 
scpiare basement about 100 ft. square,' 
which was originally ornamented in 
some manner not now intelligible. 
From this rose a circular tower about 
9-4 ft. in diameter, of very bold ma- 
sonry, surmounted by a frieze of ox- 
skulls with wreaths joming them, and 
a Avell-profiled cornice : 2 or 3 courses 
of masonry above this seem to have belonged to the original work ; 
and above this, almost certainly, in the original design rose a conical 
roof, which has perished. The tower having been used as a fortress 
in the middle ages, battlements have been added to supply the place 
of the roof, and it has been otherwise disfigured, so as to detract 
much ft-om its beauty as now seen. Still we have no tomb of the 
same importance so perfect, nor one which enables us to connect the 
Koman tombs so nearly with the Etruscan. The oidy addition in this 
instance is that of the square basement oi' ])o(liuni, though even this 
was not unknown at a much earlier period, as for instance in the tomb 
of Aruns (woodcut No. 2:57). The exaggerated height (jf the circulai- 
base is also remarkable. Here it rises to be a tower instead of a mere 
circular base of stones for the earthen cone of the original se})xdchre. 
Tlie stone roof which probably surmounted the tower was a mere 
reproduction of the oiiginal earthen cone. 

Kext in age and importance was the tomb c>f Augustus in the 
Campus Martins. It is now so completely ruined that it is extremely 
difficult to make out its plan, and those aaIio drew and restored it in 
former days were so careless in their measurement that it is difficult to 
ascertain even its dimensions : it appears however to have consisted 
of a circular basement about 300 ft. in diameter, and about (10 ft. in 


'I'omb uf Cfccilia Metella. 

' I :im cilicnKly iiiat-itaiu about tliu diiucnsions of this liuililiiig : these are llie Ijc^t I 
au liiul. 



Book VII. 

lieight, adonied with 12 large niches, Ahovo this rose a cone of 
earth as iu the Etruscan tombs, not smooth like those, hut divided 
into terraces, which were planted with trees. ^Ve also leara from 
Suetonius that Augustus laid out the grounds around his tomb and 
]tlanted theiu with gardens for public use during his lifetime. More 
like the practice of a tnie Mogid in the East than the niler of an 
ludo-Germanic people in Europe. 

This tomb, however, was far surpassed, not only in solidity but in 
splendour, by that which Hadrian erected for himself on the banks of 
the Tiber, now known as the Mole of lladiian, or more freqxiently the 
Castle of St. Angelo. The basement of this great tomb was a square 
about 340 ft. each way, and about 75 ft. high. Above this rose a 
circular tower 235 ft. in diameter and 140 in height. The whole was 
crowned probabl}^ by a dome, or at least by a curvilinear roof, which 
with its central ornament must have risen to a height of not less than 
oOO ft. The circular or tower-like part of this splendid building was 
ornamented with columns, but in what manner restorei'S have not 
quite been able to agree ; some making 2 stories, both with pillars, 
some, one of pillars and the upper one of pilasters. It would require 
more correct measurement than we have to enable us to settle this 
point, but it seems probable that there was only one range of columns 
on a circular basement of some height surmounted by an attic of at 
least equal dimensions. The order might have been 70 ft., the base 
and attic 38 ft. each. 

JnteiTially the mass was nearly solid, having only 2 small sepul- 
chral chambers, one above the other, in the centre. There may, how- 
ever, have been a circular apartment under the dome, though this is 
hai'dly probable. 

Besides these there was another class of tombs in Eome, called 
columbaria, generally oblong or square rooms below the level of the 


ColunilKirium near tlie (.ial^' <n >. Mb.isiiaii, lii.ii 


round, the walls of which were pierced with a great number of little 
]ugoonhol("s or cells just of sufficient size to receive an um containing 
the aslies of the body, which had been bunit according to the usual 
Koman mode of disposing of the dead. Externally of course they had 

(.'UAP. V. 



no architcctiu-e, though some of tlie moi'o important family bepulchrcs 
of this class were adorned internally with pilasters and painted onia- 
nients of considerable hoauty. 

In the earlier ages of the Eoman empire these two fonns of tombs 
characterised with sufficient clearness the two races, each with their 
distinctive customs, which made up the population of Eome. Long 
before its expiration the two were fused together so thoroughly that 
we lose all trace of the distinction, and a new form of tomb arose com- 
pounded of the two older, which became the typical form Avith the 
early Chiistians, and from them passed to the Saracens and otlier 
eastern nations. 

The new form of tomb retained externally the circular fonn of the 
Telasgic sepulchre, though constructive necessities afterwards caused 
it to become polygonal. Instead however of being solid, or nearly so, 
the walls were only so thick as Avere necessary to support the dome, 
^vhich became the imiversal form of roof of these buildings. 

The sepulchres of Eome have as yet been far too carelessly ex- 
amined to enable us to trace all the stej^s by which the transformation 
took place, but as a general rule it may be stated that the gradual 
enlargement of the central circular apartment is almost a certain test 
of the age of a tomb : till at last, before the age of Constantino, they 
became in fact representations of the Pantheon on a small scale, almost 
always with a crypt or circular vault below the principal apartment. 

One of the most curious transitional specimens is that found near 
San Vito, represented in the 
woodcut No. 281. Here, as in 
all the earlier specimens, the 
principal apartment is the lower 
in the square basement. The 
upper, which has lost its deco- 
i-ation, has the appearance of 
being hollowed out of the 
frustum of a gigantic Doric 
column, or rather out of a solid 
tower like the central one of ^ 
the tomb of Anins (woodcut . 
No. 237). Shortly after the } 
age of this sepulchre the lower 
apartment became a mere crypt, 
and in such examples as those 
of the sepulchfcs (jf the Corne- 
lia and Tossia families we have 
merely miniature Pantheons 
somewhat taller in proportion, 
and with a crypt. This is still 
more remarkable in a building called the Torre dei Schiavi, which has 
had a portico attached to one side, and in other respects looks very like 
a direct imitation of that celebrated temple. It seems certainly, how- 
ever, to have been built for a tomb. 

2S1. Secliuu of Sopulclirc at Sail Vito. No scale. 



Rook VII. 

Another tomb, very similar to that of tlie Tossia family, is called 
that of Sta. Helena, the mother of C'oustantine. If not liors, at lejist it 
belongs to the last days of the Empire, and may be taken as a fair spe- 
cimen of the toml)s of tho age and of the class. It is a vast transition 
fiom that of Ca'cilia 3Ietclla, though in the same direction as all. the 
changes intiodneed by the Komans, the tendency of which was con- 
stantly transfonning an external into an internal architecture. 


Section and Elevation of Tomb of Sta. Helena, Rome. No scale. 

It consists of abasement about 100 ft. square, containing the crypts. 
On this stands a circular tower in two stories. In the lower story is a 
circular apartment about OG ft. in diameter, surrounded l»y 8 niches ; 
in the upper the niches are external, and each pierced with a window. 
Its dimensions being nearly the same as those of the tomb of Cecilia 
^letella, it affords an excellent opportunity of comparing the two 
extremes of the series, and of contrasting the early Eoman with the 
earl^' Christian tomb. 

The tyjiical example of a sepulchre (jf this age is the tomb or bap- 
tistery of Sta. Costanza, the daughter of ( Vmstantine. In this building 
the ])illars that adorned the exterior of such a mausoleum, for instance, 
as that of Hadrian, are introduced internally. Externally the building 
never can have had much ornament. But the breaks between the 
lower aisle and the central compartment, pierced Avith the clerestory, 
must have had a very pleasing effect — more so at all events than the 
clumsy attempts that were made at this age to adorn buildings by ill- 
understood applications of the Grecian orders. In this exami»le theie 
is still shown a certain degree of timidity, which does not aftenvards 
reappear. The coUnnns are coupled and fiir more numerous than they 
need have been, and they are united by a fragment of an ent;d)laturc, 
as if the architect \yere afraid to place his vaiilt direct on the capitals. 
Still, notwithstanding these defects, it is a pleasing and singularly 
instructive example of a completed transformation, just what we miss 
in those seculai- buildings for which the Christians had no use. 

Another Ijuilding, which now goes by the name of the r)ai)ti.stery 
oi Constantine, was also undoubtedly a place of sepulture, though 
whether it is rightly ascribed to Constantine. and was intended by him 

CllAl'. V. 



for his own toml», may bo questioned. Ilore tlie rout ml aparhucnt, 
never having; been intended to support a dome, is of a far lighter 
construction, an upper order of piUars heing phxced on the lower, with 
merely a light architrave and frieze riuniing hetween the two (uders. 
The external walls were slight in conslruction and octagonal in plan. 
We must not in this i)lace jmrsue any further the subject of the transition 
of style, as we have already trespassed within the pale of (Christian archi- 
tecture and passed beyond the limits of heathen art. So gradual is the 
change, and so long jirepared, that it is impossible to diaw the line 
exactly where the separation takes place betw^een the one and the other. 

Temple of Minerva Medica. 

One important building remains to be mentioned before leaving 
this part of the subject. It commonly goes by the name of the Temple 
of Minerva Medica, though this is certainly a misnomer, Keccntly it 
has become the fashion to assume that it was the hall of some bath ; 
no building of that class, however, was known to exist in the neigh- 
bourhood, and it is extremely improbable that any should be found 
outside the Servian walls in this direction; besides that it wants all 
the necessary accompaniments of such an establishment. 

I have placed it with the tombs because its site is one that would 
justify such a supposition, and its foi-m is just such as would be appli- 
cable to that purpose and to no other. I by no means wish to insist 
positively on this opinion, but I know of no more probable supposition. 
It certainly belongs to the last days of the Empire atEome, if indeed it 
be not a Cbristian building, which I am very much inclined to believe it 
is, for, on comparing it with the Baptistery of Constantino and the tomb 
of Sta. Costanza, it shows a considerable adA'ance in construction on 
both these buildings, and a gTcater similarity to San A^itale at liavcnna, 
and other buildings of Justinian's time, than to anything else now found 
in Rome, 

As will be seen from the plan and section (woodcuts Nos. 283 
and 284), it has a 
dome, 80 ft. in dia- 
meter, resting on 
a decagon of singu- 
larly light and ele- 
gant construction. 
Nine of the com- 
partments contain 
niches Avhich give 
great room on the 
floor, as well as 
great variety and 
to the - 


desicCU. -^■^- ^''''"' "^ -^liiicrva Jlcdici at Rome. From Tsiilu'lles EdiBces CiicuUiircs. 

Sciile, 100 It. to 1 in. 

is a 

Above this 

clerestory of 10 well-p)(>iiortioued whidow.s, wliieli gi\i 

perhajis not in so eftective a maimer as the one ev( 


ighf III ilic 
>f lllc 



Book VII. 



Section of Minerva Medic-a. Scale, 50 ft. to 1 in. 

r.aiitlioon, l)ut l)y a far more convenient arrangement to keep out the 
elements fur a people avIvo did not possess glass. So far as I know, 

all the domed buildings 
erected by the Eomans 
np to the time of Con- 
stautine, and indeed 
long afterAvards, were 
circular in the interior, 
though, like the temple 
built by Diocletian at 
ISpalatro, they were 
sometimes octagonal ex- 
tenially. This, however, 
is a polj'gou both inter- 
nally and on the out- 
side, and the mode in 
which the dome is 
placed on the polygon 
shows the first rudiments of the pendentiA^e system, which was after- 
wards carried to such perfection by the Byzantine ar(;hitects, but is 
noAvhcro else to be found in Kome. It probably was for the ptu'pose 
of somewhat diminishing the difficulties of this eonstniction that the 
architect adopted a figxire Avith 10 instead of 8 sides. 

This, too, is, I believe, the first building in Avhich buttresses are 

applied so as to give strength to the walls 
exactly at the point where it is most wanted, 
liy this invention the architect Avas enabled 
to dispense with nearly one half of the amount 
of materials that AVas thought necessaiy Avhen 
tlie dome of the Pantheon was constmcted, 
and Avhich he must have employed had he 
copied that building. Besides this the dome 
Avas ribbed Avith tiles, as shown in Avoodcut 
No. 285, and the space betAA-^een the ribs filled 
in Avith inferior, perhaps lighter masonry, 
banded together at certain heights by horizontal courses of tiles when 

Besides the lightness and variety Avhich the base of this building 
derives from the niches, it is 10 ft. higher than its diameter, which 
gives to it that proportion of height to width, the want of which is the 
piineipal defect of the I'antheon. It is not knoA\ni what the side 
erections are Avhich are usually shovATi in the ground-plans, nor 
even Avhether they arc coeval Avith the main central edifice. 1 suspect 
they have never been veiy correctly laid doAvn. 

Taking it altogether, the building is ceiiainly, both as concerns 
construction and proportion, by far the most scientific of all those in 
ancient Kome, and in these respects as far superior to the Tantheon as 
it is inferior to that temple in size. Indeed there are few inventions 
of the middle ages that are not attempted here or in the Temple of 


lUb of tbe Hoof of the Jlinerva 
Mtdica at Iloino. 

Chap. V. 



Peace — but move In tliis than in thu latter ; so much so, iiulecd, that 
I cannot help believing that it is much more motleni than is generally 

As might bo expected from oiir knowledge of the races that 
inhabited the European provinces 
of the Koman empiie, there are 
very few specimens of tombs of 
any importance to be found in 
them. One very beautiful exam- 
ple exists at St. llemi, represented 
in the annexed woodcut (No. 
286). It probably, however, can 
hardly be called a tomb, but rather 
a cenotaph or a monument, erect- 
ed, as the inscription on it tells 
us, by Sextus and Marcus, of the 
family of the Julii, to their pa- 
I'ents, whoso statues appear under 
the dome of the upper stoiy. 
There is nothing funereal either 
in the inscription or the foiTQ, nor 
anything to lead us to suppose 
that the bodies of the i)arents 
repose beneath its foimdation. 

The lower portion of this 
monument is the square base- 
ment which the Eomans always 
added to the Etruscan fonn 'of 

tomb. Upon this stands a story pierced with an archway in each face, 
with a 3-quarter pillar of the Corinthian order at every angle. The 
highest part is a circular colonnade, a miniature copy of that which we 
know to have once encircled liadi-ian's Mole. 

The open arrangement of the arches and colonnade, while it takes 
off considerably from the tomb-like simplicity becoming such buildings, 
adds very much to the lightness and elegance. Altogether the building- 
has much more of the aspiring character of Christian art than of the 
more solid and horizontal forms which were characteristic of the style 
then dying out. 

Another monument of very singular and exceptional form is found 
at Tgel, near Treves, in Germany. It is so milike anything found in 
Italy, or indeed anything of the lioman age, that, were its date not 
perfectly known from the inscription upon it, one might rather be 
inclined to ascribe it to the age of Francis I. than to the latter days of 
the lioman Empire. 

The form is graceful, though the pilasters and architectural orna- 
ments seem somewhat misplaced. It is covered with sculpture from 
top to bottom. These, however, as is generally the case with Roman 
funeral monuments, have no reference to death, nor to the life or 
actions of the person to whom the monument is sacred, but are more 

2s6. Tomb at St. Re'mi. From Laborde's Monumcns 
de la France. 



Book VII. 

like flic scenes that m'v^H Ix- painted on a \vall or ornamental stele 
anywhere. The principal object iji 1lie iace represented in the 

woodcut is the sun, but the subjects ai'c varied 
in each face, and, though much time-worn, they 
still give a very perfect idea of the rich onia- 
nicntation of the nionumerits of the last age of 

the Empire. 

Eastern Tomhs. 


J"/. .. 

This scarcity of tombs in the western ])art 
of the Iioman enipire is to a great extent made 
up for, in the east. The histoiy of the tombs 
erected mider the lioniau rule in that part of 
the world is as yet so little known that it is 
not easy either to classify or to describe them; 
and as nearly all those which have been pre- 
served are cut in the rock, it is sometimes diffi- 
cult — as with other rock-cut objects all over 
the world — to understand the form of building 
from whicli they were copied. 

The 3 principal groups of the tombs of 
the lioman epoch are those of Petra, Cyrene, 
and Jcnisalcm. TlKmgh many other imjiortant 
tombs exist in those countries, they are so little 
known that they must be passed over for the 

From the time when Abraham was laid in 
the cave of IMaclqielah until after the Christian 
era, we know that burying in the rock was not 
the exception but the general practice among 
the nations of this part of the East. So far as 
can be known, the exani]ile was set by Egyj^t, 
which was the parent of nmcli of their civili- 
zation. In Egy])t the facades of their rock-cut 
tombs were — with the solitary exception of 
those of P)eni Hassan' — oniamentcd so simply 
and unobtrusively as rather to belie than to 
announce their internal magnificence. All Ihe 
oldest Asiatic tombs seem to have been mere 
■i«7. Monument at igci.near'^s. ^'^les in the rock, wholly without architectural 

From Schmidt's Antiquities of dcCOrations. 

Wo have seen, however, how the Persian 
kings copied their palace facades to adorn their last resting-places, and 
how about the same time in Lycia the tomb-cutters copied, first their 
own wooden structures, and afterwards the architectinal facades, which 
tliev had learned from the (ireeks how to construct. P.ut it was not 

Stf ]'. 2'JO, and woodcut ItU. 

Chap. Y 



till the liOiiKui jJciicKl lluit this sjK'eies of luaj^'iiificcnce extended to the 
places eiiiinierated above. To such an extent did it ]irevail at Petra 
as to give to that now deserted -valley the appearance of a ]i(tiified city 
of the dead. 




Kliasne. From Laboide's IVlra ami Muuiil Siiuii. 

The typical and most beautiful tond) of this jdace is that called 
the Khasne or Treasury of Pharaoh— represented in elevation and 
section in the annexed woodcuts. As will be seen, it consists of a 
square basement, adorned with a portico of 4 very beautiful Corinthian 
pillars, sunnounted by a pediment of h )W Grecian pitch. Above this 


ROMAN architecturp:. 

Book VIT. 

aro '{ very siuL;nliir turi-ots, whose use and application it is extremely 
difiiciilt to uiulcrstand. The central one is circnlar, and is a well- 
understood sepulchral form, the use of which, if it had been more 
„^,..^\ important, or if it stood alone, 

would be intclli<i;ible enoup;h ; but 
what are the side turrets? If one 
mif;ht hazard so bold a conjecture, 
I would sTiggest that the oiiginal 
fi-oni which this is derived was a 
o-tuneted tomb, like that df Anins 
(woodcut Ko. 237), or that of Aly- 
attes at Sardis, which in cotirse of 
time has become translated into 
so foreign a shape as this ; but 
where are the intermediate forms ? 
and by whom and when was this 
change eifected? Before we form 
such theories as this, it will be 
well to ask the question whether 
all these buildings really are 
tombs? Most fif them inidoubt- 
cdly "are so ; but may not the 
name d Dm\ or the convent, ap- 
plied by the Arabs to one of the 
principal rock-cut monuments of 
I'etra, be after all the true desig- 
nation ? Are none of them, in 
short, cells for priests, like the 
viharas found in India? ' All those 
who have hithei-to visited these 
spots have assumed at once that everything cut in the rock must be a 
tomb, but I am much mistaken if the rule is so general as is supposed. 
To return however to the Khasne. Though all the foniis df the 
architecture are Eoman, the details arc so elegant and generally so 
well designed as almost to lead to the suspicion that there must have 
been some Grecian influence brought to bear upon it. The masses of 
rock left above the wings show how early a specimen of its class it is, 
and how little practice its designers could have had in copying in the 
rock the fonns of their regular buildings. 

A little further within the city is found another very similar in 
design to this, but far inferior in detail and execution, showing at 
least a century of degradation, but at the same time an adaptation to 
rock-cut forms not found in the earlier examples. 

A third is that above alluded to, called el J)eir. This is the same 
in general outline as the two former — of an order neither Greek nor 
Koman, but with something like a Doric frieze over a very plain 
Coriutliian capital. In other respects it presents no new feature 

Section of Tomb at Klinsiie. From Laborde's 
Mount Sinai, p. 175. 

See J). 30 ct scqfj. 


Va\m\ V 







Hook VII. 

oxcf'pt the n]ii)aTent alisciice of a tludv, and altogetlu-v it seems, if 
finislied, to deserve its name less tlian either of the other two. 

Perhaps the most singular object among these tombs is the flat fafi-ade 
with ;J stories of pillars one over the other — slightly indieated in the 
left of the Corinthian tond) in the last wocxleut (No. 290). It is like the 
proseenium t)f some of the more recent Gieek theatres. If it was 
n-ally the frontispiece to a tomb, it was totally unsuitable to the 
purpose, and is certainly one of the most complete misapplications of 
Greek architecture ever made. 

Generally speaking, the interiors of these buildings arc so plain 
that travellers have not cared either to draw or measure them ; one, 
however, represented in the annexed woodcut, is richly ornamented. 


Rock-cut interior at Petru. From Ijaborde's Sinai, p. 198. 

and, as far as can be jiidged from what is published, is as unlike a 
tomb as it is like a vihiru. But, as before remarked, they all require 
re-examination before the purpose for which they were cut can be 
pronounced upon with any ceiiainty. 

The next grou]i of tombs is that at Jerusalem. These are un- 
doubtedly all sepulchres. By far the greater number of them are 
wholly devoid of architectural ornament. To the north of the city is 
a group known as the tombs of the kings, with a facade of a corrupt 
Doric order, similar to some of the latest Etruscan tombs,' It is now 

' M. (le SauUy has recently attempted to Christian era, and the slab, which lie calls 

prove that tliesi- tombs are those of tlie kin^_'s the cover of the sarcophaijus of David, is 

of Jud.ih from David downwards. Their certainly more modern tlian the time of 

architecture is iiiid<iul>tediy later than the Constantine. 

Chap. V. 



very imidi iiiincd. A somewhat similar fa(;'ade, but of a fonii more 
like the liroek Doric, in the Valley of Jehoshaphat, bears the name of 
the Sepulchre of 8t. James, and near this is a square tomb cut out of 
the rock, but standing free, and with a pyramidal roof, which is unlike 
anything else seen cither here or in these parts. The most remarkable, 
however, is that called the Tomb of Absalom, consisting of a square 
basis, adorned Avith 4 Ionic columns on each face, and above this a low 
circular tower, Avhich seems to have been intended to bear cither a 
small domed building like the central one on the upper part of the 
Khasne, or a simple dome. The present somewhat anomalous termina- 
tion is in masonry, and so unlike everj^thing else of its class that we 
know of, that we must consider it as a modern improvement. 

The third group is that of Gyrene, on the African coast. Notwith- 
standing the researches of Admiral Beechey and of M. Pacho, they are 
still much less perfectly known to us than they should be. Their number 
is inmiensc, and they almost all have architectiiral faq'ades, generally 
consisting of 2 or more columns between pilasteis, like the grottos 
of Beni Hassan, or the tomb of St. James at Jerusalem. Many ol' 
them show a powerful reminiscence of Greek taste, though they are 

20 J. 

Tomb at Mylassa. 

2 A 



liuOK VII. 

for the most })art uiiiloubtedly of Kouian date, and the paintings with 
which many of tlu-m are still adonaed aie certainly in Koniau taste. 
None of them have such splendid architectural fa(;ades as the Khasnc 
at Petra ; but the number of tombs which are adonied with archi- 
tectural features is greater than in that city, and, grouped as they are 
together in tenaces on the hill side, they constitute a necropolis among 
the most striking of tlie ancient world. Altogether the group some- 
what resembles that at (.'astel d'Asso, but is more extensive and far 
richer in external architecture. 

Time has not left us a single built tomb in all these places, though 
there can be little doubt but that they once were numerous. Almost 
the only tomb of this class constructed in masonry known to exist, 
which in many respects is perhaps the most interesting of all, is 
found in Asia Minor, at Mylassa in Caiia. In form it is something 
like the free standing rock-cut examples at Jemsalcm. As shown 
in the woodcut (Xo. 292), it consists of a square base, which 
supports 12 columns, 8 of which support a dome, the other 4 merely 
completing the square. The dome itself is constructed in the same 
manner as all the Jaina domes are in India, being of the class illustrated 
by the diagrams in woodcuts Ko. 47 to 50, and, though ornamented 

with Roman details, 
is so unlike anything 
else ever built bj' that 
people, and so com- 
pletely and ])erfectlv 
Avhat we find re-ap- 
pearing 10 centuries 
afterwards in the far 
east, that we are 
forced to conclude 
that it belongs to a 
stylo once prevalent 
and long fixed in 
these lands, though 
it now stands as the 
sole representative of 
its class. 

Another example 
somewhat similar 
stands at the opposite 
extreme of what may 
be called the Roman 
Eastern world, from 
the locality of which 
we last spoke, at 
Dugga, near Tunis, 


Tomb at Dngga. From a drawing by F. Catherwood. 

in Africa. This, too, 
consists of a square base, taller than in the last example, and sur- 
mounted by 12 Ionic columns, but here merely used as oniaments 


to support a coniice, tho prolilo of which bcarK a rciiiaika})lo rcsein- 
bhincc to Egyptian t'oriDs. It was terminated apparently by a pyramid 
in steps, of which notliing now remains but the 4 head-stones of tho 
corners, wliich serve to give character to the angles, which tho simple 
pyramid so used always wants. 

Tliis and the St. luimi tomb are perhaps the two most elegant 
cxam})les t)f tombs which antiquity has left us, and those which might 
be most profitably studied for modern purposes. 

DoMKSTic Architecture. 

We know, not only from the descriptions and incidental notices 
that have come down to us, but also from the remains found at 
Pompeii and elsewhere, that the private dwellings of the Eomans were 
characterised by that magnificence and splendour which we find in all 
their works, accompanied, probably, with more than the usual amount 
of bad taste. No palace except that at Spalatro has been preserved to 
our day, nor any building of such a class as to come under the head of 
domestic art ; still, so much is to be learnt from what does remain, 
that it is impossible to pass over the subject altogether. 

In Rome itself no ancient house — indeed no trace of a domestic 
edifice— exists except the Palace of the Caesars on the Palatine Mount. 
Even this is now merely a heap of shapeless ruins, so much so as to 
have defied even the most imaginative of restorers to make anything 
of them except a vehicle for the display of their own ingenuity. The 
extent of these ruins, coupled with the descriptions that have been 
preserved, sutfice to convince us that, of all the palaces ever built, 
either in the East or the West, this was probably the most magni- 
ficent and the most gorgeously adonied. Never in the world's history 
does it appear that so much wealth and so much power were at the 
command of one man as were held by the Caesars ; and never could the 
world's wealth have fallen into the hands of men more inclined to 
lavish it for their own personal gratification than these emperors were. 
Besides, they could ransack the Avhole world for ])lunder to adoi-n their 
buildings, and they could command tho artists of Greece, and of all 
the subject kingdoms, to assist in rendering their golden palaces the 
most gorgeous that the world had then seen, or is likely ever to see 


Notwithstanding all this splendour, this palace was prol)ably as an 
architectural object inferioi- to the Thermaa. The thousand and one 
exigencies of private life rendered it impossible to impart to a residence 
— even to that of the world's master — the same character of grandeur 
as may be given to a building wholly devoted to show and ]iublic 
purposes. In its glory the Palace of the Caesars must have been the 
world's wonder ; but as a ruin deprived of its furniture and ephemeral 
splendour, it probably would present nothing either pleasing or 
instructive, ^\'e must not look for either beauty of i)roportion or 
perfection of construction, nor even for appropriateness of mateiial, in 
the hastily constructed halls of men whose unbounded power was only 
equalled by the coarse vulgarity of their characters. 

2 A 2 



Book VII. 


The only palace of the Koman Avurld of which sufficient remains 
are still left to enable ns to ju(lp;e either of their extent or their 
arrangements is that which Diocletian bnilt lui- liimself at Spalatro, in 
]);ihn:itia. and in which he spent the remaininu; years of his life, after 
shaking otf the cares of empire. It certainly gives us a most exalted 


r'alacf of Uioclclian at Spalatro. I'roin Adams. 

i(h.a of what the s])lendour of tlie imi)erial ])alace at l\ome mnst have 
been when we find one em])eror— certainly neither the richest nor the 
most pcjwerful — building, for his retirenient, a villa in the country of 
almost exactly the same dimensions as the Escurial in Spain, and 
consequently surpassing in size, as it did in magnificence, most of the 
modrni palaces (if P^urope. 

It is uncertain how far it resembles or was copied from that in 

riiAi>. V. 








Rome, more especially as this must he regarded as a fortified palace, 
which there is iiu reasou to believe that at Home was, and its model 
seems to have been the pi-setorian camp rather than any habitation 
built within the protection of the walls of a city. In consequence of 
this its exterior is plain and solid, except on the side next the sea, 
where it was less liable to attack. The other 3 sides are only broken 
by the towers that flank them, and those that defend the great gates 
Avhich open in tlie centre of each face. 

The building is nearly a regular parallelogram, though not quite. 
The south side is that facing the sea, being r)92 ft. from angle to angle : 
the one opposite only 570;' while the east and west sides measure 
each 098 ft., the whole building thus covering about 0^ English acres. 

The j)rincipal entrance to the palace is on the north, called the 
Golden Gate, represented in the annexed woodcut (No. 295), showing 
all the peculiarities of lioman architecture in its last stage. The 
horizontal architrave still remains over the doorway, a useless ornament, 
under a bold discharging arch, which usurps its place and does its 
duty. Above this, a row of Corinthian colinnns, standing on 
brackets, sujiported the archivolts of a range of niches — a piece of 
pleasing decoration, it must be confessed, but one in which the 
original purpose of the column has been entirely overlooked or 

Entering this portal, we pass along a street ornamented with 
arcades on either side, till exactly in the centre of the building this is 
crossed at right angles by another similar street, proceeding from the 
so-called Iron and Brazen Gates, similar to the Golden Gate in design, 
but far less richly ornamented. 

These streets divided the building nearly into 4 portions : the 
two northern ones are so much ruined that it is not now easy to say 
either what their plan was, or to what piuioose they were dedicated ; 
probably the one might be the lodgings of the guests, the other the 
residence of the principal officers of the household. 

The whole of the southern half of the building was devoted to the 
palace properly so called. It contained 2 tem})les, as they are now 
designated. 'I'hat (m the right is said to have bet'n dedicated to .Tupiter, 
though, judging from its form, it seems rather as if intended as the 
mausoleum of the founder than as a temph> of that god. As a teniiilc 
it has been illustiated at a previous page.'' Opposite to it is a small 
temple, dedicated, it is said, to iEsculapius. 

Between these two is the arcade represented in woodcuts No. 240 and 
290, at the upper end of which is the vestibule — circular, as all build- 
ings dedicated to Vesta, or taking their name from that goddess, should 
be. This opened directly on to a magnificent suite of 9 a})artments, 
occupying the principal part of the south front of the palace. Beyond 
these,, on the right hand, were the private apartments of the emperor, 
and behind them his baths. The opposite side is restored as if it 
exactly corresponded, but this is more than doubtful ; and, indeed, 

' By nn oversight this difference is not expressed in tlm wondrut. * Seo pp. 1:513, 314. 

Chap. V. 



296. Part of Ccnlral Araule, and upper pari of Temple, Spalatro. I'lMin Sir 0. Wilkinson. 


there is scarcely sufficient authority for many of the details shown in 
the plan, though they are, perhaps, sufficiently exact to convey a 
general idea of the arrangements of a Koman imperial palace. 

Perhaps, hoAvcver, the most splendid feature in this palace was the 
great southern gallery, bib ft. in length l>y 24 in width, extending 
along the whole seaward face of the building. liesides its own intrinsic 
beauty as an architectural feature, it evinces an appreciation of the 
beauties of natiire which one would hardly expect in a Koman. This 
great gallery is the principal point in the design, and commands a 
view well worthy that such a gallery should be built for its complete 

Failing in finding any example of domestic architecture in Rome, 
we turn to l'om})eii and Ilerculaneuni. where we find niunerous and 
most interesting examples of houses of all classes, except, jierhaps, the 
best ; for there is nothing there to compare with the Laurentian villa 
of Pliny, and some others of which descriptions have come down to us ; 
and besides this, Pompeii was far more a CJrecian than a Koman city, 
and its buildings ought to" be considered rather as illustrative of those 
of Greece, or at least of Magna-Gr^ecia, than of anything found to the 
northward. Still they belong to the Eoman age, and, except in taste 
and in minor arrangements, we have no reason to doubt that they did 
resemble those of Kome, at least sufficiently so for illustration. 

^^ith scarcely an exception, all the houses of Pompeii were of one 
story only in height. It is tnie that in some we find staircases leading 
to the roof, and traces of an upper story, but they seem to have been 
places for washing and diying clothes, or some such domestic purjDOse, 
7-ather than living or even sleeping rooms. All the princi])al ajiart- 
ments, at all events, were certainly on the gioinid flo<j]-. As an almost 
inevitable corollar}- from this, they all faced inwards, and were lighted 
from court-yards or atria, and not from the outside ; for, with a people 
who had not glass to put inti> their windows, it was impossible to 
enjoy privacy or security without at the same time excluding both 
light and air, except b}- lighting their rooms from the interior. 
Hence it arose that in most instances the outside of the better class of 
houses was given up to shops and smaller dwellings, Avhich opened on 
the street, while the residence itself was wholly hidden fiom view by 
them, except the principal entrance, and sometimes one or two private 
doors that opened outwards. 

Even in the smallest class of tradesmen's houses which opened on 
the street, one apartment seems always to have been unroofed to light 
at least two rooms on each side of it, used as bedrooms ; but as the 
roofs of all are now gone, it is not easy always to determine which was 
80 treated. 

It is certain that, in the smallest houses which can have belons;ed 
to pei'sons at all above the class of shopkeejiers. there Avas always a 
central apartment, imroofed in the ccntie, into Avhich the (jthers open. 
Sometimes this was covered by 2 beams placed in one direction, and 
2 crossing them at right angles, framing the roof into 9 compartments, 
generally (jf unequal dimensions, the central one being open, and Avith 

CllAI'. V. 



a con-e.spoiidin«; sinking in the Hour to receive the rain and drainage 
whieli inevitably came through it. W hen thi.s conrt was of any extent, 
4 pillars were required at the intersection of the beams, or angles of 
the opening, to support the roof. ]u larger courts 8, 12, 16, or more 
columns were so employed, often appai ently more as decorative objects 
than as required by the constructive necessities of the case, and 
very fretpiently tlie nrunbers were unequal, even on opposite sides. 
Fi-equently the angles were not right angles, and the pillars sjiaced 
unr(pially with a careless disregard of symmetry that strikes us as 
strange, though in such objects this was perlia})s better than cold and 
foi'mal legularity, and more productive of grace and beauty. Besides 
these courts, thei-e generally existed in the rear of the house a court 
bounded by a dead Avail opposite, which in the smaller houses was 
painted, to resemble the garden which the laiger mansions possessed 
in this direction. The apartments looking on this were of course 
perfectly jirivate, which cannot be said of any of those looking inwards 
on the ntr'mm. 

The house called that of Pansa at l\)mpeii is a good illustration of 
those peculiarities, and as one of the most regular is generally chosen 
for the pui-pose of illustration. 

In the annexed plan (woodcut Ko. 297) all the parts that do not 
belong to the principal mansion are 
shaded darker except the doubtful part 
marked A, which may either have been 
a separate house, or the women's apart- 
ments belonging to the principal one, 
or, what is probable, ma}' have been de- 
signed so as to be used for either pui-- 
pose. B is certainly a separate hous^e, 
and the whole of the remainder of this 
side, of the front, and of the third side, 
till we come opposite to A, was let off as 
shops. At C we have the kitchen and 
servants' apartments, with a private en- 
trance to the street, and an opening also 
to the principal peristyle of the house. 

Returning to the principal entrance 
or front door D, you enter through a short 
passage into the outer court E, on each 
side of which are several small apart- 
ments, used either by the inferior mem- 
bers of the household or for guests. A 
wider passage than the ontiance leads 
from this to the peristyle, or principal 
apartment of the house. On the left 
hand are several small rooms, used no 
doubt as sleeping apartments, and pro- 
bably closed by half-doors open above and below, so as to admit air 
and light, while preserving sufficient privacy, for Roman tastes at 

297. House of Pansa at Pompeii. From 
Gell's Pompeii. Stale ICO ft. to 1 in. 


least. In front and on the riglit lianil are 2 larger rooms, either of 
which may have been the triclininm or dining-room, the other being 
what we should call the drawing-room of the house. A passage between 
the kitchen and the central room leads to a verandah which crosses the 
whole length of the house, and is open to the garden beyond. 

As will be observed, architectural effect has been carefully studied 
in this design, a vista nearly 300 ft. in length being obtained from the 
outer door to the garden wall, varied by a pleasing \Aaj of light and 
shade, and disi^laying a gradually increasing degree of spaciousness and 
architectui'al lichness as we advance. All these points must have been 
productive of the most pleasing effect when complete, and of more 
beauty than has been attained in any modem dwelling of like dimen- 
sions that I am acquainted -with. 

Generally speaking the architectural details of the Pompcian houses 
are carelessly and ungracefully moulded, though it cannot be denied 
that sometimes a certain elegance of feeling iims through them that 
pleases in spite of our better judgment. It was not, however, on form 
that they depended for their effect ; and consequently it is not by that 
that they must be judged. The whole architecture of the house was 
coloured, but even this was not considered so important as the paintings 
which covered the flat surfaces of the walls. Comparing the Pomiieian 
decoration vsdth that of the baths of Tit\is, the only specimen of the 
same age and class found in Pome, it must be admitted that the Pom- 
pcian examples show a more correct taste, not only in the choice but 
in the application of the ornaments used, thoiigh inthe execution there 
is often that difference that might be expected between paintings exe- 
cuted for a ])rivate individual and those for the Emperor of the Puman 
world. NotAvithstanding this, these paintings, so wonderfully lue- 
served in this small prcjvincial town, are even noAv the best specimens 
we possess of mural decoration. They excel the onuimentation of the 
Alhambra as being more varied and more intellectual. For the same 
reason they arc superior to the works of the same class executed by the 
Moslems in Egypt and I'ersia, and they are far superior to llie rude 
attempts of the Gothic architects in the middle ages ; still they are 
probably as inferior to what the Greeks did in their best days as the 
jiillars of the Ponipeian peri.styles are to the porticos of the Parthenon, 
lint though doul)tless far infeyor to their originals, tlio,<-e at Ponqx'ii 
arc direct imitations of true Greek decorative foinis ; and it is tlunugh 
them alone that we can hope even to guess at the exquisite beauty to 
which polychromatic architecture once attained, but which we can 
scarcely venture ti) hojic that it will ever attain again. 

One curious point, which has hitherto been too much overlooked, 
is that in Pompeii there are two perfectly distinct styles of decoration. 
One of these is purely Etruscan, both in fonu and colour, and such as 
is only found in the tombs or on the authentic works of the Etruscans. 
The other is no loss essentially (Jrcek, both in design and colour: it is 
far more common than the Etruscan form, and always easily to be dis- 
tinguished from it. The last-mentioned or Greek style of decoration 
may be again divided into two varieties : one, the most common, con- 


sisting of onianionts directly copied from Greek models ; the other with 
a considerable infusion of Roman forms. This Komanised variety of 
Greek decoration represents an attenuated and lean style of architecture, 
which I conceive could only have come into fashion from the continued 
use of iron or bronze, or other metallic substances, for pillars and archi- 
tectural members. Vitiiivius reprobates it ; and in a later age Cas- 
siodonis speaks of it in a manner which shows that it was practised in 
his time. The frequency of this style of ornament, both at Pompeii 
and in the baths of Titus, proves it to have been a very favourite style 
at that time. This being the case, it must have either been a repre- 
sentation of metallic pillars and other architectural objects then in use, 
or it miist have led to the adoption of such a style copied from the 
painted decorations. This is a new subject, and could not be made 
clear, except at considerable length and with the assistance of many 
drawings. I look upon it, however, as an almost undoubted fact that 
the Romans did use metal as a constructive material. Were it only 
that columns of extreme tenuity are represented in these paintings, we 
might be inclined to ascribe it to mere incorrect drawing; but the 
whole style of ornament here shown is such as is never found in stone 
or brick pillars, and could only be executed in metal. Besides this, the 
pillars in question are always represented in the decorations as simply 
gilt or bronzed, while the representations of stone pillars are coloured. 
All this evidence goes to prove that a style of ait once existed con- 
sisting of the employment of metal for the principal features, all ma- 
terial traces of which are now lost. The disappearance of all remains 
of such a style is easily accounted for by the perishable nature of iron 
from rust, and the value and consequent insecin-ity of bronze and similar 
metals. We know that much I)ron/.e has been stolen, even in recent 
days, from the Pantheon and other buildings which are known to have 
been adorned with it. 

Another thing which Ave leain from these ]»aintings is, that though 
the necessities of street architecture conq)elled these city mansions to 
take a rectilinear outline, whenever the Roman architects built in the 
coiuitiy they indulged in a picturesque variety of outline and of form 
which they perhaps carried fiirther than even the Gothic airhitects of 
the middle ages. This indeed we might have expected, from the 
carelessness in respect to regularity in the town-houses ; but these were 
interiors, and, were it not for the painted representations of houses, we 
shoiild have no means of judging how the same architects would treat 
an exterior. From this source, liowever, we learn that in the exterior 
arrangements, in situations where they were not cramped by confined 
space, the plan would have been totally free from all stiffness and 
formality. In this respect Roman taste coincided with that of all true 
architecture in all parts of the world. It would scaicely have deserved 
to be noticed, but that in modern times the fault of too great regularity 
of external plan is painfully prevalent — a fault originated by the archi- 
tects of the Renaissance, who did not perceive that it was a fatal mis- 
take to treat a number of chambers grouped together precisely as if 
they were a single apartment. 



Book YIl. 

Bridges and Aqukducts. 

Perhaps the most satisfactory works of the Komans are those which 
we consider as bchjiigiiig to civil cn<;incering rather than to architec- 
ture. The distinction, however, was not known in their earlier days. 
The Ivonians set about works of this class with a purpose-like earnest- 
ness that always ensured success, and executed theiu on a scale which 
leaves notliing to be desired ; while at the same time they entirely 
avoided that vulgarity whirh their want of )efinement allowed almost 
inovitalily to ai)])(.'ar in more delicate or more ornate buildings. Their 
engineering works also were free from that degree of incom]ileteness 
which is inseparable from the state of transition in which tlieii- archi- 
tecture was during the whole period of the Empire. It is owing to 
these causes that the substructions of the Appian ^^'ay strike every 
beholder with admiration and astouishuu-nt ; and nothing impresses 
the traveller more, on visiting the once imperial city, than the long 
lines of aqueducits that are seen everywhere stretching across the now 
arid plain of the Campagna. It is true they aj-e mere lines of brick 
arches, devoid of ornament or anj' attempt at architecture properly so 
called ; but they are so well adapted to the ]nirpose for which they 
were designed, so grand in conceptiou, and so peifect in exec